Since the end of the Cold War, the changing relationship between the countries in the Black Sea region have provided both new opportunities for joint action as well as new complications. The region is presently defined by both political, social and economic instability (i.e. unemployment, migration, spillover of refugees from war-torn areas, increasing poverty, ethnic and religious rivalry, cross border crime and terrorism, growth in illegal activities and corruption, etc.) which has potential security implications. The Black Sea Region is also characterized by traditional disputes over fisheries and maritime shipping and disagreements over the development and protection of transboundary rivers. The effects of an oil and gas boom in the Caspian Sea and the resulting new routes for energy and transport and lines for communication are beginning to shape future economic markets and the security of the Black Sea region.Within the past 40 years, the Black Sea has also been unable to cope with increased human demands and extensive environmental degradation. Today the Black Sea is in a state of environmental crisis and requires extensive policy action beyond existing technical and financial assistance at both the international and regional level to directly impact the political and economic future of the Black Sea Region. This paper elaborates on the linkages between environmental and security challenges in the Black Sea region; assesses the environmental degradation occurring in the Black Sea, highlights ongoing regional activities to respond to increasing environmental challenges in the Black Sea; and suggests policy developments that deserve further consideration for fostering environmental cooperation and peace building in the Black Sea Region.
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- Environment and Security Challenges in the Black Sea Region
- Springer Netherlands
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen