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Über dieses Buch

Existing sections in ESD Frim A to Z have been thoroughly revised and updated. New examples have been added to the troubleshooting chapter; and new versions of model specifications for ESD-safe handling and packaging can be found in the specifications chapter. The Appendix now includes ten recently published papers (making a total of 20) whose topics span the field of ESD control.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. How to Use This Book

Abstract
First, take an hour to skim through the Appendix and read the abstracts and conclusions carefully. Note the locations of detailed information, e.g., description of test methods, for future reference.
John M. Kolyer, Donald E. Watson

Chapter 2. Basic Physics

Abstract
This chapter will briefly highlight the simple electrostatic principles behind ESD damage and control. The usual diagrams filled with plus and minus signs are omitted because you can see them in treatises on electrostatics such as Ref. 2-1 through 2–4. Incidentally, you’ll find the history of static electricity in these books especially interesting, dating as it does from the discovery of charging of the plasticlike amber (“electron” in Greek) by materials such as cat fur at the opposite end of the triboelectric series (see Chapter 4).
John M. Kolyer, Donald E. Watson

Chapter 3. Fundamentals of ESD Control

Abstract
First, let’s define “ESD.” Electrostatic discharge (ESD) means a discharge (flow of electrons) to or from a charge (deficit or surplus of electrons) that formerly had been static (immobile).
John M. Kolyer, Donald E. Watson

Chapter 4. Real and Conceptual Tools from A to Z

Abstract
First, about fifty principles, rules, definitions, test methods, etc., are surveyed “from A to Z” under the heading “Real and Conceptual Tools: Definitions.” This is not a glossary of ESD terms but a limited list of those that are especially important to our approach; definitions of other terms, such as abbreviations for types of devices, can be found in textbooks on electronics.
John M. Kolyer, Donald E. Watson

Chapter 5. The Charged Device Model (CDM)

Abstract
This model was born in 1974 with the proposal by Speakman that a part such as an integrated circuit might be damaged or destroyed by rapid discharge of static electricity accumulated on the part’s own body (Ref. 5-1). In 1980, the CDM was judged the predominant failure mode at AT&T, as typified by dual-in-line packages (DIPs) sliding within their plastic packaging tubes to become triboelectrically charged with most of the charge residing on the lead frame (Ref. 5-2). In 1992, it was said, “It has become clear in the past five years that the CDM, not the HBM, is responsible for the vast majority of ESD damage, certainly to discrete devices and probably to entire circuit cards and assemblies” (Ref. 5-3). Reflecting industry concern about the CDM, certain packaging materials are now being advertised as “CDM-safe.”
John M. Kolyer, Donald E. Watson

Chapter 6. The Static-Safe Package (SSP)

Abstract
By the Basic Rule, an ESDS item must always be in an SSZ. This SSZ will be in (1) an SSP, (2) an SSW, or (3) elsewhere under continuous operator supervision (paragraph 3.5.2 of Model Specification 1 in Chapter 9). An example of “elsewhere” is an open tote box being carried between SSWs by an operator whose wrist-strap cord is connected to an overhead grounded trolley.
John M. Kolyer, Donald E. Watson

Chapter 7. The Static-Safe Workstation (SSW)

Abstract
As mentioned at the start of Chapter 6, an ESDS item must always be in an SSZ. This chapter is concerned with the means of maintaining an SSZ inside an SSW.
John M. Kolyer, Donald E. Watson

Chapter 8. ESD Troubleshooting: Illustrative Examples

Abstract
Troubleshooting, by which we mean the solving of unique problems as they arise, is done using one or more of three approaches (analysis, standard test, or special test) with the aid of other real or conceptual tools from Chapter 4. In the following actual case histories, we describe each problem and state which of the above three approaches was used. Then we present the solution in enough detail to illustrate the reasoning process.
John M. Kolyer, Donald E. Watson

Chapter 9. Model Specifications

Abstract
These model specifications are not claimed to be “perfect” or all-inclusive. Their purpose is to illustrate and codify the elements of our approach, e.g., the SSZ concept and the CD Rule, in specification format. Here the threads of our preceding A-to-Z discussions are pulled together in a system of required procedures. Note how the results of special studies (troubleshooting) have been incorporated as pointed out in the last chapter.
John M. Kolyer, Donald E. Watson

Chapter 10. Industry Standards

Abstract
Industry standards are becoming more important as government standards fade away. As part of the Secretary of Defense’s Specifications and Standards Reform Initiative, the Department of Defense Industry Review Panel on Specifications and Standards is reviewing documents with the intention of canceling “non-value-added cost drivers.”
John M. Kolyer, Donald E. Watson

Chapter 11. Living Without MIL-STD-1686

Abstract
As of this writing, MIL-STD-1686, like many other government specifications and standards, may be on the way out (see Chapter 10). Some government contracts already exclude MIL-STD-1686 and, of course, it has never controlled commercial work. But watchdogs such as government agencies, not to mention critically minded customers, will continue to demand a well-documented ESD-control program. The purpose of this chapter is to sketch the paperwork required.
John M. Kolyer, Donald E. Watson

Chapter 12. Program Organization and Implementation

Abstract
This chapter includes several topics: reasons for an ESD-control program; history of ESD control and purpose of this chapter; objectives and overview of program; what? when? and how?; cost-effectiveness; plan of action; the enforcement problem; advice to small companies; the role of the program coordinator; and safety.
John M. Kolyer, Donald E. Watson

Chapter 13. Disposition of Mishandled Hardware

Abstract
This is a vital subject when expensive products, e.g., modules worth $100,000 each, might have to be scrapped because of ESD damage that is measured or even only suspected.
John M. Kolyer, Donald E. Watson

Chapter 14. Checklists, What to Buy and Do. Conclusion

Without Abstract
John M. Kolyer, Donald E. Watson

Chapter 15. The Future

Abstract
Changes in ESD-control materials, equipment, and standard as well as in the ESDS items themselves are of course inevitable. The following is a quick sketch of some possibilities.
John M. Kolyer, Donald E. Watson

Backmatter

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