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Über dieses Buch

This book comprises select proceedings of the International Conference on Water, Environment, Energy and Society. The book is divided into five parts. The first part deals with some aspects of environmental pollution such as socio-economic environment assessment for sustainable development, environmental issues due to fire in coal Mines and its impact and suggestions for implementing precautionary and control measures, redevelopment of urban slum dwellings: issues & challenges, air and noise pollution in mega cities, importance of indoor environmental quality in green buildings. Part II discusses pollution indicators such as assessment and prediction of environmental noise, fuzzy logic based performance evaluation, fish biodiversity and its periodic reduction, effects of anthropogenic activities on fresh water ecosystems, and monitoring of air pollution. Part III focuses on generation of pollution namely biomedical waste generation and management, heavy metal leaching, etc. Water quality assessment is described in Part IV. The Part V presents water quality modeling. The book will be of interest to researchers and practitioners in the field of water resources, hydrology, environmental resources, agricultural engineering, watershed management, earth sciences, as well as those engaged in natural resources planning and management. Graduate students and those wishing to conduct further research in water and environment and their development and management will also find the book to be of value.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Environmental Pollution

Frontmatter

Socioeconomic Environment Assessment for Sustainable Development

Sand mining is proposed at Alappad, Panmana, and Ayanivelikulangara of Kollam District within an area of 180 ha because of which nearly 550 families are being exposed to the impact of this mining. Families suffer from various problems associated with the mining activity, which includes environmental, social, and economical health. In addition, they have to be rehabilitated to other acceptable areas. The Resettlement & Rehabilitation (R&R) plans are an integral part of this EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) study. Hence, this issue needs to be carefully studied and solved in an amicable manner. The objective of the present study is to ascertain the socioeconomic and other impacts on the people and on the area of operation and preparation of R&R plan for the project-affected families in the 180 ha mine lease area in line with Indian Rare Earth’s (IRE’s) R&R plans. We need to identify reasons of various social–political driving forces causing complaints and obstruction of existing in proposed mining and work out mechanisms for consultation with all stakeholders and influential forces in order to address issues related to mining.

Atul Kumar Rahul, Shaktibala, Bhartesh, Renu Powels

Research Need on Environmental Gains in Conservation-Induced Relocation

Relocations are made for developmental- and conservation-induced scenario. Conservation-induced relocations are different from developmental-induced relocations, in the sense that site is vacated due to it is environmentally improved. There are a lot of studies on social impact of conservation-induced relocation, but very few studies have been undertaken on environmental gains through it. With more emphasis on maintaining ecological balance and sustenance of biodiversity, nowadays conservation-induced relocation is taking place, specially, within the protected areas. Therefore, research to assess ecological and environmental gains is needed, so as to judge objectively very aim of such relocation. Studies related to pros and cons, need and necessities, and areas of existing studies about relocation for biodiversity conservation with reference to protected areas have been dealt in this paper. Based on the above studies, broader fields are assessed, in which further research and study are required, toward environmental gains through such relocation.

Surendra Singh Rajpoot, M. S. Chauhan

Environmental Issues Due to Fire in Coal Mines: Its Impact and Suggestions for Implementing Precautionary and Control Measures

There are several factors responsible for polluting the environment and creating pollution; and especially in coalfields, fire in coal mines is one significant of them. Presently, about 70% of the production of coal is being carried out by opencast mining (from coal benches) over underground developed galleries in Jharia and its adjoining coalfields. Most of the mines developed earlier by underground are presently being excavated by opencast method to meet the production target. Due to intrinsic characteristics of coal with add-on of prevailing practices of mining operation, the spontaneous heating/fire has occurred in most of the galleries of developed coal seams. Fire in the developed galleries affects the normal production during excavation by the opencast method. It releases noxious gases, heat, smoke and dust and poses a serious health hazard. Fire in mines also causes direct loss of equipment, damage to the surface structure and loss of country’s precious coal reserves. In addition to these, it affects the normal production. The objective of this paper is to describe the environmental impacts due to fire in coal mines, and issues that affect society as well as to render suggestions for taking precautionary and control measures.

R. V. K. Singh, D. D. Tripathi, N. K. Mohalik, A. Khalkho, J. Pandey, R. K. Mishra

Redevelopment of Urban Slum Dwellings: Issues and Challenges

Urbanization has created a large housing demand of urban poor. Although different stakeholders are involved, there is a challenge to meet the redevelopment of urban slum dwelling projects in an effective manner. The concept is discussed with a case study of a slum in Nagpur City. Physical data was collected from stakeholders (construction material choices and cost incurred) and site monitoring (indoor temperature and light). The study revealed the possible issues and challenges related to project execution, i.e. resource and time management. The outcome of the study is to suggest a suitable strategy for improving the functionality of the project to increase the speed and conserve the resources that ultimately benefit government as well as end user.

Dhrupad S. Rupwate, Rajnit D. Bhanarkar, Vishakha V. Sakhare, Rahul V. Ralegaonkar

Importance of Indoor Environmental Quality in Green Buildings

One of the primary aims of green buildings is to minimize negative impacts on their occupants by creating a healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environment. The performance of indoor environment is described as indoor environmental quality (IEQ). The quality indoor environment can result in increased occupant satisfaction, enhanced performance and productivity, reduced liability, marketing advantage and lower operations and maintenance costs. The objective of this paper is to study and discuss IEQ and its parameters and effect on green buildings. Building characteristics such as location, climate, design and construction contribute significantly to the IEQ. Thermal, visual and acoustic comfort and existing levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) help to measure the IEQ of a green building.

Alisha Patnaik, Vikash Kumar, Purnachandra Saha

Meteorological Factors Influencing Dispersion of Vehicular Pollution in a Typical Highway Condition

Vehicular dispersion models, particularly highway dispersion models are used worldwide, including India, for assessment and management of air quality along the major roads/highways. However, dispersion of vehicular pollutants is influenced by various factors such as traffic, receptors and land use along with meteorological factors. In the present study, CALINE4, a Gaussian-based vehicular pollution dispersion model has been used in Delhi, along Ring Road Corridor near Indraprastha Park. Sensitivity analysis of CALINE4 model has been carried out for identification and quantification of meteorological parameters, viz. wind speed, wind direction, mixing height and P–G stability class influencing the model’s output. These input parameters in the model were systematically varied for assessing their influence on model’s output, i.e. predicted concentrations. The study revealed that wind speed and wind directions have significant impact on dispersion of vehicular pollutants as compared to mixing height and stability class.

Rajni Dhyani, Niraj Sharma

Study of Air and Noise Pollution in Mega Cities of India

Public health studies are linked to both air and noise pollution in terms of common adverse health effects attributed to severity of such pollution such as increased blood pressure, heart diseases, and other respiratory ailments. In urban areas of mega cities, air and noise pollution originating from different sources such as traffic, industries and construction activities, etc., is on gradual and alarming increase. In view of the same, objective of this study was to analyze the air and noise pollution levels in three megacities of India, namely Delhi, Kolkata, and Mumbai during 2006–2011 at different locations categorized as industrial, commercial, and institutional areas. Following the analysis, the equivalent noise levels (Leq) of all the cities were found to be slightly greater than permissible limits of CPCB guidelines whereas the criteria pollutants SO2, PM10 and NOx showed a positive relation between noise levels and air pollution. This statistical comparative analysis as an important outcome will help understand the actual trend of air and noise pollution during different years in various Indian mega cities and subsequent mitigation measures.

Amrit Kumar, Pradeep Kumar, Rajeev Kumar Mishra, Ankita Shukla

Pollution Indicators

Frontmatter

A Critical Review on Air Quality Index

Air quality index (AQI) is used worldwide to inform the public about levels of air pollution (degradation or improvement) and associated to different biological effects. Different types of anthropogenic activity mainly transportation have an enormous impact on the ambient air quality in several ways. The transportation dependence continues to grow; it is adversely affecting the quality of human life. Due to pollution, the ambient air quality in major cities (Delhi, Agra, Kanpur, Lucknow, Varanasi, Faridabad, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad) in India is very poor. According to WHO surveys, India is one of the most polluted countries in the world. Concentrations of air pollutants affect Air Quality Index. Air Quality scenario in most of the Indian cities presents a harsh picture, the majority of national monitoring stations have recorded particulate concentrations exceeding the WHO recommended guideline. The higher the AQI value, the greater the level of air pollution and greater the health concern. This review paper is helpful to understand the development of Air quality Index in India with the experience of the world.

Shweta Kumari, Manish Kumar Jain

Aquatic Insects as Pollution Indicator—A Study in Cachar, Assam, Northeast India

A seasonal study on water and aquatic insects of one oxbow lake (Satkorakandi anua) and one floodplain lake (Magura haor) of Cachar, Assam was conducted. Environmental variables of water, diversity, and density of aquatic insects were estimated by standard methods. In the oxbow lake, dissolved oxygen values were found to be lower than that of the floodplain lake. The pH of water was found below the acceptable limit of BIS in post-monsoon in oxbow lake, and in most of the seasons in floodplain lake. Other variables were within the permissible limit. The Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) and BMWPTHAI scores computed on the basis of tolerance level of the aquatic insects to organic pollution revealed poor water condition in all the sites and seasons in anua while in haor water condition was found moderate in some seasons of the year. Different biotic indices, correlation coefficients, canonical correspondence analysis were computed and the role of aquatic insects as pollution indicator has been discussed in the paper.

Arpita Dalal, Susmita Gupta

Monitoring of Air Pollution in Different Regions Along Road Network, Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, India

Air pollution levels were measured during October, 2014 along the road network at Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India. The monitored PM concentrations were designated as PM10 and PM2.5 for aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 and 2.5 μm, respectively. Concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in mining area such as BMO, GDR, and KMO were about two times higher than ISM (non-mining area). Variation in the peaks of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were well correlated with the traffic volume count (TVC) at all monitoring locations except GDR due to the transportation of coal using Hyva truck and associated activities due to the mining industry. Concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 exceed 24-hour standards as per Indian national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS 2009) as well as World Health Organization (WHO 2005) at all locations in the mining area. Based on the air quality index, air qualities were falling under very highly polluted category mainly at BMO, GDR, KDH, KMO, and DHR.

Shiv Kumar Yadav, Manish Kumar Jain, Dinesh Kumar Patel

Spatial Distribution and Baseline Concentration of Heavy Metals in Swell–Shrink Soils of Madhya Pradesh, India

Defining and understanding the current abundance and spatial distribution of metals in soils are essential and reliable information on this aspect are needed for proper legislation. To estimate the baseline concentrations and spatial distribution of heavy metals (HMs) in Swell–shrink soils Sehore and Vidisha districts, 100 surface soil samples (0–20 cm) were randomly collected across the two districts and their physico-chemical properties and total HM contents were analysed. Spatial distribution maps of HMs were prepared and influence of soil parameters on HMs was studied. Most of the soils in the region had neutral to alkaline pH (6.58–8.60), non saline (EC 0.11–1.3 dS/m), medium organic carbon (0.6%), CaCO3 0.2–11.5% and clay >40%. The baseline concentrations of HMs (mg kg−1) were Cu, 178.1; Cd, 0.7; Pb, 24.4; Cr, 116.9; Ni, 81.8; and Zn, 85.2; respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in all the samples were within the safe range but the concentrations of Cr, Cu and Ni were a little high.

S. Rajendiran, T. Basanta Singh, J. K. Saha, M. Vassanda Coumar, M. L. Dotaniya, S. Kundu, A. K. Patra

Associative Study of Aerosol Pollution, Precipitation and Vegetation in Indian Region (2000–2013)

The correlations between absorbing aerosol index (AAI), precipitation and Normalised Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) have been shown in this study for the Indian region annually and seasonally (winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon) from 2000 to 2013. Daily Aerosol Index has been obtained from OMAERov003 product provided by OMI-Aura sensor, daily precipitation used in this study is gridded IMD product, both at a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25°. NDVI obtained from MISR Level 3 Component Global Land product at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° has been used as an indicator of vegetation cover. Annually and seasonally, the three parameters have been found to be highly, moderately or slightly correlated. The study has been reported at a confidence level of more than 95% (p-value <0.05).

Manu Mehta, Shivali Dubey, Prabhishini, Vineet

Fuzzy Logic Based Performance Evaluation of EIA Reports for Hydroelectric Projects

The performance evaluation of Environmental Impact Assessment is a difficult multi-dimensional process because the decision-making not only considers the technical facts but also the subjective values. Decision-support method like Fuzzy Logic Toolbox helps decision makers to bring equilibrium between facts and values. In this paper, an effort to make a better framework for EIA reports of Hydroelectric Projects is undertaken. Attributes considered are identification of issues and scoping, baseline conditions, alternatives, impact identification and prediction, risk assessment, mitigation, documentation, public participation and monitoring plan. Quality is defined through five parameters viz. Excellent, Good, Moderate, Poor and Inadequate. With the help of Fuzzy Logic Toolbox in MATLAB, different expert rules are made. Attributes are taken as inputs and the parameters are taken as membership functions. Ranges are defined for different parameters. Five EIA reports for hydropower projects from different locations of Northeastern India are selected and compared. Scores are given to the EIA reports for different hydropower projects. Suggestions for future improvements are provided.

Purbashree Sarmah, Arvind K. Nema

Assessment and Prediction of Environmental Noise Generated by Road Traffic in Nagpur City, India

The main intention of research is to quantify and predict the noise level due to heterogeneous traffic conditions at critical junctions and highways. A study was carried out to assess the existing status of noise levels and its impacts on the environment with a possibility of further expansion of the city. Vehicular traffic noise levels measured during peak and non-peak hours at all selected locations were higher (71–76 dBA and 69.3–76.3 dBA) than the prescribed limits. The recognized amount of traffic and with the help of road geometry data, prediction of noise level is performed using modified Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) model, and the computed noise was compared with the measured one for assuring the relevance of this model for prediction of forthcoming noise. The outcome received from this model was nearer to the observed noise level, having a percentage error of ±3%, the best fit lines generated between them gives R2 of 0.457. In this study measured and computed noise exposure levels were depicted with the help of contour maps. Octave band spectral analysis reveals that the interrupted traffic flow is above the free flow traffic and realized that the contribution of two wheeler and cars/jeep are mainly responsible for a generation of noise level at both the lower and higher frequencies, it also signifies that the FHWA model is convenient to be used for Indian circumstances.

Sameer S. Pathak, Satish K. Lokhande, P. A. Kokate, Ghanshyam L. Bodhe

Time-Dependent Study of Electromagnetic Field and Indoor Meteorological Parameters in Individual Working Environment

Human beings in modern society are facing wide-range of electromagnetic (EMF) radiations from few hertz (Hz) to gigahertz (GHz) range. Its minor sources are power supply, personal computers, Wi-Fi routers, Zig-bee, cell phones and base trans-receiver stations (BTS) devices. We have extensively used them in microenvironments like offices, restaurants, buses, close auditorium, etc. In such indoor environments, the air quality incorporates various gaseous emissions, temperature, humidity, particulate matters, etc. Accordingly, the cumulative effect of EMF and air-quality parameters can change human health and quality of life. This paper described exposure assessment of EMF and indoor meteorological parameters in the individual microenvironment during working and non-working hours. The results were obtained via broadband methodology for assessment of EMR and point source methodology for temperature, relative humidity and particulate matter (PM). The kriging model in surfer software approved to be more suitable to show accurate gridding of EMF during working and non-working hours. No significant change observed in time-dependent analysis of EMF, temperature, humidity and PM count. However, telephony band was dominant during whole analysis. Hence, more investigations are required to identify the quantitative relation between these independent parameters.

A. K. Mishra, P. A. Kokate, S. K. Lokhande, A. Middey, G. L. Bodhe

Fish Biodiversity and Its Periodic Reduction: A Case Study of River Narmada in Central India

Studies on fish biodiversity are important for planning remedial measures for conservation of our rich aquatic biodiversity resources. The variability in life is largely governed by the environment and genes they possess. Thus more than 99% of all species amounting to over five billion species that ever lived on earth are estimated to be extinct. Information from the available sources suggest that about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86% species are still not yet documented. Besides natural disaster, about 99% species are presently considered as threatened species and are at great risk from human activities, primarily those driving out by habitat loss, introduction of exotic species, global warming, construction of dams, over fishing activities, increasing demand for water, the damming of rivers throughout the world, the dumping and accumulation of various pollutants, and finally invasive species make aquatic ecosystems one of the most threatened part on the planet. Thus it is not surprising that there are many fish species that are endangered in both freshwater and marine habitats.

Muslim Ahmad Shah, Vipin Vyas, Shalini Yadav

Effects of Anthropogenic Activities on the Fresh Water Ecosystem—A Case Study of Kappithodu in Kerala

A case study was conducted on the impact of anthropogenic activities on the water quality parameters of Kappithodu, a small tributary of Pamba River, in Alappuzha district of Kerala, from October 2013 to September 2014. The river is found to be heavily polluted with wastes and effluents from many Prawn peeling centers, Vandanam Medical college hospitals and outlets of the septic tanks of nearby houses. Water quality analysis and bacteriological studies were conducted based on standard hydrological and microbiological methods. Bacteriological studies revealed that water body is highly polluted with Coliform Bacteria, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. Water quality analysis revealed the presence of phosphates, nitrates and chloride ions in high quantities.

Sherly P Anand, D Meera

Degradation of Heptachlor by High-Carbon Iron Filings (HCIF)

The contamination of groundwater due the extensive use of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) has posed a serious threat to human life. The in situ remediation of contaminated groundwater by the use of zerovalent iron (ZVI) has acquired the deserved attention from researchers around the world. High-carbon iron filling (HCIF) was used to treat the aqueous solution of Heptachlor in batch reactors, which revealed the decline in the aqueous concentration of Heptachlor due to reductive dehalogenation and adsorption process. The expression $$\frac{{{\mathbf{d}}\varvec{C}_{\varvec{T}} }}{{{\mathbf{d}}\varvec{t}}} = \varvec{ } - \varvec{k}_{1} \varvec{ } \cdot \varvec{M} \cdot \varvec{ C}_{\varvec{a}}^{\varvec{N}}$$ described the decline in the total concentration of Heptachlor solution (C T ) as a function of its aqueous concentration (C a ), where M is the mass concentration of HCIF. The kinetic coefficients N and k1 were derived to be 2.24 and 1.69 × 10−3 h−1 g−1 iron L respectively. Freundlich isotherm, expressed as $$\varvec{C}_{\varvec{S}} = \varvec{K } \cdot \varvec{C}_{\varvec{a}}^{\varvec{m}},$$ could be employed to describe the equilibrium partitioning of Heptachlor to the HCIF surface, where K = 4.76 × 10−3 g−1 L and m = 0.9717 was observed. The experiments revealed that HCIF can be potentially used as reactive material for in situ treatment of groundwater contaminated with Heptachlor.

Yangdup Lama, Alok Sinha

Generation of Pollution

Frontmatter

Biomedical Waste Generation and Management in Public Sector Hospital in Shimla City

Biomedical waste disposal is very important due to its infectious nature. Proper management of biomedical waste is necessary for maintaining good human health and environment. Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) rules 1998 under the Environmental Protection Act, 1986 have been passed by government of India which is to be followed strictly to avoid menace. The purpose of the article is to differentiate between the Biomedical Waste Management practices such as collection, storage, transportation, and disposal along with the generation of biomedical waste undertaken in major public and private sector hospitals in Shimla city. A cross-sectional study and semi-structured interview considering the various biomedical waste management practices and personnel handling of the biomedical waste undertaken in the major public and private sector hospitals in Shimla city through detailed analysis and questionnaire prepared will be used for the purpose of study. The study will quantify the actual values and unveil the difference that lie in management procedures followed by these hospitals in Shimla. The present paper presents some initial findings of the questionnaire analysis carried out in a major public hospital in Shimla.

Prachi Vasistha, Rajiv Ganguly, Ashok Kumar Gupta

Fuel Loss and Related Emissions Due to Idling of Motorized Vehicles at a Major Intersection in Delhi

Traffic intersections are considered as air quality hotspots as they mostly exceed the prescribed air quality standards specified by various regulatory agencies due to high vehicular activities, idling, and related vehicular emissions. Delay at traffic intersections results in fuel loss due to idling of vehicles and related emissions. In the present study, Ashram Chowk, a major intersection in Delhi has been selected. Nearly 3.4 lakh vehicles pass through Ashram intersection daily, out of which nearly 20% (~60,000 nos.) of the traffic faces average time delay (or idling) for time varying from 6 to 8 min delays per hour. In the present study, a methodology has been developed for the estimation of emissions (such as CO2, CH4, CO, NOx, NO2, NMVOC, etc.) from fuel loss occurring during idling of vehicles using IPCC emission factors. The study highlights the importance of reducing fuel losses at intersections to achieve sustainable air quality.

Niraj Sharma, P. V. Pradeep Kumar, Anil Singh, Rajni Dhyani

Emission Inventorisation and Modelling of Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds from Petrol Distribution Centres in an Urban Area

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) are associated with various respiratory, cardiovascular and cancerous diseases. Emission of NMVOCs from petrol distribution centres in urban areas is one of the major sources. This study focuses on the estimation of emission load of NMVOCs from petrol distribution centre in one of the metropolitan cities of India, i.e., Delhi city. It is estimated that approximately 3190 tone of NMVOCs are emitted every year from petrol pumps in Delhi city. Further, AERMOD has been used to simulate NMVOCs concentrations over Delhi city in three different seasons (winter, summer and post-monsoon). Further, AERMOD’s predicted NMVOC concentration are compared with monitoring data at three different locations in Delhi city for winter period and observed satisfactory performance of AERMOD. It is observed that ambient NMVOCs concentrations exceed the NAAQS in Delhi city .

Sunil Gulia, Richa Sehgal, Sumit Sharma, Mukesh Khare

Comprehensive Physicochemical Characterization of Coal Combustion Residues from a Thermal Power Station of India

Coal combustion residue is a by-product from combustion of pulverized coal in thermal power stations and is considered as a waste material. Coal combustion residues contain many chemical elements that may be potentially harmful to the environment. Coal combustion residue handling and disposal is a major problem from an environmental point of view. Though the utilization in India has shown increase in percentage value, still we are to make sufficient effort to fulfill the promise of 100% utilization. Although some of the coal combustion residues are used as construction materials and as backfill material that provides ample opportunity for its bulk use, most of them are still disposed of in settling ponds, also known as ash ponds or landfills. The study here presents comprehensive physicochemical characterization of coal combustion residues from a thermal power station of India. The present study is aimed to provide the database relevant to its finding better utilization potential and also see the effect of land disposal of such ash on the quality of groundwater and surface water through the laboratory study simulating field conditions.

Ritesh Kumar

Influence of Semi-arid Climate on Characterization of Domestic Wastewater

Rapid urbanization causes increase in urban population. Over half of the world’s population lives in cities. By 2050, seven out of every 10 people will be city dwellers. India is a part of this global trend. Nearly 28% of India’s population lives in cities and this is expected to increase to 41% by the year 2020. Urban population will generate huge amount of domestic wastewater (WW). The promising alternative for disposal of wastewater is its utilization for irrigation after treatment. To utilize domestic wastewater, it is vital to generate the information about of different quality parameters and their variations due to seasonal weather conditions. Physiochemical water quality parameters (EC, pH, turbidity, total solids, NH4–N, NO3–N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, CO3, HCO3 and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cr, Mo) of domestic wastewater were determined for the period of one year. The data set is used to present spatial and temporal variations of the domestic wastewater quality. Identification of wastewater quality parameters responsible for temporal variations due to effect of semi-arid climate was done through multivariate cluster analysis. Correlation study between the identified parameters was also conducted. Wastewater was slightly acidic in nature with mean value of pH 6.87. Highest concentration was observed for total solids. Concentration of ammoniacal nitrogen was higher than nitrate nitrogen; similarly bicarbonate concentration was higher in comparison to carbonate concentration. In the category of heavy metals highest concentration with mean value 0.98 mg l−1 was observed with iron and least with molybdenum with mean value 0.01 mg l−1. Most of the water quality parameters concentration was higher during summer season, moderate during winter season and least during rainy season. Correlation study between quality parameters shows the presence of bicarbonate with calcium and magnesium. Presence of calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate play important role for the quantum of total solids in domestic wastewater. Wastewater quality was under safe limit throughout the year in terms of irrigation water quality indices SAR and Mg/Ca ratio. But it was under safe to moderate limit in terms of residual sodium carbonate (RSC) index. Cluster analysis divides the months of a complete year in three clusters. First cluster have six months (July, August, September, October, November and December), second cluster have four months (January, February, March and April) and third cluster have two months (May and June).

Vinod Kumar Tripathi, Pratibha Warwade

Anomalous Features of Black Carbon and Particulate Matter Observed Over Rural Station During Diwali Festival of 2015

Black carbon (BC) aerosol is the second most powerful climate forcing agent, ahead of methane, and second only to carbon dioxide, formed through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, bio-fuel and biomass, and is emitted in both anthropogenic and naturally occurring soot. In this communication, we present some interesting results of BC, particulate matter (PM), in conjunction with concurrent satellite and surface meteorological products, obtained during the recent Diwali festival episode of November 2015 over a rural station characterized by sparse population and complex terrain. This comprehensive study revealed (i) a clear diurnal variation of BC, PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 mass concentration with dual maxima (bimodal), one around early morning and the other around mid-night hours, due to emissions from traffic with minimum concentration around afternoon hours due to well-known planetary boundary-layer dynamics, (ii) the PM showed higher concentration (more than two-fold) during the festive period as compared to the pre- and post-festive periods, (iii) the aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed initially higher and subsequent dilution due to local meteorology, (iv) angstrom exponent (AE) showed larger values implying enhancement in fine-mode particles due to festive activity and (v) The NOAA-HYSPLIT air-mass back-trajectory analysis and CALIPSO satellite imageries portray contribution from the trans-boundary pollution through long-range transport mechanism. The results are explained by considering the terrain-induced meteorological conditions and local anthropogenic activities.

P. C. S. Devara, M. P. Alam, U. C. Dumka, S. Tiwari, A. K. Srivastava

Decolorization of Reactive Yellow 17 Dye Using Aspergillus tamarii

Decolorization of a reactive yellow 17 dye (Molecular formula: C20H20K2N4O12S3) using growing Aspergillus tamarii was studied in a batch bioreactor. The study was performed up to 90 h at optimized pH 5 for maximum growth of A. tamarii. The decolorization and biomass concentration decreased from 58.8 to 6% and from 2.37 to 0.74 g/L, respectively, with increasing initial concentration of dye from 100 to 1000 mg/L. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) after decolorization was found to be decreased from 37.2 to 16% with increasing dye concentration from 100 to 1000 mg/L. Further, desorption study was performed with acidic eluants and the desorbed biomass was reused for decolorization which was compared with that obtained using dead biomass.

Anuradha Singh, Arpita Ghosh, Manisha Ghosh Dastidar

Discovery of the Helium Rare Gas in Saugor Division, Southern Ganga Basin, Bundelkhand Region, MP, India

The discovery of the helium rare gas in the wells in Saugor Division, southern Ganga Basin region has been done in Sagar District. The stable isotopic analyses were carried out for the gas samples collected from the 50 tube wells in Sagar and Damoh District of MP. The discovery of the rare gas helium in hydrocarbon rich zone in the tube wells in agricultural field at Garhakota, Rahatgarh, Bina, Banda and Sagar Tahsils, of District and Batiyagarh, Patharia, Jabera, tahsils in Damoh District of MP is a unique finding in rocks of the Vindhyan Super Group, in the history of Earth Science in India. The depth of tube wells varying from 300 to 750 ft. On the basis of geochemical analysis, it is remarkable to note that average values of helium contents varies from 0.34 to 0.732% along with the 72–99% of methane and ethane, and minor amount of oxygen, nitrogen, and CO2 gases in the hydrocarbon rich zone are recorded during the geochemical and stable isotope analysis. It has been found in the stable isotope δ C13 value, the values for the methane is −43.6 to −54.9‰ w.r.t. PDB. For the Ethane gas it is −24.9 to −26.4‰ w.r.t. PDB in the gas samples collected in the saturated sodium chloride solution in the glass bottles at various sites in Sagar and Damoh District. The occurrence of rare helium gas in the Hydrocarbon rich zone was reported for the first time in January, 2007 from the tube wells of Sagar District, which were geochemically and isotopically stable, analysed in the labs of KDMIPE Dehradun and NGRI Hydrabad. The gaseous hydrocarbon analysis shows the presence of moderate to low concentration of methane (C1) 1 to 104 ppb, Ethane (C2) −1 to 14 ppb, Propane (C3) 1 to 10 ppb, i-Butane (i C4) 1 to 9 ppb, and n Butane (n C4) 1 to 8 ppb in the soil samples collected from different locations. The result of the adsorbed soil gas and stable isotopic analysis of Ethane gas in these samples have δ C13 value ranging from −24.9‰ w.r.t. PDB and −26.9‰ w.r.t. PDB, and these are indicative that the gas is of thermogenic origin, which must have been formed at very high temperature and pressure condition in the deeper horizon of the Great Vindhyan sedimentary basin of an early Proterozoic (>600 m.y.) period.

Arun K. Shandilya

How Soil Texture Affects the Organic Carbon Load in the Mangrove Ecosystem? A Case Study from Bhitarkanika, Odisha

We analysed the inter-relationship between soil texture and organic carbon (OC) in 12 stations of Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem. Our first-order analysis reflects a significant positive correlation of silt and clay with OC (rsilt × organic carbon = 0.90; p < 0.01 and rclay × organic carbon = 0.84; p < 0.01). However, in case of sand, a significant negative correlation is visualized with OC (r = −0.89; p < 0.01). The results indicate that OC forms a coating over silt and clay particles on the basis of principle of cohesion, but this cohesive force is not visible in case of sand particles. The overall analysis suggests the need of coastal vegetation conservation in the Bhitarkanika area as their decomposition products lead to the formation of organic carbon that serve as important nutrient for the growth and survival of the mangrove vegetation in the study area.

Kakoli Banerjee, Gobinda Bal, Abhijit Mitra

Water Quality Assessment

Frontmatter

Recent Developments in Defluoridation of Drinking Water in India

Presence of high fluorides in groundwater has caused systemic fluorosis to become an endemic problem in many countries of the developing world, namely, India, Sri Lanka and many African nations. It is a conclusive fact that higher concentration of fluoride (beyond 1.5 mg/L) can cause teeth mottling and still higher concentrations may lead to different major health hazards including skeletal and neurological problems. The fluoride level in water in India ranges from 2 to 29 ppm, whereas the permissible level in drinking water according to WHO standard is 1.5 ppm and BIS 10500 permits only 1 ppm fluoride in drinking water. Various defluoridation techniques in India have been developed for maintaining the concentration of fluoride in water up to the permissible limit like Nalgonda Technique, reverse osmosis, activated alumina adsorption, Bio-F process, etc. Nalgonda Technique involves addition of Aluminium salts, lime and bleaching powder followed by rapid mixing, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection and the acceptable limit of water of 1 mg/l has been achieved. Defluoridation using activated alumina as adsorbent is not cost-effective. Hence, development of community-based defluoridation unit is needed with a technique which is cost-effective, technologically simple in operation while being able to keep the fluoride level in permissible limit. The paper critically discusses the recent developments in various defluoridation processes, identifies the pertinent gaps in them and offers plausible solutions by summarizing the ongoing research at MNIT Jaipur in order to obviate these gaps through appropriate technological interventions.

Swati Dubey, Madhu Agarwal, A. B. Gupta

Water Quality Assessment and Correlation Study of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Sukinda Chromite Mining Area, Odisha, India

The Sukinda Chromite Valley of Odisha state is endowed with the highest reserve of chromite ore in India and produces 98% of the chromite ore of the country. Cr (VI) is a highly toxic form of chromium metal being used in different industries like leather tanning, electroplating, dye and pigment. Due to open cast mining process in Sukinda chromite valley, huge quantity of over burden dump (OB) are being generated and during rainy season Cr (VI) leached from the OB dump and contaminate the ground water as well as surface water of the surrounding area. Different water samples were collected from mines, surface water and groundwater and analyzed for their physico-chemical properties including heavy metals and Cr (VI). The result shows that at some locations, the total Cr and Cr (VI) concentration exceeded the permissible limit of 0.05 mg/L as per Indian water quality standards, despite mine water treatment at mine sites. The concentration of total Cr in mine water ranged from 0.32 to 1.46 mg/L before treatment and between 0.02 and 0.42 mg/L after treatment. Total chromium for surface water varied from 0.04 to 0.38 mg/L and for groundwater varied from 0.001 to 0.678 mg/L which exceeds the permissible limit of 0.1 mg/L for inland surface water. Cr (VI) content in these water samples also exceeds the permissible limit of 0.05 mg/L. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed that the Cr exhibited a significant positive correlation with pH (0.688), temperature (0.428), Total hardness (0.568) and sulphate (0.686). Cr (VI) also showed the similar results with total chromium.

R. K. Tiwary, Binu Kumari, D. B. Singh

Water Quality Assessment of a Lentic Water Body Using Remote Sensing: A Case Study

Water Quality assessment of lakes, rivers, and reservoirs is a key issue for environmental monitoring and management. Lakes are subjected to sudden environmental changes caused by anthropogenic activities due to their multiple uses (agriculture, fishing, and boating, industrial and water supply). One of the most important issues in lake water management is water quality. Water quality assessments are being carried out using conventional methods which are very common and accurate, however, have the disadvantage of being expensive and labor-intensive. Further, sampling method and frequency are the major constraints to obtain representative samples. In order to overcome such hurdles in water quality management remote sensing approach has become more user-friendly and quite reliable. Remote sensing approach to water quality assessment is based on the optical bands in the region from blue to near infrared. These data are then used to explore the relation between the reflectance of water bodies and biophysical parameters such as: transparency, chlorophyll concentration (phytoplankton), and the organic and mineral suspended sediments. In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the water quality characteristics of a lake situated in coastal, Kerala, known as Vembanad lake (a Ramsar site in south India) using Landsat-TM data. A relationship between Landsat-TM bands and suspended sediment concentration has been arrived at and compared with the field monitored data. It is noticed that TM bands such as TM5, TM6, and TM7 show higher correlation with observed data than bands 1, 2, and 3.

B. K. Purandara, B. S. Jamadar, T. Chandramohan, M. K. Jose, B. Venkatesh

Assessment of Water Quality Trends of Khadakwasla Reservoir Using CCME-WQI

The present paper is based on the water quality studies in Khadakwasla Reservoir done from November 2003 to May 2012. Twenty water quality parameters were analyzed for samples collected from five locations. The analyzed data were subjected to the formulation by Candian Council of Ministers of Environment (CCME) Water Quality Index (WQI). Such assessment by calculation makes it simple, to know the trend of water quality. The physicochemical water quality parameters used for this Index are pH, EC, DO, BOD, COD, Na, K, Ca, Mg, TH, CO3, HCO3, TAlk, Cl, SO4, NO3–N, PO4–P, Fe, SiO2, TDS. The first component of this index F1 (Scope), i.e., the percentage of Variables (parameters) exceeding the standard(std) permissible limits, ranged from 10 to 30%. The second component, F2 (Frequency), i.e., percentage failed tests under each failed Variables ranged from 2 to 13%. The third component F3 (Amplitude) of failed tests ranged from 1 to 32. The values of F1, F2, and F3 showed an increase from 2003 to 2012. Water quality grade ranged from 76 to 94, depicting 2% fair and 98% good water quality samples.

Savitri K. Hansda, K. K. Swain, S. P. Vaidya, R. S. Jagtap

Assessment of Agricultural Water Quality of Shallow Groundwater Between Budhni and Chaursakhedi, North of River Narmada, District Sehore, Madhya Pradesh, India

Hydrogeochemistry of an area helps in understanding the geological processes which control the chemistry of water and plays an important role in determining the suitability of groundwater for various purposes. In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the hydrochemistry and the agricultural water quality of water between Budhni and Chaursakhedi, North of river Narmada, District Sehore, Madhya Pradesh. In all 25 representatives, shallow groundwater samples were collected from the study area and physicochemical parameters were analyzed. Results obtained from water chemistry were used in the determination of various irrigational specifications to determine the agricultural quality of shallow groundwater. In the present study prominent specifications like soluble sodium percentage (SSP), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC), are used for determining the suitability of shallow ground water for agricultural purposes. Result shows that the majority of shallow groundwater of the study area belongs to Medium to High Saline and Low sodium water. Kelly’s ratio shows that majority of shallow groundwater belongs to suitable class. As per Wilcox classification, the shallow groundwater belongs to Good to Permissible class. The shallow groundwater of the study area belongs to Safe class as per the classification based on RSC. As per the magnesium ratio classification, all the shallow groundwater’s of the study area belongs to the suitable class and there are no magnesium hazards and thus they are suitable for agricultural purposes.

Sunil Kumar Sharma, Shalini Yadav, V. K. Parashar, Pramod Dubey

Active Water Quality Management in Rural Small Watersheds

Diverse land and water uses are found in rural areas of Monsoon regions. Based on field studies in Japan and Bangladesh, water quality management problems are considered at small watershed levels. A study site in Japan is chosen in a hilly area. Upland tea plantations in the site are the major source of nitrate pollution to the downstream water bodies because of heavy fertilizer application. Utilizing paddy fields and irrigation tanks as buffer of the polluted water is feasible, but it risks vulnerable aquatic ecosystems. Another study site is in the floodplains of Bangladesh. Countless ponds are used in the rural communities for domestic, animal watering and fishery purposes. Introduction of comparatively warm groundwater into the ponds during winter seasons may accelerate the growth of fish. However, groundwater depletion is the major concern. The concept of Markov decision processes is applied to find the optimal actions for the two different water quality management problems.

Koichi Unami, Goden Mabaya, Abul Hasan Md Badiul Alam, Masayuki Fujihara

Evaluation of the Surface Water Quality Index of Jharia Coal Mining Region and Its Management of Surface Water Resources

In this paper, the level of surface water contamination near the mine site is examined of Jharia coal field, Jharkhand. A modified Water quality index was used to determine the change in surface water quality. A total of 18 surface water samples were collected from different mining area of the study area. The domination of cations and anions was in the order of Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K for cations and HCO3 > SO42− > Cl− anions. Nine parameters have been considered for calculating the WQI such as: pH, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, chloride, nitrate, sulphate and total dissolved solids. The computed WQI shows that 17% of Good category and 22% falls in very poor category and most of the sample fall in poor category 61% overall percentage of the Surface Water. Such waters are not suitable for drinking purposes under normal condition and further action for salinity control is required. The high value of WQI at this site has been found to be mainly due to the higher values of TDS, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCo3− and SO42− where it was found that there is a very high correlation coefficient between them. On careful examination of the data it was found that most of the water quality parameters were beyond the desired limit prescribed by BIS, making the water unsafe for human consumption.

Prasoon Kumar Singh, Binay Prakash Panigrahy, Poornima Verma, Bijendra Kumar

Studies on the Production of Salt-Tolerant Alkaline Protease Isolated from Proteus mirabilis and Its Degradation of Hyper-Saline Soak Liquor

This study mainly focuses on the degradation of soluble biomolecules present in high salt containing (3–7%) Soak liquor (SL) discharge from the tanneries using the alkaline protease (AP) extracted from Proteus mirabilis (PM). The isolation of bacterial strains from SL was done and the screening for halophilic identification was carried out for the degradation of proteins at saline medium. The characterization of bacterial strain (PM) was carried out by using 16S-rDNA sequencing analysis. The bacterial strain (PM) growth rate was optimized with the effect of time, external carbon source, pH, temperature and metal ions. It was obtained time 48 h, pH = 7.0, T = 30 °C, addition of glucose as the external carbon source and the addition of Fe2+ salts as optimum for the better growth rate of PM. The production of alkaline protease was carried out by using soak liquor as the substrate and the process parameters such as the effect of time, pH, and temperature were optimized. The activity and the stability of alkaline protease was done. The study on the degradation of proteins was carried out and the process parameters were optimized for the maximum conversion of proteins into amino acids. The instrumental analyses such as UV–visible, fluorescence, FT-IR spectroscopic studies, and TGA analysis confirmed the degradation of proteins into amino acid units present in the SL efficiently.

P. Maharaja, E. Nanthini, S. Swarnalatha, G. Sekaran

Relative Contribution of Phosphorus from Various Sources to the Upper Lake, Bhopal

An investigation on phosphorus loading from the point and non point sources to the Upper Lake, Bhopal and its contribution on eutrophication was undertaken at Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal. Geo-referenced water samples from different entry points (15 locations), where water from different sources (agriculture and municipal water) enters to the Upper Lake, were collected and analyzed for various P fractions. The results showed that the total phosphorus (TP) content varied from 0.30 to 0.73 mg/L with a mean value of 0.47 mg/L having lowest and highest content from Kholukhedi (agriculture source) and Bhadbada (domestic wastewater), respectively. Among the P fractions, the bioavailable P fraction (total dissolved phosphorus-TDP) was highest in the water sample from the domestic source, whereas, the dominant P fractions in the water samples from agricultural source was particulate P (PP). The results shows that the total P in the sediment of post-monsoon stage samples ranges from 0.03 to 0.07% with a mean value of 0.04%. The mean sediment inorganic phosphorus (SIP) and the sediment organic phosphorus (SOP) is 68.01 and 31.98% of total phosphorus (TP), respectively. Among the inorganic P fractions in the sediment, Ca bound P was maximum and found to be in the range of 86.32–96.97% of total sediment inorganic P followed by Fe bound P (2.10–11.51%) and loosely sorbed P (LSP) (0.39–5.66%). To summarize, the source of water from the city (domestic wastewater) and at idol immersion location contains relatively higher total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP).

Mounissamy Vassanda Coumar, S. Kundu, J. K. Saha, S. Rajendiran, M. L. Dotaniya, Vasudev Meena, J. Somasundaram, A. K. Patra

Assessment of Fluoride in Rainfed and Irrigated Agricultural Soil of Tonalite–Trondjhemite Series in Central India

The systematic and comprehensive geochemical analysis of fluoride (F) in 20 agricultural soil samples was carried out to understand the spatial variability, mechanism of retention and release, and the areas of potential risk due to poor or high concentrations of soil F around Sidhi District, Central India. The spatial variations in physicochemical parameters revealed significant difference in the methods of cultivation due to geomorphological constraints, availability of surface water and ground water, rainfall pattern, etc., in the study area. The north and small pocket in central Sidhi were rich in fertile soils due to availability of surface water and ground water. The southern and eastern Sidhi were rainfed areas, hence, the mono-cropping system by traditional methods showed less impact on the soil physicochemical parameters. The soil F varied from 366.94 to 1178 mg/kg and 2–4 times greater than the background soil value (320 mg/kg) of the world. The pollution indexes were <1 revealed prevalence of elevated soil fluoride.

Bijendra Kumar, Anshumali

Biomonitoring of Paravur Lake in Kerala Using Macro-Invertebrates

Macro-invertebrates are the most commonly suggested bioindicators for biomonitoring and have been extensively studied in temperate areas. On the other hand, the methodology and theoretical background of biomonitoring have not yet been sufficiently adapted to tropical aquatic environments. Bioassessment/biomonitoring is a reliable and holistic method of ecosystem assessment integrating water quality assessment, habitat assessment and biological assessment. Bio assessment protocol using macro-invertebrates was adapted from United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) and applied successfully in Paravur Lake, located on the southwest coast of Kerala. This lake is one of the ecologically degraded lakes due to certain anthropogenic activities. Three sites were selected in order to assess the health status of Paravur Lake. From the three sites selected, site I was less polluted (Reference Station), site II was slightly polluted and site III was heavily polluted. Category I macroorganisms were found in site I, category II were found dominant in site II and category III organisms were dominant in site III. A multimetric analysis using physicochemical parameters, species diversity and community analysis of macro-invertebrates were carried out to evaluate the present health status of Paravur Lake ecosystem.

J. Sreeja

Change Detection of Sodic Land in Raebareli District Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques

Remote sensing and GIS play a vital role in trend analysis over sodic land and use of alternative measures to minimize the time and cost in reclamation processes. Sodic land is the highly contaminated of salt having pH range of 9.5–10.5 and sodium percentage greater than 15% above which is caused by naturally and anthropogenic. In this study, Raebareli district has been taken as the study area for mapping and monitoring the change detection with respect to sodic lands. LISS III data are used for mapping sodic land in both years 1997 and 2012. The maximum likelihood algorithm method was used for area statistics of different categories of sodic land followed by integration of both the classification of satellite data of Rabi seasons. The Sodic land covers 28823.91 ha area in 1997, which is 8.80% of the total geographical area of the district. At present the total area of sodic lands have been decreased by 18483.60 ha, which covers 10340.31 ha area in 2012, which is 5.64% of the total geographical area of the district. The major changes have been reported mainly in terms of wastelands, fallow land and sodic land areas, which have been reported to decrease over the years.

Arif Ahmad, R. K. Upadhyay, B. Lal, Dhananjay Singh

Water Quality Modeling

Frontmatter

Process Modelling of Gas–Liquid Stirred Tank with Neural Networks

Stirred tank reactors are widely used as the major processing unit in environmental and waste management engineering. It also finds its applicability in many chemical, pharmaceutical and petroleum industries. Due to the dynamic nature of the chemical reactions involved and the non-linear functional relationship between the input and output variables, it is difficult to correctly predict a universal empirical correlation for the process variables, i.e. mass transfer coefficient and gas hold-up rate. As such, intelligent modelling using neural networks was adopted in the present experimental work. Experiments were conducted with two types of impeller such as Rushton and curved blade to observe the mass transfer rate and gas hold-up characteristics. The Levenberg–Marquardt optimization algorithm was used to train the neural network so that the error between the desired output and actual output is reduced. The predictive capability of the model has been found satisfactorily and also independent of the impeller type.

Neha Phukon, Mrigakshee Sarmah, Bimlesh Kumar

Identification and Planning of Water Quality Monitoring Network in Context of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM)

Hydrological system is a quite complex and dynamic in nature because of the heterogeneity of the earth crust and surrounding atmosphere. Water exists on the earth in all three forms of liquid, solid and gas. The scarcity of its liquid freshwater has resulted because of increasing demand in response to growing population, contamination and pollution of freshwater bodies due to urbanization and industrialization. Precise measurement of water quality, in present time, has become the necessity because of increasing scarcity of this precious resource. In a global perspective, organizations dealing with water supply and monitoring are ever concerned about precise assessment of water quality. Researchers are focusing on the assessment of surface and ground water quality on spatial scale rather than point scale, which needs strengthening of monitoring networks time-to-time. The design of a hydrometric network starts ideally with a minimum number of stations, and increases gradually until an optimum network is attained when the amount and quality of data collected and information processed is economically justifiable and it meets the user’s needs to make specific decisions. In hydrology, monitoring of data is mostly site-specific and proper representation of this data on spatial scale requires proper network planning. Since the drivers of water quality vary in space and time, the quality of water also varies in space and time. It is therefore imperative to monitor the quality of water under heterogeneous space-dependent conditions for which a specialized water quality monitoring network is essential. The present paper is in the context of identifying and planning of water quality monitoring network for data acquisition for Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM).

Surjeet Singh, Gopal Krishan, N. C. Ghosh, R. K. Jaiswal, T. Thomas, T. R. Nayak

An Updated Review on Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Water Pollution in West Flowing Tapi River of Gujarat, India

A river plays an important role in development of any society or even the country, being the solitary source of water supply to meet our domestic, industrial, agricultural, aquatic and even the power generation needs. It is agonizing to see that some of the rivers used to pass through big cities, and their huge water resources are utilized for disposal of domestic and industrial wastes too, which ultimately leads to multifarious pollution hazards towards land, water, vegetation and nearby living society. Tapi is one of the three major rivers in central India which flows from east to west with a length of 724 km, encompassing the contributing catchment to the tune of about 30,000 km2. It passes through Surat, a mega city of Gujarat, compromising with multiple land use complexes. Historical importance as well as peculiar characteristics of this river and its water body are reviewed and presented to show the updated status in regards to degree and extent of contamination. Write-up presents an updated review on status of prevailing water quality, encircling indicators like heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Hg, Ni, Cd, etc.), suspended sediments, bed loads and other pollutant with their causes and effects. Efforts are made to critically review some of the updated status and estimates in regards to overexploitation of water and river reaches, riverbank erosion, channel geomorphologic constituents, sedimentation (erosion, transport and deposition) and their varied patterns with ever increasing human and natural interferences. Influences of ritual functions like dipping of Lord Ganesha Idol and other associated activities are also visited, revealing that these manmade causes contributed significant deteriorations in river water quality, in particular the physiochemical parameters (pH, Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, free CO2, Hardness, Alkalinity, BOD, COD, etc.). The available field data and findings of previous researchers are critically viewed and analysed providing a better understanding on quantitative variability of annual runoff, sedimentation patterns, flood inundations and flood-based threats in and around study river. Critical limits in regards to above cited indicators (quantitative, qualitative) are offered, to provide a better understanding of river water management meeting the prevailing demands in sustainable manner.

Shreya Gaur

Ensemble MCDM Approach to Determine Priorities of Parameters for WQI

Priorities of different water quality parameters are required to be determined for the calculation of Water Quality Indices. The procedures of determining priorities (importance) to the parameters are often subjective and preferential. The present study proposes an objective and non-preferential method to determine the priorities of water quality parameters to calculate Water Quality Index. Relative importance of the parameters were determined on the basis of important criteria like hazard potential, utility, cost, and citation frequency using Multi-Criteria Decision-Making methods like Analytic Hierarchy Process, Fuzzy Logic Decision-Making, and their combinations. Different Water Quality Indices (MCDM WQI) were developed from the priority values of the parameters, determined by each of the methods applied. A case study was performed in Tripura, India to validate those Water Quality Indices. Sensitivity analysis, statistical analysis, and comparison with an established Water Quality Index (NSF WQI) were performed for each of the indices developed. The MCDM WQIs were found to be close to NSF WQI (less than 2% deviation) and also follow similar patterns. The Hybrid AHP-FLDM method was found to be closest to NSF WQI (0.29% deviation) among the methods used. Thus, the MCDM WQI is successful in representing the overall water quality.

Ritabrata Roy, Mrinmoy Majumder, Rabindra Nath Barman

Aerosol Optical Depth Variation During a Recent Dust Event in North India

Aerosols play a vital role in influencing the climate both by cooling and warming up the Earth’s surface and also by altering the cloud properties. Due to natural and large amount of anthropogenic factors, Indian region observes high variability of loadings in aerosols both in terms of space and time in the planetary boundary layer. Dust storms in India exert momentous influences on weather, air quality, and climate of the country. Detection and monitoring of aerosol optical depth (AOD) at the time of dust storms is challenging, especially in case of short life time of events, and strong interaction with climatic parameters. This paper addresses the study of a dust storm event which hit Indian (North) region on June 13, 2015 parts of Haryana, Punjab, Delhi, UP were affected. AOD variations over the North Indian region has been studied using MODIS level 2 data (MOD04) obtained NASA Terra platform at a spatial resolution of 10 km × 10 km.

Manu Mehta, Vaishali Sharma, Gaurav Jyoti Doley
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