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The previous chapters covered different types of difficult-to-cut materials. Despite superior material properties and physical characteristics, the poor machinability is a common feature among all of these materials. Consequently, their exceptional characteristics and their candidacy as the paramount option for utilization in various applications are hindered by several challenges; most of them are directly associated with poor machinability. The main challenge is short tool life because of accelerated tool wear, which in turn lowers the productivity and increases the production cost. Other issues such as lack of dimensional accuracy and poor surface integrity are also commonly observed during machining difficult-to-cut materials. Among several factors that can be listed as the causes of poor machinability of some of these materials, the root cause is believed to be low thermal conductivity. This feature leads to the concentration of heat in the cutting zone and eventually rapid tool deterioration. In machining some difficult-to-cut materials, the heat induces other issues such as thermal errors and low dimensional accuracy. As a result, effective dissipation of heat from the cutting zone leads to improved machinability and better tool life. Heat dissipation in machining is commonly achieved by the utilization of cutting fluids. However, concern has recently grown due to the possible environmental and health hazards caused by cutting fluids. The growing concern has forced the governments and other associated agencies to impose strict policies and regulations to govern the application, recycle, and disposal of cutting fluids. Complying with governments regulations to reduce or eliminate the cutting fluids and thus minimize their associated hazards has dramatically increased the production cost. This is of particular importance when machining difficult-to-cut materials since excessive coolant is traditionally used due to the inherent characteristics of these materials. As a result, the industry aims at shifting from using flood cooling toward more economical yet environmentally friendly options. These options include minimum quantity lubrication techniques (MQL), environmentally friendly cutting fluids, nano-cutting fluids, self-cooling rotary tools, and eventually dry cutting. The current chapter presents a brief description of cutting fluids, different cooling strategies and their effectiveness, application of nano-cutting fluids in machining difficult-to-cut materials, and dry machining of these materials using self-propelled rotary cutting tools.
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- Environmentally Conscious Machining
Hossam A. Kishawy
- Chapter 7
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