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Über dieses Buch

This authoritative Royal Economic Society edition of Essays in Biography contains some of Keyne's finest writing. It has been reissued with a new introduction by Donald Winch that appraises Keynes's achievement as biographer, character analyst, and intellectual historian.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Sketches of Politicians

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. The Council of Four, Paris, 1919

Clemenceau was by far the most eminent member of the Council of Four, and he had taken the measure of his colleagues. He alone both had an idea and had considered it in all its consequences. His age, his character, his wit, and his appearance joined to give him objectivity and a defined outline in an environment of confusion. One could not despise Clemenceau or dislike him, but as to the nature of civilised man, only take a different view or indulge, at least, a different hope.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 2. Mr Lloyd George: A Fragment

I should prefer to end this chapter here. But the reader may ask, What part in the result did the British Prime Minister play? What share had England in the final responsibility ? The answer to the second question is not clear-cut. And as to the first, who shall paint the chameleon, who can tether a broomstick? The character of Lloyd George is not yet rendered, and I do not aspire to the task.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 3. A Meeting of the Council of Three

At the end of April the dispute between President Wilson and the Italian Delegation about Fiume came to a head. Partly for the sake of opinion at home and partly as a bluff designed to put pressure upon the President to be more agreeable, the Italian Delegation evacuated Paris and declared that they would take no further part in the proceedings until the President was ready to show himself more accommodating to their vital national interests. The effect on the Conference was surprisingly small. The Italian bluff was called. The Conference went on exactly as before, the presence of one Ally less expediting a little the work of the sub-committees. But the departure of the Italians had one indirect effect of some importance. It stiffened the attitude of the Belgians. For the Belgians characteristically calculated that whilst the Conference could suffer with equanimity the loss of one participant, the loss of two would be really serious and would damage the prestige of the whole affair in the eyes of the outside world. Thus, a Belgian bluff superimposed on the Italian bluff might have a good deal more validity than the latter had had by itself.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 4. Andrew Bonar Law

Mr Bonar Law’s breakdown1 is a great misfortune, not less to his political opponents than to his own supporters. We shall not easily find another leader of the Conservative Party who is so unprejudiced. Mr Bonar Law has been, before everything, a party man, deeply concerned for his party, obedient to its instincts, and at each crisis the nominee of its machine. On two crucial questions, Tariff Reform and the support of Ulster, he adopted with vehemence the extreme party view. Yet, in truth, he was almost devoid of Conservative principles. This Presbyterian from Canada has no imaginative reverence for the traditions and symbols of the past, no special care for vested interests, no attachment whatever to the Upper Classes, the City, the Army, or the Church. He is prepared to consider each question on its merits, and his candid acknowledgement of the case for a capital levy was a striking example of an habitual state of mind.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 5. Herbert Asquith

Those who only knew Lord Oxford in his later life must find it hard to credit either the appearance or the reputation which are reported to have been his thirty or more years ago. The ability and the reticence were there to be recognised, but the somewhat tight features, the alleged coldness of the aspiring lawyer from Balliol, were entirely transformed in the noble Roman of the war and post-war years, who looked the part of Prime Minister as no one has since Mr Gladstone. His massive countenance and aspect of venerable strength were, in these later days, easily perceived to mask neither coldness nor egoism, but to clothe with an appropriate form a warm and tender heart easily touched to emotion, and a personal reserve which did not ask or claim anything for himself.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 6. Edwin Montagu

Most of the newspaper accounts which I have read do less than justice to the remarkable personality of Edwin Montagu. He was one of those who suffer violent fluctuations of mood, quickly passing from reckless courage and self-assertion to abject panic and dejection—always dramatising life and his part in it, and seeing himself and his own instincts either in the most favourable or in the most unfavourable light, but seldom with a calm and steady view. Thus it was easy for the spiteful to convict him out of his own mouth, and to belittle his name by remembering him only when his face was turned towards the earth. At one moment he would be Emperor of the East riding upon an elephant, clothed in rhetoric and glory, but at the next a beggar in the dust of the road, crying for alms but murmuring under his breath cynical and outrageous wit which pricked into dustier dust the rhetoric and the glory.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 7. Arthur Balfour

By the death of the Earl of Balfour, in the ripeness of his years, the Royal Economic Society has lost the last of the distinguished statesmen who were its original Vice-Presidents at the date of our foundation forty years ago, though, happily, no less than six of our original members of Council are still serving the Society.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 8. Winston Churchill

This brilliant book1 is not a history. It is a series of episodes, a succession of bird’s-eye views, designed to illuminate certain facets of the great contest and to confirm the author’s thesis about the conduct, in its broadest strategic aspects, of modern warfare. There are great advantages in this procedure. Mr Churchill tells us many details of extraordinary interest, which most of us did not know before, but he does not lose himself in detail. He deals in the big with the essential problems of the higher thought of the conduct of the war. The book is written, like most books of any value, with a purpose. It does not pretend to the empty impartiality of those dull writers before whose minds the greatest and most stirring events of history can pass without producing any distinct impression one way or the other. Mr Churchill’s was, perhaps, the most acute and concentrated intelligence which saw the war at close quarters from beginning to end with knowledge of the inside facts and of the inner thoughts of the prime movers of events. He formed clear conclusions as to where lay truth and error—not only in the light of after-events. And he here tells them to us in rhetorical, but not too rhetorical, language. This naturally means telling us most where he was nearest, and criticising chiefly where he deemed himself the wisest.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 9. Reginald McKenna

Reginald McKenna was singularly fortunate in finding a new career, in which he became not less distinguished than in politics, when the personal and party rift which ended with the resignation of Mr Asquith brought his life as a Cabinet Minister to a standstill, which he found himself exceedingly ready to leave undisturbed unless it could be ended entirely on his own terms.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 10. The Great Villiers Connection

Mr Gun1 has set himself to carry forward the fascinating subject which Galton invented—the collection of hereditary titbits connecting the famous and the moderately famous—quite a different subject from the scientific compilation of complete family trees of definitely determinable characteristics such as blue eyes, round heads, six toes, and the like. His method, like Galton’s, is to take in turn each of a number of distinguished ‘connections’ and to exhibit to us what a surprising number of celebrities are some sort of a cousin to one another.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 11. Trotsky on England

A contemporary reviewing this book1 says: ‘He stammers out platitudes in the voice of a phonograph with a scratched record.’ I should guess that Trotsky dictated it. In its English dress it emerges in a turbid stream with a hectoring gurgle which is characteristic of modern revolutionary literature translated from the Russian. Its dogmatic tone about our affairs, where even the author’s flashes of insight are clouded by his inevitable ignorance of what he is talking about, cannot commend it to an English reader. Yet there is a certain style about Trotsky. A personality is visible through the distorting medium. And it is not all platitudes.

John Maynard Keynes

Lives of Economists

Frontmatter

Chapter 12. Thomas Robert Malthus

Bacchus—when an Englishman is called Bacchus—derives from Bakehouse. Similarly the original form of the rare and curious name of Malthus was Malthouse. The pronunciation of English proper names has been more constant one century with another than their spelling, which fluctuates between phonetic and etymological influences, and can generally be inferred with some confidence from an examination of the written variations. On this test (Malthus, Mawtus, Malthous, Malthouse, Mauthus, Maltus, Maultous) there can be little doubt that Maultus, with the first vowel as in brewer’s malt and the h doubtfully sounded, is what we ought to say.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 13. William Stanley Jevons

Stanley Jevons was born in the year after Malthus’s death. But he was only seven years senior to Marshall and ten years senior to Edgeworth. Professor Foxwell lectured in his stead at University College before Jevons took up his professorship there. He examined my father in the Moral Sciences Tripos of 1875, his name being known to me from my early years as, in my father’s mind, the pattern of what an economist and logician should be. Thus, though we celebrate to-day (a little late) the centenary of his birth, though it is sixty years ago that Professor Foxwell lectured in his stead and more than fifty years since his death; nevertheless, Jevons belongs to the group of economists whose school of thought dominated the subject for the half-century after the death of Mill in 1873, who are the immediate teachers and predecessors of ourselves here assembled to pay our duty to his memory.2

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 14. Alfred Marshall

Alfred Marshall was born at Clapham on 26 July 1842, the son of William Marshall, a cashier in the Bank of England, by his marriage with Rebecca Oliver.1 The Marshalls were a clerical family of the West, sprung from William Marshall, incumbent of Saltash, Cornwall, at the end of the seventeenth century. Alfred was the great-great-grandson of the Reverend William Marshall,2 the half-legendary herculean parson of Devonshire, who, by twisting horse-shoes with his hands, frightened local blacksmiths into fearing that they blew their bellows for the devil.1 His great-grandfather was the Reverend John Marshall, Headmaster of Exeter Grammar School, who married Mary Hawtrey, daughter of the Reverend Charles Hawtrey, Sub-Dean and Canon of Exeter, and aunt of the Provost of Eton.2

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 15. Mary Paley Marshall

Mary Marshall deserves a record of piety and remembrance, not only as the wife of Alfred Marshall, without whose understanding and devotion his work would not have fulfilled its fruitfulness, but for her place in the history of Newnham, now nearly three-quarters of a century ago, as the first woman lecturer on Economics in Cambridge, and for her part in the development of the Marshall Library of Economics in Cambridge in the last twenty years of her life.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 16. Francis Ysidro Edgeworth: 1845–1926

Francis Ysidro Edgeworth was almost the last in the male line of a famous family—illustrating his own favourite Law of Averages; for his great-great-grandfather, Francis Edgeworth, married three wives,2 and his grandfather, the eccentric and celebrated Richard Lovell Edgeworth, married four wives3 and had twenty-two children, of whom seven sons and eight daughters survived him. F. Y. Edgeworth himself was the fifth son of a sixth son. Yet, in 1911, after the other heirs had died without leaving male issue,4 he succeeded to the family estate of Edgeworthstown, Co. Longford, where the Edgeworths, whose name was taken from Edgeware, formerly Edgeworth, in Middlesex, had established themselves in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. After his succession he had taken interest in gathering up family records and in seeking to restore Edgeworthstown House to something of its former tradition under the care of a married niece, Mrs Montagu. Whilst visiting Ireland every summer, he did not live at Edgeworthstown, but declared that he looked forward to a happy’ old age’—though when, if ever, he would have deemed this period to have arrived I do not know5—in the home of his forefathers.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 17. Herbert Somerton Foxwell

In the late ‘sixties and early ‘seventies of the last century St John’s College was the nursery of Cambridge economics. In 1868 Marshall left Mathematics for the Moral Sciences,2 in the same year Foxwell came up to enter for that tripos, and in 1870 Henry Cunynghame; and in two of her children, Marshall and Foxwell, St John’s gave the University two antitheses, two complementary forces, as different from one another as possible except in their single-heartedness. It was due, I think, to the influence of the Master, the great Dr Bateson, that St John’s joined with Trinity to foster the new studies of the Moral Sciences which had at that time no endowment whatever in the University for the younger teachers; but whilst Trinity’s interests gravitated towards philosophy (Sidgwick and James Ward) or to law and history (Maitland and Cunningham), those of St John’s were entirely towards economics (Marshall and Foxwell). This single college had, indeed, made a remarkable provision for the new subjects, J. B. Mayor and J. B. Pearson having been appointed College lecturers in the Moral Sciences in the earlier ‘sixties, Marshall in 1868 and Foxwell in 1875. In the decade from 1873 prior to the New Regulations and the abolition of the Senior Moralist, a period when, to judge by subsequent achievement, it was more distinguished to be Senior Moralist than to be Senior Wrangler, nine out of the eighteen candidates in the first class were Johnians.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 18. Henry Cunynghame

The death of Sir Henry Cunynghame on 3 May 1935, in his eighty-seventh year, takes from us the first in the long succession of Alfred Marshall’s favourite pupils, one of outstanding gifts and of considerable accomplishment in the early days of what he called ‘geometrical economies’.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 19. Henry Higgs

The particular services of Henry Higgs to the Royal Economic Society deserve a separate note in this Journal.1 On February 7 1888, when he was only 23 years old, Higgs wrote to Foxwell: ‘The contemplated English journal will have me judice an immediate army of readers. I have often thought that an Economic Society, focussing some of the interests which now lie between the Statistical Society, the British Association, the Institute of Bankers, the Political Economy Club, the Contemporary and other Reviews, etc., might be a very useful organisation; but I am content to carry a musket in the ranks and to leave plans of campaign to my superior officers.’ He was an original member of the Society on its foundation in 1890 and contributed to the first volume of the Journal in 1891. But his more intimate association with its management, which continued for nearly 50 years until his death, began at the end of the Society’s second year in 1892. At the outset Edgeworth was Secretary of the Society as well as sole Editor of the Journal. In 1892, however, Higgs succeeded him as Secretary, and in 1896 joined him on the editorial side as Assistant Editor. His tenure of both offices and his close association with Edgeworth continued until 1905, when, on his becoming the Prime Minister’s Private Secretary, ‘the pressure of higher official duties’ (as it was put in the Journal at the time) led to his retirement from them. He remained on the Council until the end of his life.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 20. Alfred Hoare

We much regret to record the death of Alfred Hoare on 6 November 1938, two days after his eighty-eighth birthday. He was elected to the Council of our Society in our first year, and had served without a break since 1892. He was Auditor of the Society in 1907, and had been our Honorary Treasurer for the past quarter of a century.

John Maynard Keynes

Brief Sketches

Frontmatter

Chapter 21. Wilhelm Lexis

We much regret to announce the death of Professor Wilhelm Lexis, news of which has come to hand from Gottingen.1 Born in Eschweiler, near Aachen, on 17 July 1837, Lexis matriculated at the University of Bonn in 1855, where he read mathematics and natural science. For a few years he was an assistant master at the Gymnasium in Bonn. In 1861 he proceeded to Paris, where he devoted himself to the study of French economic conditions and soon became known as an authority on economic questions. In 1872 he was appointed to the Chair of Political Economy at Strassburg. Two years later he moved to Dorpat, and thence, in 1876, to Freiburg in Breisgau. He was called to Breslau in 1884, and finally settled in 1887 in Göttingen, where he continued to teach for a quarter of a century.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 22. Frederic Hillersdon Keeling

The Society1 has lost in the Somme advance a Fellow of great promise as a student of social and economic conditions and already a valued contributor to the Journal by the death of Sergeant-Major Frederic Keeling, of the 6th Duke of Cornwall’s Light Infantry, who fell in a German trench at the head of his bombers on 18 August 1916.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 23. A. A. Tschuprow

We much regret to announce the death of Professor A. A. Tschuprow on 19 April last in Geneva in his fifty-third year.1 Professor Tschuprow commenced his studies in the University of Moscow, and in 1902, at the opening of the great Polytechnical Institute of Petrograd, he became for some years Lecturer in Economic Statistics at that institution. But both early and late in life he was much connected with German Universities, and many of his most important papers are published in German. He studied Economics and Statistics in Berlin and Strasbourg, and he prepared his first important work, entitled Die Feldgemeinschaft, as a pupil of Knapp. Since the Russian Revolution, after a stay in Scandinavia, Tschuprow had lived mainly in Dresden. It was his nature always to wish to avoid the ties of a professorial chair and to keep his mind entirely free for original work; and the Professorship at Prague, which he was driven by financial circumstances to accept near the end of his life, proved uncongenial. Regardless of poverty and the material difficulties of the post-war period, whether in Russia or in Germany, he always placed a very high price on complete intellectual independence. The result was that some of his most important papers on theoretical statistics belong to his years at Dresden.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 24. Benjamin Strong

The premature death of Governor Benjamin Strong of the New York Federal Reserve Bank at the age of fifty-one is a real misfortune. Governor Strong had been at the head of the Bank ever since the inception of the Federal Reserve System in 1914, and had been by far the most important guiding influence in the evolution of the system ever since. His integrity, independence, and real insight into the problems of his office have been of inestimable value, and there were very few, even in academic circles in the United States, who had thought more deeply—as witness his evidence before the Stabilization Committee of Congress two years ago—on the fundamental problems of the regulation of credit. The ‘open-market policy’, which in the United States is now hardly less important than the discount rate, as a method of controlling credit developments, was in its present form largely his creation. We also lose in him a man of wide international sympathies, who was always ready to play a wise and generous part in alleviating monetary difficulties abroad, and a firm friend of this country. His peculiarly intimate relations with the present Governor of the Bank of England ensured a measure of co-operation between the two institutions, without which our own currency problems would have been even more embarrassing.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 25. C. P. Sanger

We deeply regret to record the death of Mr C. P. Sanger on 8 February at the age of fifty-eight.1 Mr Sanger, who was formerly a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and practised as a barrister-at-law, had drifted somewhat away from economic studies in recent years. But he was at one time a leading authority on mathematical and statistical economics. He had lectured on these subjects in the University of London, and had often examined in the Economics Tripos at Cambridge. He had been a frequent contributor to the Economic Journal—I have been astonished on looking up the records to find that he had contributed to our pages no less than fifty times—and had served on the Council of our Society. He will be particularly regretted by members of the Royal Statistical Society, in whose proceedings and activities he had taken an active part.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 26. Walter Case

Walter Case, the head of the New York firm of investment bankers, Messrs Case, Pomeroy and Co., had so many close associations with London and so many friends here that his tragic death should not pass without a few words to his memory.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 27. George Broomhall

We regret to record the death of George James Short Broomhall on 23 June. The loss of perhaps the greatest practical statistician of our age deserves more than passing notice from economists. There are numerous cases in which comprehensive statistics, which it should be the natural duty of governments to collect, have been compiled in the first instance by private enterprise. As a rule, however, after this pioneer work has been done for some years, the duty has been taken over by official bodies, which, as soon as they pay attention to the matter, naturally have more comprehensive figures at their disposal. The case of George Broomhall and the Corn Trade News is, however, remarkable, in that he not only built up an extraordinarily efficient pioneer institution on a matter of great importance, but has continued to be regarded as the first authority on the matter long after various official and semi-official bodies, including the chief governments of the world, the Agricultural Institute at Rome, and the Research Institute at Stanford University, have taken up the work. The compilations of these bodies are still found depending more on the compilations of George Broomhall in the Corn Trade News, than his on theirs.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 28. Frederick Phillips

Few civil servants have ranged more widely than Frederick Phillips. First place on entry in 1908; promotion after four years, in those days a signal event, and even scandalous, leading to a parliamentary question by one who later, as Chancellor of the Exchequer, recognised good reasons for the choice. In 1917–18 a chief originator of food rationing as Lord Rhondda testified. Then years of effort wrestling with the finances both of this country and of others. Among Phillips’s special interests was the League of Nations; he took a leading part in all its financial activities, and was Chairman of the Financial Committee of the League. Moreover, as a good Treasury man, he knew the League must have a sound budgetary position if it were to survive at all, and his skill and experience contributed to this result.

John Maynard Keynes

His Friends in King’s

Frontmatter

Chapter 29. F. P. Ramsey

The death at the age of twenty-six of Frank Ramsey, Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, sometime scholar of Winchester and of Trinity, son of the President of Magdalene, was a heavy loss— though his primary interests were in Philosophy and Mathematical Logic—to the pure theory of Economics. From a very early age, about sixteen I think, his precocious mind was intensely interested in economic problems. Economists living in Cambridge have been accustomed from his undergraduate days to try their theories on the keen edge of his critical and logical faculties. If he had followed the easier path of mere inclination, I am not sure that he would not have exchanged the tormenting exercises of the foundations of thought and of psychology, where the mind tries to catch its own tail, for the delightful paths of our own most agreeable branch of the moral sciences, in which theory and fact, intuitive imagination and practical judgment, are blended in a manner comfortable to the human intellect.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 30. A. F. R. Wollaston

After surviving for many years the dangers of savage countries and high mountains, Sandy Wollaston has died from a bullet in the quiet courts of King’s, the chance and innocent victim of something more like a South American shooting affray than anything else.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 31. W. E. Johnson

Mr William Ernest Johnson, Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, who died on Wednesday, at the age of 72, played for a great many years a leading part in the teaching of moral science in the University, especially logic and psychology, both as a lecturer and in individual teaching, and had been Sidgwick lecturer for the last 30 years.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 32. William Herrick Macaulay

William Herrick Macaulay, whose father, grandfather and greatgrandfather were ministers of religion, came of the famous family of John Macaulay, who, having a cure of souls at Inveraray, was visited by Johnson and Boswell on their tour. Zachary Macaulay was his great-uncle; Thomas Babington Macaulay and Lady Trevelyan, the mother of George and Robert Trevelyan, were his father’s first cousins; and Rose Macaulay is his niece. Through his grandmother he was also connected, as his name recalls, with Robert Herrick. Almost the whole of his life was spent in the service of King’s, of which he was successively Bursar, Tutor and Vice-Provost. He must be reckoned the last and amongst the greatest builders of the College from what it was under the Founder’s Statutes into what it now is; the best Home Bursar and the best Tutor that recent generations have known. Macaulay was a man of remarkable character and powers, of a nearly infallible judgment both of intellect and of right feeling on all matters falling within the strict range of his attention, never untrue in the least degree to his own standards, and dealing with all according to his own honour and dignity.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 33. Dilwyn Knox

Dilwyn Knox was the second of the four sons of Bishop Knox, of Manchester, who alternately won the first entrance scholarship of the year at Rugby and Eton. May I write a word in his memory as one who lived in the closest intimacy with him from 1897 when he entered college at Eton as the head of my election (he was afterwards captain of the school) until the last war when he left Cambridge, as it turned out for good, to take up special work for the Government? He was not one to show his light to the world, and it was in the nature of his recent work that it could not be made generally known. But we who knew him in those years recognised that he had one of the most gifted, subtle, intricate brains of his generation for anything he might choose to take up within the narrow limitations which he deliberately set for himself, whether in the obscurer regions of classical scholarship, as an inspired player (and also deviser) of card games, or in the official work, requiring exceptional qualifications, which he first undertook during the last war and continued for the Admiralty and the Foreign Office for nearly 30 years to the end of his life. As an old friend of his lately said to me, he was sceptical of most things except those which chiefly matter, that is affection and reason. It is a sad thought to his old intimates of Eton and King’s that we shall never see our beloved Dilly again.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 34. Julian Bell

Julian Heward Bell was born in 1908, son of Clive and Vanessa Bell, grandson of Leslie Stephen, nephew of Virginia Woolf, first cousin once removed of ‘J. K. S.’2 and H. A. L. Fisher. As he wrote himself in a poem ‘Autobiography’: I stay myself—the product made By several hundred English years, Of harried labourers underpaid, Of Venns who plied the parson’s trade, Of regicides, of Clapham sects, Of high Victorian intellects, Leslie, Fitzjames.

John Maynard Keynes

Two Scientists

Frontmatter

Chapter 35. Newton, The Man

It is with some diffidence that I try to speak to you in his own home of Newton as he was himself. I have long been a student of the records and had the intention to put my impressions into writing to be ready for Christmas Day 1942, the tercentenary of his birth. The war has deprived me both of leisure to treat adequately so great a theme and of opportunity to consult my library and my papers and to verify my impressions. So if the brief study which I shall lay before you to-day is more perfunctory than it should be, I hope you will excuse me.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 36. Bernard Shaw and Isaac Newton

Newton’s life falls into two parts, and his habit of life was remarkably different in the one from what it was in the other. The dividing line came somewhere about 1692 when he was fifty years of age. G.B.S. has placed In Good King Charles’s Golden Days in the year 1680. With wild departure from the known facts he describes Newton as he certainly was not in that year. But with prophetic insight into the possibilities of his nature he gives us a picture which would not have been very unplausible thirty years later—’In Dull King George’s Golden (much more golden) Days’. May I here praise G.B.S. by illustrating the proleptic quality of his anachronisms?

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 37. Einstein

Wordsworth, who had not seen him, wrote of Newton’s statue: The marble index of a mind for ever Voyaging through strange seas of Thought, alone.

John Maynard Keynes

Two Memoirs

Frontmatter

Chapter 38. Dr Melchior: A Defeated Enemy

None of the officials in London who were connected with the Peace Conference knew when it was going to start. This was in accordance with the Prime Minister’s usual method. There must be plenty of officials to hang about in case he might need them; but the real business of the Conference was to be done by himself and the other two (or perhaps three) ‘getting together’, and the less the officials knew of what was going on, the freer his hands would be. On a certain date, therefore, which would not be announced beforehand, the Prime Minister would leave for Paris; but the proceedings would begin with informal conferences between the Great Ones, and when the officials would be wanted or what they were to do either eventually or in the meantime was quite uncertain.

John Maynard Keynes

Chapter 39. My Early Beliefs

I can visualise very clearly the scene of my meeting with D. H. Lawrence in 1914 (Bunny seems to suggest 1915, but my memory suggests that it may have been earlier than that) of which he speaks in the letter from which Bunny quoted at the last meeting of the Club. But unfortunately I cannot remember any fragment of what was said, though I retain some faint remains of what was felt.

John Maynard Keynes

Backmatter

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