Thirteen streams in the province of Jämtland in northern Sweden were monitored during spring in 1995 (December 94 — July 95) to study changes in water chemistry and metal concentrations during snow melt. The brooks are not treated with lime, with one exception, and can be approximately divided into three groups according to watershed characteristics; A) > 65% above tree line, B) > 65 % wetland, C) > 55% forested. During peak flow, pH dropped 0.5–2.5 units and alkalinity generally to zero. The brooks above tree line were lowest in base cations and reached the lowest pH-values (4.4–4.6) during peak flow, while sulphate levels were about the same as in the forested watersheds. During peak flow, organic anions showed the highest increase in the wetland and forested catchments. Compared to base flow, Al, Zn, Pb and to some extent Mn was enriched during peak flow. The results also illustrate the difficulties in generalising the reasons for alkalinity losses during spring flood in this kind of streams. In some of the brooks, the use of either base cations or silica, when calculating dilution effects, gave deviating results concerning the relative contribution of strong acids in the snow pack.
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- Episodic Events in Water Chemistry and Metals in Streams in Northern Sweden During Spring Flood
- Springer Netherlands