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2022 | Buch

Environmental Pollution and Natural Resource Management

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Über dieses Buch

This book presents conference articles related to environmental pollution and natural resource management, and environmentally friendly technologies that lead to sustainable development presented in the Conference "Sustainable Management of Environment & Natural Resource Through Innovation in Science and Technology". The book highlights the latest development and innovation in environmental science, technology, and interdisciplinary research to improve the environment and health safety. It includes innovations and improvisations in the broad area of science and technology, natural resource, and environment management. It deliberates on the current burning issues of environment protection management and sustainable development, environmental pollution, global warming, and climate change.

The development strategies must therefore be shaped by the following components:

The satisfaction of basic human requirementsThe eradication of povertySelf-reliant and participatory developmentEnvironmental consciousness

Technology has to play a critical role in the process of changing industrial society. But innovation has to be embedded in social and organizational innovation. This book provides a wide range of research articles in the area of science and technology, sustainability, natural resource management, ecology and its environmental fields, geosciences and geology, atmospheric sciences, sustainability, climate change, and extreme weather, global warming, and environmental change, the effect of climate change on the ecosystem, environment, and pollution.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter
Uptake, Accumulation and Translocation of Heavy Metals in Cauliflower Grown in Integrated Industrial Effluent Irrigated Soil in District Haridwar (Uttarakhand)
Abstract
The combined effluents from various industries (integrated industrial effluent; IIE) in some locations are used as irrigation water to grow cauliflower because it is readily available and low cost. Contents of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) in soil, roots, leaves and inflorescence of B. oleracea cultivated with the IIE irrigated water at Bhagtanpur Village, Ikkarkala Village and Shubrasha Village were higher than the control site (Bongla Village), where irrigation was with well water. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) and translocation factors (TF) of metals in B. oleracea were in Bhagtanpur village due to higher concentration of metals in the effluent. Use of IIE for irrigation of B. oleracea increased concentrations of heavy metals in plant parts which may pose a potential threat to human health due to consumption, and to deterioration of soil fertility due to the long-term irrigation practices.
Roushan K. Thakur, Vinod Kumar
An Intensive Approach to the Renewable Energy Recovery from Agro Waste—A Review
Abstract
Agricultural residues are wastes generated whilst growing and processing these goods. The residues of agriculture are produced from numerous activities like cultivation, aquaculture, and livestock production. Wastes generated in the field or after processing in industries are multiphase and multicomponent. All three forms, liquid, solid, and gaseous wastes are generated by the agriculture sector which tends to pollute soil, water, and air. Waste causing environment degrading ability needs immediate attention. For ages, food and agro-wastes were either burnt or allowed to decompose in fields, but this can be possibly harmful to the environment. With the progress in technology, new approaches concerning their utilization, reuse, and processing need to be established to permit its sustainable utilization of residues and reduce pollution. Agricultural wastes are potential renewable energy resources. It is important to develop proper waste management strategies as it is the only best solution to have a healthy environment. In this paper, we discussed various strategies and technologies introduced to manage and utilize the waste that is generated in the agricultural field or after processing agriculture-based products. Appropriate management of waste is also beneficial in deriving out the essential useful product from the waste.
Aditi Bisht, Nitin Kamboj, Akanksha Bisht, Vishal Kamboj, Manisha Bharti
Reviewing Medicinal Plants of Treasure Land: The Indian Himalayan Range
Abstract
The Himalayan range is home to a diversity of plant due to the altitude, topography gradient and varying climatic conditions. Among the 18,000 already known flowering plants that grow in India, about 2500 of them possess some medicinal property and 25% of these plants reside in Himalayan range at different altitudes. Plants in order to survive and defend themselves in stressful environmental condition adapt and alter their plant physiology leading to the production of secondary metabolites. These medicinal plants have a key role in the lives of the local communities since ages, they rely on them for nutrition and medicinal requirements. Secondary metabolite rich plant is the main source of attraction for researchers as well as the industrialists. Wide Himalayan range not only provide raw material to the pharma industry but also to the cosmetic industry. The vital goal of the current paper is to review the potentially rich medicinal plants, threats and conservation practise of medicinal plants in the Himalayan range.
Akanksha Bisht, Vishal Kamboj, Aditi Bisht
Anthropogenic Impact on Fish Faunal Diversity and Their Habitat Ecology in the Ganga River and Its Tributaries, Uttarakhand
Abstract
The Ganges is one of the largest riverine ecosystem of India which supports diverse aquatic biodiversity in comparison to other aquatic ecosystems. The endemic fish species richness has significantly contributed to the eco-biocoenosis of Ganges riverine ecosystem. The main purpose of the current research was to assess the assemblage structure of endemic fish fauna in the river Ganges and its correlation towards the major water quality parameters. Collection of endemic fish species and important water quality parameters from eight sampling zones of river Ganges were done for the period of two years from September 2017 to August 2019. Fish diversity status was assessed by software PAST (version 3.0). The results of the current experimental research work evidently showed that Ganges riverine system offers the natural habitat of 31 fish species. Cyprinidae was the most dominant family followed by Balitoridae, Sisoridae, Schilbidae, Mastacembelidae, Salmonidae. Several physico-chemical parameters i.e. Water velocity, depth, water temperature, turbidity and dissolved oxygen subsidized as key significant environmental factors which directly and indirectly influence the diversity, species richness and distribution of fish population in the Ganges riverine ecosystem.
D. S. Malik, Arvind K. Sharma, Sunil Kumar, Rakesh Kumar, Ranjit Kumar, Vishal Kamboj, Amit K. Sharma
Assessment of Land Use Change and Climate Change Impact on Biodiversity and Environment
Abstract
Aim Climate change and land use land cover change LULC, are the supreme pressures on biodiversity that can straightly impact each other. The land use land cover change has strong impact on local climatic conditions such as anthropogenic altered regions leads to more warmer and drier as compared to natural habitats. The several impacts on biodiversity due to anthropogenic factors can be developing area of research. The present state of approach is on the impact of local climatic changes on biodiversity that responds to land‐use land cover changes. Location Global. Methodology We review published research studies by searching procedure on google using keywords on different databases. The strength of this methodology is that it delivers a rapid synopsis of intensity on Climate change and land use change in relation to biodiversity trends across the globe. Results A total of 1223 published research items from 2000 to 2022 were extracted from searching on online databases based on scenarios of biodiversity due to climate change and land use changes. Out of 1223 published research items we randomly sampled research items within the list (sample size N = 250). We collected information critically from each of the above selected studies on spatial and temporal scales on different geographical locations. It revealed that natural and anthropogenic factors resulted into loss of biodiversity and its services. Conclusion Climate change and Land use change are both major contributing factor and are a main mode in which the impacts of climate change are expressed. As a contributing factor, land use influences the change in land cover patterns. Projected climate variations resulted in changes land cover patterns at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, it is required to achieve ecological functions efficiently on local, regional and global scales.
Arvind K. Sharma, Amit K. Sharma, Munit Sharma, Munish Sharma
Assessment of Pollution Load and Its Impact on Aquatic Biodiversity of River Ganga: A Review
Abstract
This review paper presents experimental results of some researchers who have observed Ganga River Water from Gangotri to West Bengal in the past 21 years. An attempt has been made to understand the gradual degradation of Gangajal and its present pollution level in relation to various uses. To assess water of Ganga, numerous measurements have been taken from time to time to study the physico-chemical condition of this sacred river by various researchers. These studies show that all is not well and the quality of Ganga is getting worse day by day. The reason could be the nostalgic mood of the industry and common man who continue to follow bad practices causing severe pollution of the Ganga. Though there are government laws to control river pollution, the implementation is not adequate as the laws in India are too volatile, too stringent and too inexpedient.
D. S. Malik, Aditi Bisht, Ruchika Chauhan
Non-timber Forest Products: Current Status and Development
Abstract
Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP’s) are biologically originated non-wood products derived from forests and constitute a vital source of livelihood. In India, approximately 275 million poor rural people inhabiting in harsh climatic conditions depend on NTFP’s for their survival and cash livelihoods. There is a lack of accurate global level statistics about NTFPs from 1972 to 1995. After 1995, renewed interest in NFTP’s may be due to increased interest in the value of biodiversity, Carbon sequestration, increased awareness about the use of NTFP’s, and some environmental functions provided by NTFP’s. NTFP’s were called “Minor” forest products and undervalued in the past but nowadays the scenario is different. During recent decades much attention is paid on the exploitation of NTFP’s without addressing the ecological factors and impact on the environment. In India, approx 40% of total official forest revenues and 55% of forest-based employment is provided by NTFP’s. In the present era and coming future era NTFP’s sometimes may be considered as misnomer due to severe degradation of forest areas. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to elaborate on the NTFP’s, their utilization, availability, and development along with ecological and environmental implications generated due to the exploitation of NTFP’s.
Faheem Ahamad, Rakesh Bhutiani, Mukesh Ruhela, Nishant Rai
Assessment of Water Quality and Biodiversity Status of Alaknanda River at Garhwal, Uttarakhand: A Case Study
Abstract
Biotic and abiotic factors of a river compel an aquatic ecosystem, these factors are interrelated with each other. A healthy freshwater ecosystem denotes the assimilative capacity of a water body in terms of diverseness. Aquatic biodiversity of a freshwater ecosystem are very important for ecosystem services. Some environmental changes like climate change, anthropogenic factors, competition for survival, aquatic habitat loss etc. are responsible for the loss of biotic components in a water stream. The present study was aimed to assessed the interrelation between abiotic and biotic parameters of River Alaknanda. Water samples were collected from a 172 km long stretch of river during 2017–2018. The physico-chemical parameters viz. air temperature, water temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, light intensity, depth, pH, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were analysed by following the standards method. All the physico-chemical parameters were noted below the prescribed permissible limits of WHO/BIS. Biological parameters as phytoplankton, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and fishes were identified with the help of identification keys. A total of 32 species of phytoplankton, 19 species of zooplankton, 33 species of macro benthos and 21 fish species were found in the sampling zones of river. All the biotic and abiotic parameters evaluated by performing canonical correspondence analysis on observed data. According to this study findings, CCA is suitable tool for aquatic biodiversity and ecological habitat parameters to scrutinize the river health. This tool is very useful to evaluate the significant relation between biotic components and physico-chemical parameters of an aquatic ecosystem.
Garima Tomar, D. S. Malik, Amit Kumar Sharma, Vishal Kamboj, Vikas Kumar
Efficient Management of Rice Straw Using Vermicomposting Technology: A Synergetic Approach of Agricultural Waste Management
Abstract
India is a developing country and most of the population live in the rural area. In India, most of the population depends on agriculture practices for their survival. About 43.86 million hectares of land is used for paddy cultivation and it produces 104.80 metric tons of rice. By the excessive use of agriculture, huge organic waste (rice straw) is generated. Most of this organic waste is used as cattle feed but the remaining waste is burnt by local farmers. This harmed the environment by releasing various toxic elements into the atmosphere. Due to the burning of rice straw numerous primary and secondary air pollutants such as CO, CO2, NOX, SOX, and NH3 etc. release in the environment. The burning of rice straw in the open field also decreases soil fertility by killing microorganisms present in the soil. To overcome this burning problem of the rice straw farmer need new techniques to compost rice straw waste. For the degradation of the organic waste vermicomposting is an ecofriendly technique. The purpose of this chapter is to focus on the vermi-technology to decompose rice straw. Just because of vermicomposting technology is an easier, cheaper (cost-effective), ecofriendly approach. The future of vermi-technology is bright cause nowadays people move towards organic farming and avoid the chemicals used in agriculture for high yield. Vermicomposting decomposes the rice waste as well as provide a job for rural area and the urban area also.
Amrit Kumar, Nitin Kamboj, Vishal Kamboj, Aditi Bisht, Neeraj Pandey, Manisha Bharti
Effect of Ultraviolet (UV)-B Radiation on Morphology and Photosynthetic Activity of Spirogyra sp.
Abstract
Spirogyra sp. is phytoplankton species belonging to chlorophyceae group and also use as a bioindicator. They are very sensitive to overexposure from solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In this study, Spirogyra sp. was collected from freshwater and then cultured in the Pringsheims Medium. The aim of the present study was to find out the impact of ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation on morphology and photosynthetic activity of Spirogyra sp. For this different experimental setup were divided on the basis of time duration. Exposure duration was 2 h/day for six groups except control. Reading of artificial UV-B was recorded at 5th, 10th and 15th day respectively and one is kept as control (covered with acrylic sheet to avoid any light penetration). After 15th days of artificial UV-B exposure it is observed that chlorophyll content decreased and carotenoid increased. Maximum effect and fragmentation were observed after 15th day of artificial UV-B exposure. The study provides basic scientific data about the impacts of UV-B radiations on aquatic ecosystem.
Davendra Singh Malik, Prachi Rathi
An Overview of Recent Advancements in the Irrigation, Fertilization, and Technological Revolutions of Agriculture
Abstract
Technological advancement in the agricultural sector for increasing the productivity rate of crops has become a must to fulfill the demand of the massive population. Though Inida is progressing at a faster rate in terms of agriculture the growth in horticultural and some of the major crops are very less in comparison with other development countries. It was estimated by Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) that by 2050, agricultural production would grow by 70% globally and almost 100% in developing countries to feed the hiking population. To fulfill this demand, technological invention should become fast. The invention has occurred in the field of irrigation, fertilization, or technology. Thus, by incorporating these inventions in the agriculture sector, the output gets increased to a greater extent. The methods of farming such as hydroponics, aeroponics, bioremediation, biosorption, vermicomposting, etc. have made a greater change in the agriculture output. Not only this even the technologies like GPS, Ultrasound, smartphones, cameras, etc. helps in regular monitoring of the agricultural processes and make it easy giving little relax to the farmers. In a very lesser space and time, yield can be hiked up to the maximum thereby increasing the economy. This book chapter aims to highlight the recent advancement that has occurred in last few decades and their effect on productivity and crop yield.
Neeraj Pandey, Nitin Kamboj, Arvind Kumar Sharma, Amrit Kumar
Dynamics of Soil Cationic Micronutrients in Different Land Use Systems in Lower Shiwalik Region of Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
Due to the low nutrient content, high erosion rate, poverty, increasing urbanization and increasing agricultural intensity, micronutrients problem in ecosystem are widespread. Topography, soil texture and land use types are key factors affecting the soil nutrient availability. The current study provides information on the micronutrient status of soil in different land use patterns (forest, industrial, residential, agro-residential and agricultural area) in lower shiwalik region of Uttarakhand, India. Results indicated that significant differences in soil micronutrients among different land uses were observed. Iron content was found low in industrial area and medium to high in other selected land use patterns. Soil of selected land use patterns has high range of copper content except only forest area. Zinc content was found low in selected land uses and showing the negative correlation (p < 0.05) with organic matter in soil. Further observations suggested that type of land use patterns was the dominant factor altering the nutrient dynamics vertically as well as horizontally.
Manisha Bharti, Nitin Kamboj, Vishal Kamboj, Aditi Bisht, Amrit Kumar
Monitoring of Channel Morphology of Ganga River Using Remote Sensing and GIS Data
Abstract
The present study deals with the dynamics of channel morphology of river Ganga in Haridwar region during the last two decades (1992–2019). Land Use/Land cover classification and channel geometry characteristics of river Ganga were assessed using remote sensing and GIS analysis approach. The LULC classification was divided into three classes: River, Dry Riverbed and River Ganga catchment or floodplain covering an area of 8366.22 ha. Moreover, channel geometry was calculated using sinuosity index and geomorphological features. The study area is divided into 10 segments showing the different types of channel patterns. It was found that LULC classification of river banks depends on water flow and seasonal ecological and anthropogenic activities. The channel pattern of river Ganga is modified by natural processes such as heavy rainfall, floods, bank erosion and anthropogenic processes such as dams, riverbed mining and agricultural activities near the banks.
Vishal Kamboj, Aditi Bisht, Nitin Kamboj
Identification of Aspect Impact of Construction Site: A Case Study
Abstract
Now-a-days the project implementation period is getting further compressed resulting in more intense activity of construction and much more increase in pollution level in the shorter period of construction which may lead to very prolonged adverse effect on the public health in general. The present study was carried out at the construction sites of metro and elevated viaduct to identify the aspects and their impacts and to perform the risk analysis of the identified aspects impacts. Different aspects such as consumption of natural resources, usage of new spare parts, generation of food, sewage, metal, and E-waste, noise and vibration, fire and explosion, damage of material due to rusting, generation of toxic fumes, water and land contamination, gas leakages, spillage of transformer oil, and biomedical waste generation, etc. are identified. Depletion of natural resource, water, air and noise pollution, odour, and land contamination are the impacts of the identified aspects. In case of operation of plant and machinery, all the identified aspects and impacts fall in legal concern category which results the risk in significant category. In case of form work and finished of concrete process, all the identified aspects and impacts didn’t need legal concern category which results the risk in non-significant category. In all the other processes a mix trend was observed where the risk in both significant and non-significant category.
Mukesh Ruhela, Vishal Dixit, Faheem Ahamad
Inventory of Glaciers in the Himalayan Region: A Study Through Field Survey and Sentinel 2B Based Imagery Analysis
Abstract
Glaciers play a major role in the human ecosystem. Since they are the primary source of our freshwater reserve, glaciers are very much crucial to sustaining life on the planet. Moreover, its highly sensitive nature to the changes in the environment and climatic conditions, glaciers also act as a major indicator for climate change. Hence, the inventory and monitoring of glaciers have significant importance in today's world. Rapid deglaciation primarily caused by the global increase in temperature can lead to a rise in the sea level to an extreme level. Remote sensing techniques help the researchers a lot to identify and monitor the changes that occurred to the most physically inaccessible glaciers. Normalized Differential Indexes like Normalised Differential Snow Index (NDSI) can help the researchers to identify the snow cover regions and also to make an inventory of the glaciers supported by other techniques. While monitoring snow cover and glacier-covered regions, researchers need to understand different characteristics such as knowledge of reflectance characteristics, spatial resolution requirement, repeat data acquisition duration, sensor saturation, discrimination toward snow clouds, and monitoring of snow cover under mountain shadow.
Arvind Pandey, Deepanshu Parashar, Bidyutjyoti Baruah, Sarita Palni, J. S. Rawat, Ajit Pratap Singh, Pankaj Kumar Bhatt, Aditi Bisht
Spatio-Temporal Change Detection Using Remote Sensing Application—A Case Study of District Bageshwar, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
The study of changes over the ground has become an important component of contemporary natural resource management and environmental monitoring techniques. The current study depicts the spatiotemporal dynamics of LULC in the district of Bageshwar, Uttarakhand, India. Landsat satellite images from three distinct periods, including Landsat MSS 1976, Landsat ETM+ 1999, and Landsat 8 TIRS 2016, were obtained by the official webpage of Earth Explorer and used to assess spatial–temporal change analysis in the Bageshwar District from 1976 to 2016. The supervised classification approach and the maximum likelihood algorithm were used to group pixels in a meaningful way. Based on satellite imagery, the research area’s categorization result was divided into seven separate classes, including forest, agricultural, waterbody, settlement, barren land/grassland, scrubland, and snow. The study results show that forest cover has faced the highest negative amount of change from 1976 to 2016, about (−)76.07 km2 and on the other hand, barren land/grassland shows the highest positive change of land cover about (+)43.86 km2. The LULC classification shows an overall accuracy of 76%, 82%, and 84% for the different years of 1976, 1999, and 2016 respectively. The present study helps understand the spatial–temporal pattern of LULC changes and highlights the significance of digital image change detection methods in determining the amount of LULC change and shifting in Bageshwar district Uttarakhand, India.
Arvind Pandey, Deepanshu Parashar, Kanak Matiyani, Sarita Palni, J. S. Rawat, Ajit Pratap Singh, Aditi Bisht
A Review of Municipal Solid Waste: Its Generation, Composition, Impacts, Management and Challenges in Urban Areas with Special Focus on India
Abstract
Municipal Solid waste (MSW) is a rapidly growing issue in the world of today along with countless number of other issues as well in all grounds. The trend of urbanization, growth of industrialization, advancements in technology etc. seen in urban areas of the world are some of the perks that attract the population towards living an urban life for more income, better comfort and improved lifestyles. But the same has led to a number of issues over the years as well, including a very high generation rate of MSW (with varied compositions) due to certain and ever-growing urban lifestyles and also ever-increasing demands of the population to adjust to the modern way of living. Today, these generation rates have reached such high levels that proper and effective management has become a huge challenge for the urban areas of the world. The developing nations of the world like India are suffering quite a lot due to it compared to certain developed nations despite generating comparatively lesser amounts of MSW, reasons being both economical as well as various social grounds too. An effort to describe MSW along with its generation and composition figures in various parts of the world has been made through this paper keeping a primary focus towards India. Studies have also been made about the various impacts MSW could have towards people, other living beings and also the environment along with the means for its management. Different steps like: waste segregation, collection, transportation, recycling, treatment and disposal are involved in the process of MSW management and the same needs to be executed effectively in order to call the MSW management which has been or is being performed as a proper one. But doing so is easier said than done as various challenges are faced along the way towards MSW management of an area/city/country. Several factors may be responsible for it ranging from economic, political and even social, all of which have been discussed by means of this review work. Once again, special attention has been given towards the nation of India while doing the same.
Kanchan Deoli Bahukhandi, Saswat Ollemman
Environmental Impact of Emerging Electro World with Special Focus on Electrical-Vehicles and Its Impact on Global Environment
Abstract
With the introduction of the electric vehicle, plenty of lifecycle evaluations calculating CO2 emissions have sprung up. Electric vehicle emissions, including battery and charging, are compared to those of conventional vehicles. According to the most recent evidence, an average electric car is already close to three times better than an equivalent conventional car today. As new evidence accumulates on: the longer lifetime of batteries thanks to innovation, the ramping up of battery reuse, repurpose, and recycling, and the accelerating uptake of renewables, the life cycle assessment emissions of electric cars are bound to decrease even further than what is presented in this case. The major disadvantage that’s are been connected with the EV are the environmental impact of battery production for electric vehicles (EVs) and the mining of rare earth metals for the car production. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the environmental impact of electric vehicles. And how the batteries used in electric vehicles can pose a risk to humans.
P. T. Hemand Chandran, Sarath Ajithkumar, Kanchan Deoli Bahukhandi
Flash Flood in Himalayan Region of Uttrakhand (A Case Study of Kedarnath Flood 2013 and Rishi Ganga Flash Flood, Reini Village 2021)
Abstract
The climate change significantly affect the glacial of Himalayan region. The flash floods are one of the most perilous climate-related disastrous events in the Himalayan region. Such floods grow under six hours after the rainfall that prompted risky circumstances for individuals and cause loss of life, property and environment. Just about seven years after such flash floods attacked the Kedarnath valley in Uttarakhand, around 5000 individuals were killed, and the scientists have cautioned that conditions were creating for a comparative misfortune going to happen in the district again. The cloudburst situation on every next day had occurred mainly in the Uttarakhand caused decimating floods and landslides turning into the nation’s most exceedingly awful natural disaster event since the tsunami in the year of 2004, which was about 375% more than the benchmark rainfall during an ordinary rainstorm. Aside from the social, political, and affordable misfortunes, such natural disasters adjust the prior landscape of Kedarnath region. This paper provided the satellite data for the year 2007, 2013, and 2019. The information and data are compared with before the event of the flash flood and after the flash flood and its impact caused alongside. The comparative analysis have also been carried out by using the GIS and Remote Sensing techniques by comparing before and after flash flood event.
Nitesh Sharma, Kanchan Deoli Bahukhandi, Siddiqui Nihal Anwar
Disposal of Non-biodegradable Waste Using Eco-Friendly Methods
Abstract
From bags to computers non-biodegradable wastes found their way into everything. We knew little about how this is going to affect the environment when it was found. Many non-biodegradable wastes are complex polymers and are very hard to recycle. Usually, these non-biodegradable wastes end up in landfills and oceans. The world is moving towards a healthier and cleaner the best way to achieve it is by eradicating this waste, but it’s a long way to go. At the present we slow the accumulation of these wastes and can concentrate on safe and eco-friendly ways to dispose this waste. In this article various methods are described to how improve waste management, use waste in as one of the consequent materials for other products or using waste for producing energy. All data is considered and recommended regarding improving waste management system in India.
S. V. Mohanaprasadh, Pranshu Singh, Kanchan Deoli Bahukhandi
UAS and Sustainable Development
Abstract
Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) is an aerial vehicle that operates without human intervention using a ground-based controller. UASs are expected to observe and protect very large areas as well as control and monitor remote areas that are beyond the reach of humans. Drones or unmanned aerial vehicles are changing the way we communicate with the world and earth environment. These are, essentially, flying robots that can be remotely controlled or fly self-governing by programming-controlled flight designs in their installed frameworks, working related to locally available sensors and its general components include body frames, propellers, flight controllers, ESC (Electronic speed controller), batteries, motors and sensors required for use. Applications of UASs are widely increasing around the world for civilian, commercial as well as military purposes. We have examined some of the applications of UASs and the possible futuristic applications of UASs in India. This paper explores the use of UAAs in a variety of fields, including forest fire, land detection, coastal surveillance, agriculture, and a variety of commercial applications, since these flying machines are fast and do not endanger human life. Until now, UASs in India are primarily used for observation, reconnaissance and air navigation in military and defense zones. It is therefore important to establish more UAS-based research on these topics.
Sudhir Kumar Chaturvedi, Surya Prakash Tiwari
Impact of Discharge of Wastewater and Used Oil from Motor Service Stations on Groundwater Quality of Dehradun City of Outer Himalaya Region
Abstract
The effluent discharge from automobile service stations is a matter of deep concern as it is directly released to the environment without any treatment particularly in developing countries. The different types of used oil and fluids are prominent contaminants from automobile sector which are being consistently let-out risking the environment and health of living beings. The disposition of oily wastes on land surface effects the soil quality and can infiltrate the sub-soil impacting the groundwater quality. The deterioration of groundwater quality has challenged the survival of the ecosystem and in the forefront need to take urgent steps to revive and sustain the groundwater. The current research work is based on assessment of effluent quality discharged from different Motor Service stations by drawing comparison of the physiochemical wastewater quality parameters against the BIS standard of drinking water quality. The analysis showed that 7 out of 15 parameters measured were off permissible standard limits and exhibited maximum values. High levels of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) 666.65 mg/l, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 6.8 mg/l, Alkalinity 457.5 mg/l, Calcium (Ca) 142.9 mg/l, Magnesium (Mg) 69.86 mg/l, Total Hardness 550 mg/l, Oil & Grease 76 mg/l were indicated in the collected samples which does not imply a positive scenario of the water ecosystem. High concentrations of Oil & grease at the different automobile service centers were found in the range of 20–76 mg/l. Thus, this study has been done to provide meaningful insights on the effects on aquatic biota and the importance of effluent treatment particularly in automobile sectors. Further, the study can be used as a source of reference to do research studies in this topic.
Kanchan Deoli Bahukhandi, H. Tonsana, Mayuri Deka, Shalini Vohra, Mohini Singh
Implementation of an Integrated Management System in Automobile Industry
Abstract
Presently the international standards are in priority for Environment, Sustainability and Business Development as well as for Federal Laws, State Laws and other laws are focusing on their regional development. The implementation of IMS based on the foresight and vision for the organization, these can increase the efficiency, transparency as well as rationalization of common approaches, ideas and tools. This paper discuss about the integration of a different management systems into one cohesive system. The primary focus of this is to implement the five international standards-ISO45001:2018, ISO14001:2015(E), ISO28000:2007(E), ISO22301:2012 and ISO50001:2018(E) in Automobile Industry. It discusses about the levels of integration, starts with the adoption stage of Standards to the final audit certification. It also discuss about the challenges that may face while integrating the standards and the benefits of integration to an organization. The objective of this paper associated with the journey and the practical consideration of IMS in the stage of implementation.
Reyya Pujitha, Kanchan Deoli Bahukhandi, Rahul Silori
Development of Accident Prediction Model for Low Frequency and High Severity (LFHS) Industrial Accidents
Abstract
Back Ground: Industrial safety is a multi-disciplinary subject involving interaction of human, equipment and work environment. It is difficult to design equipment and work environment for each individual as each individual is unique. Therefore, accident control measures should be implemented by safety through design, supplemented by administrative controls and personal protective equipment. In order to implement an effective accident control program, all accidents should be investigated and analyzed to identify significant contributors. Methods: Regression analysis is one of the tools for identification of significant contributors through development of accident prediction models. The paper illustrates multiple linear regression analysis of Low Frequency High Severity (LFHS) accidents occurred in a Public Sector Power Company in India during the period of 10 years from 2006 to 2015. The independent variables of the model are ‘Types of LFHS Accidents’ and dependent variable is man-days loss attributed to LFHS accidents. Results: The significant contributors of the LFHS accidents are ‘Exposure to or Contact with Electric Current’, ‘Fall of Persons from Height’ and ‘Stepping on Striking Against or Struck by Object’. The paper also gives accident control measures to be taken by ‘Safety through Design’, ‘Administrative Controls’ and ‘Personal Protective Equipment’. Conclusion: Effective implementation of these measures will support organization in accident prevention.
N. N. Pisharody, Kanchan D. Bahukhandi, Prashant S. Rawat, R. K. Elangovan
Metadaten
Titel
Environmental Pollution and Natural Resource Management
herausgegeben von
Dr. Kanchan Deoli Bahukhandi
Dr. Nitin Kamboj
Dr. Vishal Kamboj
Copyright-Jahr
2022
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-05335-1
Print ISBN
978-3-031-05334-4
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-05335-1