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Über dieses Buch

The past 30 years have seen the emergence of a growing desire worldwide that positive actions be taken to restore and protect the environment from the degrading effects of all forms of pollution – air, water, soil, and noise. Since pollution is a direct or indirect consequence of waste production, the seemingly idealistic demand for “zero discharge” can be construed as an unrealistic demand for zero waste. However, as long as waste continues to exist, we can only attempt to abate the subsequent pollution by converting it to a less noxious form. Three major questions usually arise when a particular type of pollution has been identi ed: (1) How serious is the pollution? (2) Is the technology to abate it available? and (3) Do the costs of abatement justify the degree of abatement achieved? This book is one of the volumes of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series. The principal intention of this series is to help readers formulate answers to the above three questions. The traditional approach of applying tried-and-true solutions to speci c pollution problems has been a major contributing factor to the success of environmental engineering, and has accounted in large measure for the establishment of a “methodology of pollution control. ” However, the realization of the ever-increasing complexity and interrelated nature of current environmental problems renders it imperative that intelligent planning of pollution abatement systems be undertaken.



1. Treatment and Disposal of Biosolids

Biosolids management begins with its generation and continues through sludge treatment and sludge use and disposal. A wide variety of sludge treatment processes are used. The discussion is focused on biological methods of biosolids treatment. Most commonly, domestic wastewater sludge is biologically stabilized as a liquid in anaerobic digesters from which methane gas is a byproduct. Liquid sludge can also be treated in aerobic digesters to which oxygen (or air) must be added. Composting is a process that biologically stabilizes dewatered sludge. Several methods are widely employed to use or dispose of biosolids: land application, distribution and marketing, landfilling, and incineration.
Svetlana Yu. Selivanovskaya, Saniya K. Zaripova, Venera Z. Latypova, Yung-Tse Hung

2. Ultrasound Pretreatment of Sludge for Anaerobic Digestion

Ultrasound pretreatment of sludge has been examined in an effort to improve the hydrolysis rate in anaerobic digestion. The reactions that resulted from the generation and collapse of cavitation bubbles produced under the acoustic condition can significantly modify the substances present in the sludge. The principles of ultrasound that encompass acoustic cavitation and bubble dynamics, the mechanisms of biological damage and effects, the industrial applications of ultrasound, and the specific applications of ultrasound in environmental engineering are presented.
Kuan Yeow Show, Joo Hwa Tay, Yung-Tse Hung

3. Solubilization of Sewage Sludge to Improve Anaerobic Digestion

With the sludge treatment, the solubilization process of sewage sludge invites our attention because of the shortage of a final disposal site. In this chapter, a high-speed rotary disk process was applied to solubilization of sewage sludge from a sewage plant. With anaerobic treatment, the solubilized sludge by high-speed rotary disk process could be shortened from a digestion period of 30 to 10 days. Moreover, by applying the solubilized sludge to the activated sludge process, the excess sludge produced from the final sedimentation tank could be reduced to approximately 60%.
Tsuyoshi Imai, Yuyu Liu, Masao Ukita, Yung-Tse Hung

4. Applications of Composted Solid Wastes for Farmland Amendment and Nutrient Balance in Soils

Presently, the actual environmental load from farmland applications of composts has been less mentioned. This chapter aims, first, at giving a detailed description on the distributions of various chemical species of elements including macronutrients, micronutrients, and heavy metals in various composted solids and composts-amended soil, and then, examining the feasibility of sustainable applications of composted biosolids, depending on the farmland nutrient-balance principle. A good understanding of the nutrient balance in environment is believed to be of great benefit to the sustainable reuses of biosolid wastes.
Tsuyoshi Imai, Yuyu Liu, Masao Ukita, Yung-Tse Hung

5. Biotreatment of Sludge and Reuse

Sewage sludge, a by-product of domestic wastewater treatment plant, also known as “biosolids”, is generated in millions of tons each year. While sewage sludge disposal is a worldwide problem, local conditions dictate the adoption of a variety of treatment and reuse methods. Among them, composting has been practiced extensively in Malaysia. This chapter discusses the theory of the process, fundamental factors affecting the process, and the basis of solid state bioconversion technique. Numerous case studies exhibiting the large scale and continuous operation of sewage sludge composting and their utilization are also presented in this chapter.
Azni Idris, Katayon Saed, Yung-Tse Hung

6. Kitchen Refuse Fermentation

Controlled fermentation has been used for kitchen waste treatment. The most important factors affecting methane production from kitchen waste is organic loading rate and hydraulic detention time. Two main types of fermentation of kitchen waste are natural fermentation and controlled fermentation. The fermentation products are poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and poly-lactate (PLA).
Mohd Ali Hassan, Shahrakbah Yacob, Cheong Weng Chung, Yoshihito Shirai, Yung-Tse Hung

7. Heavy Metal Removal by Crops from Land Application of Sludge

This chapter describes the application of phytoremediation in removing heavy metals from contaminated soils. The types of crops used as well as the characteristics and application of sludge in Malaysia are described. The standards and regulations of sludge application are also discussed. The chapter gives a detailed discussion of principles of phytoremediation and design parameters used in the design of the treatment systems. Moreover, a few case studies and design examples are covered in the chapter.
Ab. Aziz bin Abd. Latiff, Ahmad Tarmizi bin Abdul Karim, Mohd. Baharudin Bin Ridzuan, David Eng Chuan Yeoh, Yung-Tse Hung

8. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils and Water Using Vetiver Grass

Phytoremediation includes utilization of plants to remediate polluted soils. In this chapter, application of Vetiver grass in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils is discussed. Case studies in Australia, China, and South Africa are presented. The future application may be in the areas of mine site stabilization, landfill rehabilitation, leachate treatment, wastewater treatment, and other land rehabilitation. It is a low-cost remediation method.
Paul N. V. Truong, Yin Kwan Foong, Michael Guthrie, Yung-Tse Hung

9. Bioremediation

Environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAs), polychlorinated biphenyl’s (PCBs), pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, and heavy metals are released into the environment, where they cause deleterious effects to wildlife and humans, owing to their inertness and being recalcitrant. However, the existence of microorganisms and plants capable of utilizing or accumulating such compounds has made the applications of such organisms in cleaning up of the environment a workable strategy. Therefore, Bioremediation (the application of bacteria and fungi) and Phytoremediation (the application of plants) to clean-up the environment are the two feasible and safe approaches that offer promise regarding environmental reclamation and sustainable use.
Joseph F. Hawumba, Peter Sseruwagi, Yung-Tse Hung, Lawrence K. Wang

10. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

This chapter discusses the use of natural and constructed wetlands for treatment of wastewaters. Mechanisms of treatment processes for wetlands were described. Function, roles, types, and selection of wetland plants were discussed. This chapter also covers design, monitoring, and maintenance of wetland treatment systems for wastewater. Case studies in Malaysia and UK were discussed.
Azni Idris, Abdul Ghani Liew Abdullah, Yung-Tse Hung, Lawrence K. Wang

11. Modeling of Biosorption Processes

Biosorption entails the use of microbial or plant biomass, usually inactivated, to remove toxic metal ions in aqueous solutions. It is particularly effective in dealing with low concentration, high volume metal waste streams. Although biosorption processes have not yet been commercialized to any significant extent, they offer a promising area for future developments. This chapter presents several process models that can facilitate the design and analysis of batch and fixed bed biosorption systems.
Khim Hoong Chu, Yung-Tse Hung

12. Heavy Metal Removal by Microbial Biosorbents

Conventional methods for heavy metal removal are precipitation, coagulation, reduction, ion exchange, evaporation, and membrane processes. This chapter describes the use of microbial biosorbents in removing heavy metals. Environmental factors, mechanisms, and isotherms of biosorption were discussed. Biosorption kinetics includes pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich kinetics model.
Dae Haeng Cho, Eui Yong Kim, Yung-Tse Hung

13. Simultaneous Removal of Carbon and Nitrogen from Domestic Wastewater in an Aerobic RBC

Carbon and nitrogen are the major pollution sources that contribute to environmental quality problems. This chapter describes sources of carbon and nitrogen in wastewaters, bioreactors for carbon and nitrogen removal, and processes for simultaneous removal of carbon and nitrogen. Application of various Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC) processes for simultaneous removal of carbon and nitrogen is discussed. Nitrification and denitrification process, and design of RBC are covered in this chapter.
Gupta Sudhir Kumar, Anushuya Ramakrishnan, Yung-Tse Hung

14. Anaerobic Treatment of Low-Strength Wastewater by a Biofilm Reactor

Anaerobic systems are gaining application for the direct treatment of low-strength wastewater, and compared to aerobic methods, offer lower operation cost but reduced removal efficiency. This chapter discusses generally the anaerobic process and technology and is concerned primarily with the use of the anaerobic filter (AF) system, emphasizing the design, operation, and performance characteristics of the reactor, the modeling of the process, the accumulation of biosolids during operation, and the posttreatment of the anaerobically treated wastewater to improve effluent quality.
Ioannis D. Manariotis, Sotirios G. Grigoropoulos, Yung-Tse Hung

15. Biological Phosphorus Removal Processes

Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) processes developed for wastewater treatment are mainly based on the enrichment of activated sludge with phosphorus-accumulating organisms under alternative anaerobic–aerobic conditions. According to the literature information of the EBPR processes, this chapter attempts to review the biochemical models, microbiology of the EBPR processes, and the main operating parameters that may influence the performance of the EBPR processes.
Yong-Qiang Liu, Yu Liu, Joo-Hwa Tay, Yung-Tse Hung

16. Total Treatment of Black and Grey Water for Rural Communities

Decentralized or on-site treatment systems for domestic waste and wastewater treatment can be the answer to many of the world’s environmental health problems. Poor or remote communities need technologies developed for the application, and an economically viable whole-of-waste approach is necessary. Vermicomposting offers a natural option to treat domestic waste and wastewater into reusable products. The extent of treatment can be incorporated into the design, providing flexibility and scalability required for the user community.
Avanish K. Panikkar, Susan A. Okalebo, Steven J. Riley, Surendra P. Shrestha, Yung-Tse Hung

17. Anaerobic Treatment of Milk Processing Wastewater

Anaerobic processes are widely used for the treatment of milk and dairy effluents. This technology has been subjected to significant development and real-scale application in the last few decades and offers highly favorable perspectives to accomplish a complete biodegradation of the components present in milk processing wastewaters such as sugars, proteins, and fats. Nowadays, anaerobic systems for the treatment of milk wastes can be operated successfully constituting an important contribution for the preservation of environmental quality.
Maria Helena G. A. G. Nadais, Maria Isabel A. P. F. Capela, Luís Manuel G. A. Arroja, Yung-Tse Hung

18. Biological Wastewater Treatment of Nutrient-Deficient Tomato-Processing and Bean-Processing Wastewater

A pilot-scale anaerobic/aerobic ultrafiltration system and a bench-scale anaerobic/aerobic system were tested to treat high-strength tomato-processing wastewater and bean-processing wastewater. The anaerobic/aerobic pilot-scale system achieved 99.4% SBOD removal, 91.9% NH3-N removal, and 100% phosphorus removal at an overall hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.5 days and solids retention time (SRT) of 5 days during the tomato canning season. The bench-scale anaerobic/aerobic system was used to confirm the pilot-scale anaerobic/aerobic system performance. Wastewater fractionation and kinetic coefficients were studied using respirometric methods.
George Nakhla, Zhongda Xu, Alpesh Gohil, Andrew Lugowski, Yung-Tse Hung

19. Animal Glue Production from Skin Wastes

Animal glue is the most important protein adhesive obtained from animal hides, skins, and bones through hydrolysis of the collagen. Animal glue production has long been a lucrative business in various parts of the world. This chapter discusses pretreatment and conditioning techniques including acidic, alkali, and enzymic proteolysis, which are involved during animal glue production. The extraction methods, including denaturation and thermal treatment, are also discussed. The possible improvement of pot life and moisture resistance of animal glue using chemical modification technique is presented. The application of micro-bubble technique for glue production from cow skin is also introduced.
Azni Idris, Katayon Saed, Yung-Tse Hung

20. An Integrated Biotechnological Process for Fungal Biomass Protein Production and Wastewater Reclamation

An integrated biotechprocess has been developed for fungal biomass protein production and wastewater reclamation from starch processing wastewater. The process resulted in producing 9.0 g/L fungal biomass, and removing total suspended solids, 95% BOD and 75% nitrogen. The biomass products contained 45% protein and appreciable quantities of amino acids, and they would be nutritive and edible for animal consumption. The reclaimed wastewater could be used for farm irrigation. This technology appeared to be technically feasible and economically beneficial for food and agricultural industries.
Bo Jin, Qiming Yu, J Hans van Leeuwen, Yung-Tse Hung

21. Algae Harvest Energy Conversion

Algae harvest energy conversion to biofuel technology is a promising alternative to fossil fuel that has inherent pollution attachment. With present resources available for the microalgae mass production and hence, high oil yield, microalgal can sufficiently be a new source of renewable energy to replace the fossil fuels. In this chapter, algae description, composition, cultivation, its conversion to biofuel, and commercial prospects and problems are presented.
Yung-Tse Hung, O. Sarafadeen Amuda, A. Olanrewaju Alade, I. Adekunle Amoo, Stephen Tiong-Lee Tay, Kathleen Hung Li

22. Living Machines

Ecological studies have revealed that nature has an in-built system to restore itself, thereby sustaining its continuity. In other words, natural ecosystems can act as “Living Machines” in keeping the ecosystems habitable. The biological communities – microbes, plants, and animals – serve as the driving force of several living technological innovations – constructed wetlands, Lake Restores, Eco-Restorers, and Reedbeds. These ecologically based technologies are suitable for environment restoration or mitigation, food production through waste conversions, as well as architecture and landscape design.
Yung-Tse Hung, Joseph F. Hawumba, Lawrence K. Wang

23. Global Perspective of Anaerobic Treatment of Industrial Wastewater

While anaerobic process had been widely used for stabilizing concentrated solids, the process long suffered a poor reputation because of lack of understanding regarding its fundamentals. Nearly a century later, anaerobic treatment is now arguably the most promising and favorable wastewater treatment system for meeting the desired criteria for future technology in environmentally sustainable development. The development of anaerobic processes, anaerobic biochemistry and microbiology, global applications, and applications of anaerobic processes for industrial wastewaters are discussed.
Kuan Yeow Show, Joo Hwa Tay, Yung-Tse Hung


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