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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Entertainment Computing, ICEC 2015, held in Trondheim, Norway, in October 2015.

The 26 full papers, 6 short papers, 16 posters, 6 demos and 6 workshops/tutorial descriptions presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 106 submissions. The multidisciplinary nature of Entertainment Computing is reflected by the papers. They focus on computer games; serious games for learning; interactive games; design and evaluation methods for Entertainment Computing; digital storytelling; games for health and well-being; digital art and installations; artificial intelligence and machine learning for entertainment; interactive television and entertainment.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Full papers

Frontmatter

A Mobile Game Controller Adapted to the Gameplay and User’s Behavior Using Machine Learning

When playing games, the user expects an easy and intuitive interaction. While current controllers are physical hardware components with a default configuration of buttons, different games use different buttons and demand different interaction methods. Besides, the player style varies according to personal characteristics or past gaming experiences. In previous works we proposed a novel virtual controller based on a common touchscreen device, such as smartphone or tablet, that is used as a gamepad to control a game on a computer or game console. In this work we include machine-learning techniques for an intelligent adaption of the layout and control elements distribution, minimizing errors and providing an enjoyable experience for individual users. We also present different usability tests and show considerable improvements in the precision and game performance of the user. We expect to open a new way of designing console and desktop games, allowing game designers to project individual controllers for each game.

Leonardo Torok, Mateus Pelegrino, Daniela G. Trevisan, Esteban Clua, Anselmo Montenegro

A Participatory Approach for Game Design to Support the Learning and Communication of Autistic Children

In this work we propose to apply a participatory design process for developing mobile games focused on learning and communication of autistic children. This study employs a game to help people with autism and describes the complete design process used in this research. As a result of the design process was possible to note the necessity to allow high customization and personalization of digital activities in order to promote the user engagement and gameplay ability. Moreover, more details are provided about the developed game. Two customized interactive activities were developed: Questions & Answers and the Emotional Thermometer that were evaluated with therapists, autistic children and HCI specialists. Finally, it is described the importance of therapists in game design process and the requirements for redesigning the application interface.

Thiago Porcino, Daniela Trevisan, Esteban Clua, Marcos Rodrigues, Danilo Barbosa

A Real Time Lighting Technique for Procedurally Generated 2D Isometric Game Terrains

This work proposes an automatic real time lighting technique for procedurally generated isometric maps. The scenario is generated from a string seed and the proposed lighting system estimates the geometrical shape of the 2D objects as if they were 3D for further light interaction, therefore producing a 2.5D effect. We employ opacity maps to overcome an issue generated by the geometrical shape estimation. The solution is a coupled approach between the CPU and GPU. The produced visuals, gameplay and performance were evaluated by gamers, programmers and designers. Furthermore, the performance, in terms of frames per second, was evaluated over distinct graphics cards and processors and was satisfactory.

Érick O. Rodrigues, Esteban Clua

Adaptive Automated Storytelling Based on Audience Response

To tell a story, the storyteller uses all his/her skills to entertain an audience. This task not only relies on the act of telling a story, but also on the ability to understand reactions of the audience during the telling of the story. A well-trained storyteller knows whether the audience is bored or enjoying the show just by observing the spectators and adapts the story to please the audience. In this work, we propose a methodology to create tailored stories to an audience based on personality traits and preferences of each individual. As an audience may be composed of individuals with similar or mixed preferences, it is necessary to consider a middle ground solution based on the individual options. In addition, individuals may have some kind of relationship with others that influence their decisions. The proposed model addresses all steps in the quest to please the audience. It infers what the preferences are, computes the scenes reward for all individuals, estimates their choices independently and in group, and allows Interactive Storytelling systems to find the story that maximizes the expected audience reward.

Augusto Baffa, Marcus Poggi, Bruno Feijó

ADITHO – A Serious Game for Training and Evaluating Medical Ethics Skills

This paper presents “A Day In The HOspital”, a Digital Serious Game aiming at providing a technological tool for both evaluating and training ethical skills of medical staff personnel. During the game, the player interprets the role of a physician who has to perform a decision-making process that involves his ethical and medical skills. Usability and sense of Presence have been assessed through a specific post-game Likert-questionnaire.

In order to evaluate the potential of the game as a medical training tool, experimental sessions have been conducted with two different groups of participants (“non-medical” and “medical” groups) and game outcomes have been statistically compared. Participants belonging to both the experimental groups report a high level of game Usability and sense of Presence. Finally, the statistically higher game score obtained by the “medical” group demonstrates the usefulness of ADITHO for evaluating and training ethical skills.

Cristian Lorenzini, Claudia Faita, Michele Barsotti, Marcello Carrozzino, Franco Tecchia, Massimo Bergamasco

A Battle of Wit: Applying Computational Humour to Game Design

There is still a dearth of humour in computer games. To spur the use of humour in games and overcome some of the difficultiesin producing humour, we advance that game design can benefit from research in computational humour. The focus of this paper is thus on verbal humour and humour design. Integrating computational humour in games could facilitate humour scripting and solve one of the oldest problems in game humour related to repetition

.

A humour bot could enhance gamers’ experiences, by stimulating social bonding or supporting comic relief. We believe that the use of computational humour for game design would enhance players’ laughter and designers’ creativity. Last, as game design can benefit from advances in computational humour, so virtual agents can from game research.

Dormann Claire

Advanced Dynamic Scripting for Fighting Game AI

We present an advanced version of dynamic scripting, which we apply to an agent created for the Fighting Game AI Competition. In contrast to the original method, our new approach is able to successfully adapt an agent’s behavior in real-time scenarios. Based on a set of rules created with expert knowledge, a script containing a subset of these rules is created online to control our agent. Our method uses reinforcement learning to learn which rules to include in the script and how to arrange them. Results show that the algorithm successfully adapts the agent’s behavior in tests against three other agents, allowing our agent to win most evaluations in our tests and the CIG 2014 competition.

Kevin Majchrzak, Jan Quadflieg, Günter Rudolph

Applied Games – In Search of a New Definition

The endeavour of transferring attributes and qualities of games and game experiences to users and contexts apart from entertainment values spanned a wide field of research over the years, along with a diversity of classifications and definitions. While respecting their uses, we argue that this diversity might also hinder cross-disciplinary research efforts on fundamental questions and cooperation with practitioners. Moreover, with the postulated development towards a ludification of culture under way, it may become more difficult and less important to distinct examples among these definitions in future.

Hence, we propose rethinking existing definitions and suggest the term of applied games as a starting point for a discussion about a more holistic and contemporary term and future common ground. This paper provides definitions of the artefact applied game and the process applied game design as well as suggestions on a classification of purposes and some research questions.

Ralf Schmidt, Katharina Emmerich, Burkhard Schmidt

Classification of Player Roles in the Team-Based Multi-player Game Dota 2

Computer games are big business, which is also reflected in the growing interest in competitive gaming, the so-called

electronic sports

.

Multi-player online battle arena

games are among the most successful games in this regard. In order to execute complex team-based strategies, players take on very specific roles within a team. This paper investigates the applicability of

supervised machine learning

to classifying player behavior in terms of specific and commonly accepted but not formally well-defined roles within a team of players of the game

Dota 2

. We provide an in-depth discussion and novel approaches for constructing complex attributes from low-level data extracted from replay files. Using attribute evaluation techniques, we are able to reduce a larger set of candidate attributes down to a manageable number. Based on this resulting set of attributes, we compare and discuss the performance of a variety of supervised classification algorithms. Our results with a data set of 708 labeled players see

logistic regression

as the overall most stable and best performing classifier.

Christoph Eggert, Marc Herrlich, Jan Smeddinck, Rainer Malaka

Design-Based Learning in Classrooms Using Playful Digital Toolkits

The goal of this paper is to explore how to implement Design Based Learning (DBL) with digital toolkits to teach 21

st

century skills in (Dutch) schools. It describes the outcomes of a literature study and two design case studies in which such a DBL approach with digital toolkits was iteratively developed. The outcome is described in the form of a framework that explains how to consider different perspectives, such as the DBL process, the role of the teacher, the use of a digital toolkit and the framing of the design brief in relation to setting learning goals that are suitable for a school context. The design cases indicate that DBL with digital toolkits can play a valuable role in teaching 21

st

Century skills, such as problem solving, creativity, and digital literacy to children in schools, if the other components of the framework, such as school’s learning goals, are taken into account.

K. J. Scheltenaar, J. E. C. van der Poel, M. M. Bekker

Embedding and Implementation of Quantum Computational Concepts in Digital Narratives

Quantum computational concepts introduce a host of new ideas for describing and implementing computational processes based on notions of superposition, entanglement, interference and measurement. This paper explores how such quantum mechanical ideas can be used in the development and implementation of computational narrative environments. In particular we focus on the use of quantum computing concepts for the representation of character state and beliefs, the development of point-of-view and context-sensitive processes for decision making along with the representation of the notion of conflict. We describe the implementation of these ideas in QuNL, our novel, special-purpose declarative language for narrative construction along with QuNE its associated interpreter. Both systems are available on the Web for testing and experimentation.

Nikitas M. Sgouros

EmotionBike: A Study of Provoking Emotions in Cycling Exergames

In this work, we investigate the effect of how exercise game design elements generate deliberate real-time sensed emotional responses in gamers. Our experimental setup consists of a cycling game controller, a designed 3D first-person cycling game to provoke emotions, a data recording system, and an emotion analysis system. The physical cycling game controller is an enhanced computer controlled bike-exercise-trainer that enables handle bar steering and sets pedal resistance. Our developed 3D first person cycling game provokes emotions with game elements in different game settings: timed race, parcours traversal, and virtual world exploration. Our recording system synchronously captures video, game controller activity, and game events for emotion analysis. In this case study, we show evidence that crafted computer exergame elements are able to provoke subject emotions displayed in their facial expressions, which can be quantified with our developed analysis method. The game elements selected in the specific gameplay situations follow patterns that give inside and judge of individual players involvement and emotional tension. Our emotion analysis of game events provides insights into player reactions during specific game situations. Our results show that strong differing responses by individuals may be taken into account in the design of game mechanics. For example, the falling event of level 3 showed that two opposing strong reactions could be triggered in players. The emotion analysis methods may be used in other types of games. Hereby we believe that a combination of questionnaires and our in situ emotion analysis provide valuable feedback to aid decision in for game design and game mechanics.

Larissa Müller, Sebastian Zagaria, Arne Bernin, Abbes Amira, Naeem Ramzan, Christos Grecos, Florian Vogt

Evaluating the Impact of Highly Immersive Technologies and Natural Interaction on Player Engagement and Flow Experience in Games

Social interaction in videogames has a big impact on players experience and is often used to increase enjoyment and retention. In the current study a highly immersive setup based on the Oculus Rift and depth cameras and exploiting natural user interaction is compared with a classical Keyboard & Mouse configuration in the context of a videogame experience taking place in a shared Virtual Environment. The research aims at assessing the impact of new technologies and interaction metaphors on users engagement when playing social games. Initial findings from our study suggest that while players perform better using the classic Keyboard & Mouse setup, the new technological setup and the Natural User Interface offer higher level of engagement and facilitate user flow state.

Raffaello Brondi, Leila Alem, Giovanni Avveduto, Claudia Faita, Marcello Carrozzino, Franco Tecchia, Massimo Bergamasco

Evolutionary Changes of Pokemon Game: A Case Study with Focus On Catching Pokemon

Game refinement is a unique theory that has been used as a reliable tool for measuring the attractiveness and sophistication of the games considered. A game refinement measure is derived from a game information progress model and has been applied in various games. In this paper, we aim to investigate the attractiveness of Pokemon, one of the most popular turn-based RPG games. We focus on catching Pokemons which are important components in the game. Then, we propose a new game refinement model with consideration on a prize cost and apply it to catching Pokemons. We analyze in every generation of the game. Experimental results show that a game refinement value of catching Pokemons which has been changed many times tries to reach to an appropriate range of game refinement value: 0.07 − 0.08 for which previous works have confirmed.

Chetprayoon Panumate, Shuo Xiong, Hiroyuki Iida, Toshiaki Kondo

Game-Based Interactive Campaign Using Motion-Sensing Technology

The article describes an evaluation of a prototype for doing game-based interactive advertisement campaigns in crowded public spaces using motion-sensing technology. The prototype was developed using OpenNi, XNA and Kinect, in which people who pass by a large display would be reflected on a large screen in the form of a silhouette and automatically become a part of a game. The goal of the game is for the players to gather falling objects into a container using the body to direct the objects. The objects move around when the objects collide with the silhouette of the player. The graphical representation of the falling objects and the container can be changed to fit various advertisement purposes.

The game-based interactive campaign was tested at four different public locations, and was evaluated through observations and questionnaires. Our findings suggest that there is a potential for using motion control in game-based interactive campaigns in public settings. The game attracted a good amount of attention, and seemed to tempt the curiosity of passers-by. An observed trend was that participants were comfortable playing in public and got easily engaged. Children and adolescents in groups were by far the most active participants.

Alf Inge Wang, Mari Hansen Asplem, Mia Aasbakken, Letizia Jaccheri

Gamification and Family Housework Applications

This conceptual work represents an initial exploration into a little researched area, namely app design for families. We explore how gamification is incorporated in applications that target family housework, also known as

chores

. During the last five years an increasing number of apps aim to transform routine based housework into entertaining activities. Many parents think it is important that children, at an early age, learn about family values and responsibilities that comes with the role as a family member. However, a gamified approach towards housework can influence family interaction in both positive and negative ways. We analyze a selection of so-called chore apps by building on an existing classification framework for educational apps and applying concepts of game design elements. Our findings show (1) that existing apps tend to be mostly instructive and partly manipulable, (2) that they tend to focus on external rather than intrinsic motivation, (3) that they target family members individually, rather than the family as a whole. We discuss the results from a motivation perspective by drawing attention to three concepts that relate to intrinsic motivation: Competence, autonomy and relatedness.

Anne Berit Kigen Bjering, Marikken Høiseth, Ole Andreas Alsos

IdleWars: An Evaluation of a Pervasive Game to Promote Sustainable Behaviour in the Workplace

Energy reduction is one of the main challenges that countries around the world currently face, and there is potential to contribute to this by raising awareness towards sustainability in the workplace. We introduce

IdleWars

, a pervasive game played using smartphones and computers. In the game, workers’ proenvironmental or wasteful behaviour is reflected in their game score, and displayed through eco-feedback visualisations to try and call attention to energy wastage and potentially reduce it. A field deployment, over two weeks in a medium sized organisation, revealed that the physical and competitive elements of the game work well in engaging participants and stimulating discussion around energy wasted and conservation. However, the game turned out to encourage also some anti-conservation behaviours, as participants appropriated the game and extended its rules, sometimes in a way that favoured engagement and fun rather than proenvironmental behaviour. More in general, our study uncovered how both the game and idle time reduction in itself can rub against the daily practices of the workplace where the study was run.

Evangelos Tolias, Enrico Costanza, Alex Rogers, Benjamin Bedwell, Nick Banks

Interactive Digital Gameplay Can Lower Stress Hormone Levels in Home Alone Dogs — A Case for Animal Welfare Informatics

Social isolation, when owners are not home, is a major stressor for dogs leading to separation anxiety and related behavioral and physiological issues. We investigate whether a digital interactive game requiring no human interference reduces stress response in dogs when isolated. An interactive game was developed specifically for canines. Dogs were domestically tested, totaling 15 days with and 15 days without the game. Twice-daily saliva samples were analyzed for cortisol stress hormone concentrations; ethograms were constructed. Combined data confirm that digital interactive games can lessen physiological and behavioral stress responses in dogs, and that the effect is modulated by a dog’s personality.

Annika Geurtsen, Maarten H. Lamers, Marcel J. M. Schaaf

KINJIRO: Animatronics for Children’s Reading Aloud Training

Reading aloud during childhood is fundamental to develop the necessary power of expression and imagination needed in our society, and is adopted by many elementary schools in language classes. Teaching reading aloud focuses on the ability to adjust the way one reads to improve the understanding of the listener. However, it is difficult for children not in class to correctly read aloud while being aware of the listeners. In this paper we propose a support robot that will allow children to enjoy reading aloud by themselves or with their family, and encourage them to do so while paying attention to their listeners.

Hisanao Nakadai, Lee Seung Hee, Muneo Kitajima, Junichi Hoshino

Rogue-Like Games as a Playground for Artificial Intelligence – Evolutionary Approach

Rogue-likes are difficult computer RPG games set in a procedurally generated environment. Attempts have been made at playing these algorithmically, but few of them succeeded. In this paper, we present a platform for developing artificial intelligence (AI) and creating procedural content generators (PCGs) for a rogue-like game Desktop Dungeons. As an example, we employ evolutionary algorithms to recombine greedy strategies for the game. The resulting AI plays the game better than a hand-designed greedy strategy and similarly well to a mediocre player – winning the game 72% of the time. The platform may be used for additional research leading to improving rogue-like games and general PCGs.

Vojtech Cerny, Filip Dechterenko

Software Architectures and the Creative Processes in Game Development

Game development is different from traditional software engineering in that there are no real functional requirements and the customers buy and use the software only because it is engaging and fun. This article investigates how game developers think about and use software architecture in the development of games. Further, it looks at how creative development processes are managed and supported. The results presented in this article come from responses to a questionnaire and a survey among thirteen game developers. The research questions answered in this study are: what role does the software architecture play in game development, how do game developers manage changes to the software architecture, how are creative development processes managed and supported, and how has game development evolved the last couple of years. Some of our findings are that software architectures play a central role in game development where the focus is mainly on achieving software with good performance and high modifiability, creative processes are supported through flexible game engines and tools, use of scripting and dynamic loading of assets, and feature-based teams with both creative and technical professions represented, and game developers are incrementally using more game-specific engines, tools and middleware in their development now compared to earlier.

Alf Inge Wang, Njål Nordmark

Storytelling Variants: The Case of Little Red Riding Hood

A small number of variants of a widely disseminated folktale is surveyed, and then analyzed in an attempt to determine how such variants can emerge while staying within the conventions of the genre. The study follows the classification of types and motifs contained in the

Index

of Antti Aarne and Stith Thompson. The paper’s main contribution is the characterization of four kinds of type interactions in terms of semiotic relations. Our objective is to provide the conceptual basis for the development of semi-automatic methods to help users compose their own narrative plots.

Edirlei Soares de Lima, Antonio L. Furtado, Bruno Feijó

Tags You Don’t Forget: Gamified Tagging of Personal Images

Mobile multi-purpose devices such as smartphones are progressively replacing digital cameras; people use their smartphones as everyday companions and increasingly take pictures in their daily life. Tagging is a way to organize huge collections of photos but raises two challenges. First, tagging (especially on mobile devices) is a boring task. Second, remembering the assigned tags is important to find images with tags. We propose gamification for more entertaining tagging. Most gamification approaches use crowd-based assessments of good or bad tags, which is a good way to prevent cheating and to not assign improper tags. However, it is not appropriate for personal images because users don’t want to share every image with the crowd. We developed and evaluated two mobile apps with gamification elements to tag images, a single-player and a multiplayer app. While both variants were more entertaining than a simple tagging app, the single-player app helps users to remember significant more tags.

Nina Runge, Dirk Wenig, Danny Zitzmann, Rainer Malaka

The Design Process Continues

Attending Experiential Values up to Version 1.0

How to attend experiential values of a design throughout the implementation is still an open issue. The interplay between experience design and software engineering is problematic because of the different epistemologies of design and engineering. Interaction design is a design practice, whereas software engineering describes itself as engineering and science. There is a long tradition in design of discussing materials and the craft of making artefacts. Thus, if we have a material, it is reasonable to say that we have a craft. If programming language code is a design material, then, making a finished artefact is the shaping of material. The development process can thus continue as a design process up to version 1.0. This paper presents a design case up to version 1.0 of a music creativity app, utilising design through programming. The app design validity was evaluated in a field study at an electronica music festival. Material consciousness of code, and an open-ended, and quality-driven design process allow attention to the experiential qualities of the design.

Rikard Lindell

Three Apps for Shooting Sports: The Design, Development, and Deployment

Video games rarely simulate shooting sports accurately. In this paper, we introduce three mobile applications that try to convey the essence of target shooting and biathlon to the players. We look at the applications from the perspectives of game design, implementation, and marketing. Our analysis provides a basis for developing games that take a real-world sport and help the player to appreciate the nuances of the sport, and maybe even to try it out in reality.

Agnieszka Besz, Maciej Górnicki, Toni Heinonen, Tapani Kiikeri, Ilkka Ratamo, Mika Luimula, Taisto Suominen, Aki Koponen, Jouni Saarni, Tomi “bgt” Suovuo, Jouni Smed

Yasmine’s Adventures: An Interactive Urban Experience Exploring the Sociocultural Potential of Digital Entertainment

Urban computing systems impact quality of life in densely populated areas. With the widespread availability of wireless networks and portable devices, urban areas are fast becoming a hybrid of the physical environment and the digital datasphere. This paper describes Yasmine’s Adventures, a location aware storytelling platform that leverages on urban computing strategies to create an interactive walk through the Mehringplatz area, surrounding the Jewish Museum in Berlin. Yasmine’s Adventures (YA) is a mobile application that delivers a sequence of animations clips tailored specifically to the Mehringplatz neighbourhood. The story follows an adventurous local girl as she walks home alone, visiting local landmarks. Yasmine’s perceptions of the landmarks, identified by community members in an earlier workshop, reflect the real concerns of the community. This interactive experience was created to engage visitors of the Jewish Museum to explore the relatively neglected streets of the area in which the museum is situated.

Valentina Nisi, Mara Dionisio, Julian Hanna, Luis Ferreira, Nuno Nunes

Short papers

Frontmatter

Asterodrome: Force-of-Gravity Simulations in an Interactive Media Theater

This paper presents an interactive entertainment experience deployed in a configurable surround projection environment that we called the

media theater

. This immersive installation is based on a real-time space simulator displaying several asteroid belts with large amounts of objects orbiting a sun. The sun acts as a dynamic center of gravitation that can be controlled by users with the help of a tracking system. Furthermore, it allows users to experiment with gravity in order to see how their interaction manipulates all objects in space.

Marcel Köster, Michael Schmitz, Soenke Zehle, Burkhard Detzler

Exploring the Importance of “Making” in an Educational Game Design

Educational games have been employed in many settings as a means to engage young students. Different genres and applications of games have been used to improve learning experience. The design or making of games in learning activities has been linked to teaching of new skills. Within this paper we explore and discuss the differences of involving young students into the game design and development process compared to just playing an educational game. In particular, we designed an educational math-game and an activity that involves children in playing or modifying the game, and we performed a between groups experiment with sixty students of the second grade of middle school (12 to 13 years old). Students formed three equivalent groups of twenty. The first group played the game, the second engaged with re-designing and modifying the game and the third (control) group solved the same exercises (with the educational game) on paper. The results showed that the making group exhibits certain attitudinal benefits. Hence, our findings suggest that learning through games should include more than just playing a well-designed game, it should also consider the involvement of students with various “making” affordances.

Michail N. Giannakos, Varvara Garneli, Konstantinos Chorianopoulos

Simple Games – Complex Emotions: Automated Affect Detection Using Physiological Signals

Understanding the impact of interaction mechanics on the user’s emotional state can aid in shaping the user experience. For eliciting the emotional state of a user, designers and researchers typically employ subjective or expert assessment. Yet these methods are typically applied after the user has finished the interaction, causing a delay between stimulus and assessment. Physiological measures potentially offer more reliable indication of a user’s affective state in real-time. We present an experiment to increase our understanding of the relation of certain stimuli and valence of induced emotions in games. For this we designed a simple game to induce negative and positive emotions in the player. The results show a high correspondence between our classification of participants’ physiological signals and subjective assessment. However, creating a clear causality between game elements and emotions is a daunting task, and our designs offer room for improvement.

Thomas Friedrichs, Carolin Zschippig, Marc Herrlich, Benjamin Walther-Franks, Rainer Malaka, Kerstin Schill

Studying an Author-Oriented Approach to Procedural Content Generation through Participatory Design

The paper describes the design research process of a procedural content generation tool aimed at supporting creative game design processes. An author oriented approach to procedural content generation tools is used where these tools can be manipulated so as to let authors define the design space they want to explore and the design solution they wish to find, therefore maintaining their creative agenda intact. We present two Participatory Design exercises where game designers were tasked with creating a complete Interface Design for an implementation of this approach. Content Analysis from participants’ discourse during these design exercises showed two important results. First, designers have trouble understanding how this procedural content generation works, and how to express their design problem within its conceptual framework. Second, subjects were averse to a pure optimization led approach to content generation and suggested the need for an exploratory phase, where content is created only to grasp the design landscape, without having to specifically define the desired solution.

Rui Craveirinha, Licinio Roque

The Role of Embarrassment to Shape Public Interactions

Can audience embarrassment be used to shape interactions in public settings? Is this the threshold for an audience to step in and / or out of the interaction in performative interactions in public space?

The proliferation of mobile and ubiquitous devices has shifted the attention to the design of interactive systems for use in public settings. This design applies the notion of

performance

to attract and engage audiences. Because performance becomes such a core part of the interaction, the success of those interactive systems heavily depends upon the physical, social and emotional context in which they are to be used. Indeed, strangers around a potential user may hinder or encourage that individual’s participation in the interaction. Similarly, the physical space in which the interaction takes place, public or semi-public space may as well facilitate audience participation or prevent it.

This paper investigates what characteristics of this setting (perceived / felt) can trigger audience participation in the interaction. A model based on the notion of performance and entailing some degree of felt embarrassment is applied to two cases to explain how the potential embarrassment implicit in any interaction in public space can be used to encourage users’ participation in it.

Licia Calvi

Towards Smart City Learning: Contextualizing Geometry Learning with a Van Hiele Inspired Location-Aware Game

We present an approach to geometry learning that is based on play. For a mobile and location-aware game, the concept of smart city learning is exploited to situate learning about geometric shapes in concrete buildings and thus make them more accessible for younger children. A game was developed in close collaboration with a local school and tested on a field trip and in class. A mixed measures evaluation is presented, where the quantitative results show a significant increase in correct answers in a standardized test and the qualitative analysis reveals increased motivation and curiosity for geometric concepts.

Matthias Rehm, Catalin Stan, Niels Peter Wøldike, Dimitra Vasilarou

Posters

Frontmatter

A Simultaneous, Multidisciplinary Development and Design Journey – Reflections on Prototyping

This paper proposes a wayfaring approach for the early concept creation stage of development projects that have a very high degree of intended innovation and thus uncertainty. The method is supported by a concrete game design example involving the development of a tangible programming interface for virtual car racing games. We focus onto projects that not only have high degrees of freedom, for example in terms of reframing the problem or iterating the final project vision, but are also complex in nature. For example, these can be projects that allow for the exploration and exploitation of

unknown unknowns

and serendipity findings. Process wise we are primarily focusing onto the early stage that precedes the requirement fixation, which we see as more dynamic and evolutionary in nature. The core conceptual elements that we have derived from the development experiences are:

simultaneous prototyping

in multiple disciplines (such as computer science, electronics and mechanics and engineering in general,

abductive learning

based on the outcome of rapid cycles of designing, building and testing prototypes (

probing

), and the importance of

including

all the involved disciplines

(knowledge domains) from the beginning of the project on.

Achim Gerstenberg, Heikki Sjöman, Thov Reime, Pekka Abrahamsson, Martin Steinert

A Role-Switching Mechanic for Reflective Decision-Making Game

This paper introduces issues about a methodology for the design of serious games that help players/learners understand their decision-making process. First, we discuss the development of a video game system based on a role-switching mechanic where the player becomes the game leader of the experience. Then, we introduce game mechanics designed to induce a specific behavior, overconfidence, that helps to understand the players’ decision-making processes. Finally, we describe tools for measuring the players’ self-reflection regarding their judgment process.

Thomas Constant, Axel Buendia, Catherine Rolland, Stéphane Natkin

Adaptation to TV Delays Based on the User Behaviour towards a Cheating-Free Second Screen Entertainment

Recent advances in technology created new opportunities to enhance TV personalization, providing viewers with individualized ways to watch TV and to interact with its content. Second screen applications are promising vehicles to enhance the viewers’ experiences, but researchers need to take into account the effect that the TV delay has on viewers, in particular when watching broadcasted live events. In this paper, we propose a software-based solution to deal with TV delays. It is mainly directed for a gaming context in which the user has the means to control the synchronisation between the second screen application and the TV content. Taking this scenario into account, we implemented a cheating-detection mechanism to cope with the potential exploitation of the system by its users.

Rui Neves Madeira, Pedro Centieiro, Nuno Correia

Exploring Deep Content in Physical Rehabilitation Games

This paper argues that game mechanics are important tools to combine rehabilitation therapy concerns with immersive game play. Through the practical design of a game we describe how properties of game mechanics (actions, attributes, dynamics, rules, space, and skill/ chance) connect to elements of rehabilitation therapy (exercise motion, parameters, therapy context, goals, motion trajectory, and motion constraints). We aim to stimulate rehabilitation game researchers to consider applying the presented approach in their own designs.

Niels Quinten, Steven Malliet, Karin Coninx

Games, from Engaging to Understanding: A Perspective from a Museum of Computing Machinery

Science museums have a natural role in the building of

public understanding

of science. For some time now, museums are particularly focused on

engaging

the public: it is a necessary condition to raise interest and cause active responses from the public. In this context,

gamification

, that is the usage of game dynamics to drive participation, is a way to engage the public.

The paper presents the experiences of the

Museum of Computing Machinery

of the University of Pisa in the adoption of gaming approaches for attracting and involving its public. Being a museum dedicated to computer science and its history, entertainment software has a noteworthy role. In particular, young people may be involved in projects aimed to the development of

toy games

and

mods

, two kinds of software artefacts that can still be faced as one-person projects – that is, simple, personal, and rewarding.

Giovanni A. Cignoni, Leonora Cappellini, Tommaso Mongelli

Interactive Painterly Rendering for Mobile Devices

Painterly rendering is among the most popular non-photorealistic rendering techniques and has been employed in many applications. Research on painterly rendering mainly focuses on automatically generating artistic results. In this study, we aim to develop an entertaining and interactive application for painterly rendering with touchscreen mobile devices. The proposed application provides user interaction for added enjoyment and ensures high-quality painterly results. We provide a method for finding the appropriate position of the brush stroke around the points touched by the user and for generating and rendering the brush stroke. With the proposed method, users can quickly generate high-quality painterly results.

Dongwann Kang, Kyunghyun Yoon

Lessons from Practicing an Adapted Model Driven Approach in Game Development

Various authoring tools have been used to ease the game creation. However, these pre-defined tools may not be suitable for some emerging or special domains. We proposed an approach named Game Creation with Customized Tools (GCCT) to create tools for certain domains first, and then create games using these tools. GCCT is based on the widely applied Model Driven Development (MDD) approach. Despite the apparent appropriateness and benefits, MDD also has drawbacks. Among them, non-trivial cost for tools development is prominent. To address this, some enhancements were made in GCCT, and two case studies were performed to evaluate the cost and the productivity when involving GCCT. In this paper, we reported the results of the case studies as well as practical lessons we have learnt.

Hong Guo, Hallvard Trætteberg, Alf Inge Wang, Shang Gao, Maria Letizia Jaccheri

Measuring Latency in Virtual Reality Systems

Virtual Reality(

VR

) systems have the potential to revolutionise how we interact with computers. However motion sickness and discomfort are currently severely impeding the adoption. Traditionally the focus of optimising VR systems have been on frame-rate. Delay and frame-rate are however not equivalent. Latency may occur in several steps in image processing, and a frame-rate measure only picks up some of them. We have made an experimental setup to physically measure the actual delay from the user moves the head until the screen of the VR device is updated. Our results show that while dedicated VR-equipment had very low delay, smartphones are in general not ready for VR-applications.

Kjetil Raaen, Ivar Kjellmo

MindSpace: A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Game for Treating Anxiety Disorders in Children

We describe the design process and implementation of the serious game MindSpace. MindSpace provides a playful setting for treating children with a variety of social and specific anxiety disorders. An age-appropriate approach is explained, taking a closer look on cognitive-behavioral techniques, how they are implemented within a game setting and what special needs to take into account when designing for children in a therapeutic context.

Barbara Göbl, Helmut Hlavacs, Jessica Hofer, Isabelle Müller, Hélen Müllner, Claudia Schubert, Halina Helene Spallek, Charlotte Rybka, Manuel Sprung

Noise Modeler: An Interactive Editor and Library for Procedural Terrains via Continuous Generation and Compilation of GPU Shaders

In online procedural generation, content is generated as the game is running on the consumers computer. Our GPU-based Noise Modeler composites noise and other functions through a flow-graph editor similar to the ones used by procedural shader editors and offline terrain generators. Our framework enables non-programmers to edit models for procedural terrain while observing the effect of changes immediately in a real-time preview. Each time a change is made to the model, a corresponding GLSL shader function is automatically generated. The shader is then compiled, and used to render a real-time terrain preview.

Johan K. Helsing, Anne C. Elster

Serious Games: Is Your User Playing or Hunting?

There is an increasing demand for entertainment applications developed for pets, in particular for dogs and cats. However, play interaction between animals and technological devices still remains an uncharted territory both for animal behavior and entertainment computing scientific communities. While there is a lot of anecdotal evidence of pets playing digital games, the nature of animal-computer play interactions is still not understood. In this paper we report on empirical findings based on observing and analyzing dog-tablet game interactions. Using categories emerging from our data analysis, we construct an ethogram, a “catalogue” of behavioral patterns typical of dog-tablet interactions. Based on our data analysis, we hypothesize that the nature of the observed interactions is that of predatory behavior, in response to stimuli in the form of “prey-like” virtual objects displayed on the screen. Based on our hypothesis, we further propose some questions for future investigation, and raise some issues that need to be addressed by game developers when targeting dogs as their users.

Sofya Baskin, Sharon Anavi-Goffer, Anna Zamansky

Space for Seriousness?

Player Behavior and Motivation in Quiz Apps

Quiz apps as a genre have seen a huge leap in distribution over the past year. Their applicability to any subject matter of any subject area, along with their ubiquitous availability, means they could be considered as a potential learning tool. However, popular quiz apps are optimized for entertainment. Furthermore, multiple choice questions have so far been used predominantly for assessment but not for learning. We have examined popular quiz apps in a two-stage approach. First, test persons played quiz apps of their choice on a daily basis and took field notes. A questionnaire for an online survey was then developed from the results. Our research questions were: (1) What are the contexts in which quiz apps are played? (2) What game mechanics are perceived as motivating? The survey with 396 participants helped us identify usage characteristics and the main motivations for utilizing these apps. Among relevant findings are a distinct willingness to learn and the phenomenon of sociability, i.e. the motivation to play with and compete against friends.

Heinrich Söbke

Spheres of Play: Designing Games and Interfaces for Media Architectures

The paper describes a game-based interaction scenario around an existing media architecture, developed to integrate aesthetic, social, and technological dynamics. On screen, the game unfolded as users moved across a globe, using a spherical input device to direct their avatars across a dynamic world of obstacles. Recalling the singularity and site-specificity of a performative intervention, the multidisciplinary project is part of a larger research effort that explores the use of media facades as an infrastructural core of complex interfaces for multiple forms of engagement and the co-creation of transmedial scenarios.

Michael Schmitz, Dominik Scholl, Julian Saraceni, Pascal Klein, Carsten Blaser, Jorge Olmeda, Soenke Zehle, André Miede

Supporting the Collaboration between Programmers and Designers Building Game AI

The design of the behavior of non-player characters (NPCs) in a game is a collaborative task between programmers and designers. Nevertheless this collaboration is an open problem since the limits, responsibilities and competences are not well defined.

Behavior trees are the technology of choice nowadays for programming the behavior of NPCs, and they are first and foremost a programmers tool. In this paper we describe an experiment that shows that with the right division of labor and a reduced background in Programming, designers can also build behavior trees and thus find a principled way to collaborate with programmers in that task.

Ismael Sagredo-Olivenza, Marco Antonio Gómez-Martín, Pedro A. González-Calero

The Impact of Sensor Noise on Player Experience in Magic Window Augmented Reality Aiming Games

Augmented reality (AR) requires superimposing digital artifacts on real world scenes. Unfortunately, sensors used to render digital artifacts are subject to noise and imprecision, making the registration difficult in practice. Using a modified version of the Android operating system, we experimentally examined the impact of orientation sensor noise on player experience in three commercial AR aiming games employing different mechanics and input techniques.

Farjana Z. Eishita, Kevin G. Stanley

Towards a Framework for Gamification-Based Intervention Mapping in mHealth

Given increasing obesity rates, reduced physical activity and other unhealthy practices, mobile gamification-based health applications have gained momentum in motivating individuals towards behavioral change. The lack of corresponding frameworks enabling the efficient cooperation between health professionals and independent game developers has resulted in a clutter of mHealth apps, which uncoordinately make use of large numbers of motivational techniques, gamification metrics and health data. In this paper, a unified user-centered framework is proposed, running health applications crafted by external developers within a sandbox, and thus mitigating the most concerning privacy and safety issues. It is capable of differentiating between apps on intervention-level granularity and tailoring suggested treatments based on users and their current environment, and aims at maximizing motivational impact in order to sustain and facilitate healthy lifestyles in the long run.

Helf Christopher, Patrick Zwickl, Helmut Hlavacs, Peter Reichl

Demonstrations

Frontmatter

[self.]: Realization / Art Installation / Artificial Intelligence: A Demonstration

This interactive installation paper describes [self.], an open source art installation where the people interacting with it determine its auditory and visual vocabulary. When the system starts, it knows nothing since the authors have decided that it should be without any kind of bias. However, the robot is equipped with the ability to learn and be creative with what it has internalized. In order to achieve this behaviour, biologically inspired models are implemented. The robot itself is made up of a moving head, mounted with a camera, projector, microphone and speaker. As an art installation, it has a clear robotic visual appearance, although it is designed to demonstrate life-like behaviour. This is done by making the system start in a “tabula rasa” state, forming categories and concepts as it learns through interaction. This is achieved by linking sounds, faces, video and their corresponding temporal information to form novel sentences. The robot also projects an association between sound and image; this is achieved using neural networks. This provides a visual and immediate way of seeing how the internal representations actually learn a certain concept.

Axel Tidemann, Øyvind Brandtsegg

Bridging Tangible and Virtual Interaction: Rapid Prototyping of a Gaming Idea

The Fibo Car is an example for a game interface that allows a user to modify a virtual car in a racing game through assembling tangible car parts. This paper describes the 6 week development journey towards a fully functional proof of concept prototype, reflections on the process as well as the technical details of the prototype.

Thov Reime, Heikki Sjöman, Achim Gerstenberg, Pekka Abrahamsson, Martin Steinert

Can Interactive Art Installations Attract 15 Years Old Students to Coding?

In this art demonstration we will present the art installations which are at the center of a creative development program for young students with the name KODELØYPA. KODELØYPA is based on the philosophy of creative reuse of recycled materials and the open-source software Scratch and Arduino. KODELØYPA is based on an empirically validated framework, designed and implemented by researchers and artists.

Michail N. Giannakos, Finn Inderhaug Holme, Letizia Jaccheri, Irene Dominguez Marquez, Sofia Papavlasopoulou, Ilse Gerda Visser

Digital Art Application Development: A Project to Increase Motivation in Systems Development Courses for Bachelor Students in Computer Engineering

In this demonstration, we present some in-progress results of using digital art application development as an example of entertainment computing for increasing motivation and participation in a computer engineering undergraduate systems development course, with the purpose of improving the chances of reaching the intended learning outcomes. By stimulating motivation and participation via an openly defined project description of making an interactive art application in a competitive context, a variety of interesting project outcomes were produced, despite the fact that the project did not count towards the final grading of the course. The students made their applications by combining existing programming skills with the programming language Processing, lessons in Human-Computer-Interaction and software development methodologies.

Anniken Karlsen, Robin T. Bye

Pedal Tanks

A Multiplayer Exergame Based on Teamwork and Competition

This installation presents a multiplayer stationary bicycle exergame for four players. The game is played in teams of two, where the players compete to outmaneuver the opposition. Pedal Tanks is being developed to increase the physical activity levels of people struggling to find motivation to exercise. Inspiration for the gameplay has been found in the computer game industry, using elements from contemporary popular computer games and combining them in a cohesive way yields an exergame that is both familiar and engaging. Both the software and hardware used has been custom-made to create an immersive experience where the user forgets that he/she is exercising while playing.

Kristoffer Hagen, Stian Weie, Konstantinos Chorianopoulos, Alf Inge Wang, Letizia Jaccheri

The Vocal Range of Movies - Sonifying Gender Representation in Film

Research has shown that in contemporary movies, male characters consistently outnumber female characters. In recent years, the number of speaking roles identified as female has declined or remained stable. Guidelines like the Bechdel and Mako Mori test have emerged as a method of evaluating gender representation in film. In this study, a more abstract and experiential form of evaluation is proposed. The per-segment sonification of the assigned gender of a character and the amount of lines they have in that segment of the script creates an audio file, showcasing the gender-representation in the movie dynamically. Two focus groups, one specifically consisting of young filmmakers, have expressed their interest in this form of movie-sonification. Expressed wishes for additional features and other suggested improvements are taken into consideration for the creation of the next prototype.

Marcello A. Gómez Maureira, Lisa E. Rombout

Workshops and Tutorials

Frontmatter

Workshop: AI and Creativity in Entertainment

Many different artificial intelligence/machine learning concepts are driving mechanisms behind entertainment systems. Further, computational creativity (CC) is an area with increased focus within entertainment computing as well as AI. This workshop provides a forum where AI and creativity can be discussed within the context of entertainment computing and related areas, as described in the main conference call.

Axel Tidemann, Agnar Aamodt

Creating Video Content for Oculus Rift

Scriptwriting for 360° Interactive Video Productions

In this workshop, we will first discuss previous experiences with producing and/or watching video content for Oculus Rift, or other 360° video devices. After determining the challenges and possibilities, we will works towards developing concepts for settings and stories for this particular medium.

Mirjam Vosmeer, Ben Schouten

Game Mechanics Supporting Pervasive Learning and Experience in Games, Serious Games, and Interactive & Social Media

This workshop investigates the mechanisms for behaviour change and influence, focusing on the definition of requirements for pervasive gameplay and interaction mechanics, procedures, actions, mechanisms, systems, story, etc.) with the purpose of informing, educating, reflecting and raising awareness. By connecting various experts such as designers, educators, developers, evaluators and researchers from both industry and academia, this workshop aims to enable participants share, discuss and learn about existing relevant mechanisms for pervasive learning in a Serious Game (SG) context.

Research in SG, as a whole, faces two main challenges in understanding: the transition between the instructional design and actual game design implementation [1] and documenting an evidence-based mapping of game design patterns onto relevant pedagogical patterns [2]. From a practical perspective, this transition lacks methodology and requires a leap of faith from a prospective customer to the ability of a SG developer to deliver a game that will achieve the desired learning outcomes. This workshop aims to present and apply a preliminary exposition though a purpose-processing methodology to probe, from various SG design aspects, how SG design patterns map with pedagogical practices

J. M. Baalsrud Hauge, T. Lim, S. Louchart, I. A. Stanescu, M. Ma, T. Marsh

Making as a Pathway to Foster Joyful Engagement and Creativity in Learning

The International Workshop of Making as a Pathway to Foster Joyful Engagement and Creativity in Learning (Make2Learn) aims to discuss the introduction of creative and joyful production of artifacts in the learning processes. A variety of environments have been developed by researchers to introduce making principles to young students. Making principles enable them foster co-creativity and joy in learning processes and construct knowledge. By involving students in the design decisions they begin to develop technological fluency and the needed competences, in a joyful way. Make2Learn aims to bring together international researchers, educators, designers, and makers for the exploration of making principles towards the acquisition of 21st Century learning competences, by employing the state of the art aspects of entertainment technologies, new media, gaming, robotics, toys and applications. The main objective is to build a research community around this topical area. In particular, Make2Learn aims to develop a critical discussion about the well-established practices and entertainment technologies of the maker movement, and expected outcomes of putting them into practice under different spaces such as Hackerspaces, Makerspaces, TechShops, FabLabs etc. This will allow us to better understand and improve the value of Maker philosophy and the role of entertainment technologies to support teaching and learning.

Michail N. Giannakos, Monica Divitini, Ole Sejer Iversen, Pavlos Koulouris

Playful Experiences and Game Concepts for Multi-screen Environments

In this workshop we will focus on how to design for playful experiences in multi-screen environments (smartphone, tablet, PC and TV), how existing gaming concepts can or cannot be transferred to the design of novel multi-screen formats, and how current insights in sociability, genres and attention can inspire new game concepts. These insights should ultimately lead to novel concepts for multi-screen formats utilising the opportunities offered by the recently increased functionality and interactivity. We will invite experts from industry and academia to discuss the latest research efforts and applications, analyse the current “gamified” media landscape, and formulate essential directions for future research.

Jeroen Vanattenhoven, David Geerts

Quantum and Entertainment Computing

Quantum computing offers a radically different paradigm for dealing with information and its processing. This tutorial seeks to serve as a springboard that can inform and motivate entertainment computing researchers to delve into this new and exciting field and investigate novel ways for utilizing quantum-computational concepts in their work both from a theoretical and a practical point of view.

Nikitas M. Sgouros

Tutorial: Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Development for Serious Games

This tutorial aims to introduce the benefits of applying a service-oriented architecture (SOA) approach to serious games developers. For that end, we propose a hands-on session in which we will provide information on state-of-the-art services for serious games and guide developers in rethinking one of their existing games or game ideas using our SOA framework for serious games.

Maira B. Carvalho, Jun Hu, Francesco Bellotti, Alessandro De Gloria, Matthias Rauterberg

Backmatter

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