Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11109-015-9328-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
In this study we provide new evidence on the much-discussed effect of education on political participation by utilizing the quasi-experiment of twinning. By looking at the relationship between education and participation within monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs we are able to circumvent traditional sources of confounding of the relationship rooted in genes and early life family environment because MZ twins share both. The results of within-twin pair analyses based on surveys from the United States, Denmark and Sweden show that while the relationship between education and political participation is highly confounded by genes and/or familial environment in all three countries, a positive impact remains of years of education in the US and of high school completion in Denmark. No effect is found in Sweden. Robustness checks suggest that the observed effect is not confounded by within-twin pair differences in prenatal environment nor differential treatment during childhood, and, if anything, that it most likely constitutes a lower bound estimate.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 97 kb)11109_2015_9328_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Alford, J., Funk, C., & Hibbing, J. (2005). Are political orientations genetically transmitted? American Political Science Review, 99(2), 153–167. CrossRef
Andersen, J. G., & Hoff, J. (2001). Democracy and citizenship in scandinavia. Basingstoke: Palgrave. CrossRef
Angrist, J. D., & Pischke, J.-S. (2009). Mostly harmless econometrics: An empiricist’s companion. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Ashenfelter, O., & Rouse, C. (1998). Income, schooling, and ability: Evidence from a new sample of twins. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 113, 253–284. CrossRef
Ashenfelter, O., & Zimmerman, D. J. (1997). Estimates of the returns to schooling from sibling data; Fathers, sons, and brothers. Review of Economics and Statistics, 79, 1–9. CrossRef
Beck, P. A., & Jennings, M. K. (1982). Pathways to participation. American Political Science Review, 76(1), 94–108. CrossRef
Belli, R. F., Traugott, M. W., Young, M., & McGonagle, K. (1999). Reducing vote overreporting in surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly, 63(1), 90–108. CrossRef
Bengtsson, Å., Hansen, K. M., Haroarson, H., Narud, H. M., & Oscarsson, H. (2013). The nordic voter. Colchester: ECPR Press.
Berinsky, A. J., & Lenz, G. S. (2011). Education and political participation: Exploring the causal link. Political Behavior, 33(3), 357–573. CrossRef
Bjerkedal, T., Kristensen, P., Skjeret, G. A., & Brevik, J. I. (2007). Intelligence test scores and birth order among Norwegian men (conscripts) analyzed within and between families. Intelligence, 35, 503–514. CrossRef
Borre, O. (1995). Old and new politics in Denmark. Scandinavian Political Studies, 18(3), 187–205. CrossRef
Bouchard, T. J., & McGue, M. (2003). Genetic and environmental influences on human psychological differences. Journal of Neurobiology, 54(1), 4–45. CrossRef
Bound, J., & Solon, G. (1999). Double trouble: On the value of twins-based estimation of the return to schooling. Economics of Education Review, 18(2), 169–182. CrossRef
Caspi, A., Roberts, B. W., & Shiner, R. L. (2005). Personality development: Stability and change. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 453–484. CrossRef
Chevalier, A. & Doyle, O. (2012). Schooling and voter turnout. Is there an American exception? UCD Geary Institute Discussion Paper Series, 2012/10.
Converse, P. E. (1972). Change in the American electorate. In A. Campbell & P. E. Converse (Eds.), The human meaning of social change (pp. 263–337). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Deary, I. J., Batty, G. D., & Gale, C. R. (2012). Childhood intelligence predicts voter turnout, voting preferences, and political involvement in adulthood: The 1970 British Cohort Study. Intelligence, 36, 548–555. CrossRef
Dee, T. S. (2004). Are there any returns to civic education? Journal of Public Economics, 88(9), 1697–1720. CrossRef
Denny, K., & Doyle, O. (2008). Political interest, cognitive ability and personality: Determinants of voter turnout in britain. British Journal of Political Science, 38(2), 291–310. CrossRef
Di Pietro, G., & Delprato, M. (2009). Education and civic outcomes in Italy. Public Finance Review, 37(4), 421–446. CrossRef
Duckworth, A. L., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2005). Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Psychological Science, 16(12), 939–944. CrossRef
Falch, T., & Massih, S. S. (2011). The effect of education on cognitive ability. Economic Inquiry, 49(3), 838–856. CrossRef
Fowler, J. H., Baker, L., & Dawes, C. T. (2008). Genetic variation in political participation. American Political Science Review, 102(2), 233–248. CrossRef
Grant, J. D., Scherrer, J. F., Lynskey, M. T., Lyons, M. J., Eisen, S. A., Tsuang, M. T., et al. (2006). Adolescent alcohol use is a risk factor for adult alcohol and drug dependence: Evidence from a twin design. Psychological Medicine, 36, 109–118. CrossRef
Green-Pedersen, C., & Odmalm, P. (2008). Going different ways? Right-wing parties and the immigrant issue in Denmark and Sweden. Journal of European Public Policy, 15(3), 367–381. CrossRef
Griliches, Z. (1979). Sibling models and data in economics. Beginnings of a survey. Journal of Political Economy, 87(5), S37–S64. CrossRef
Grunau, R., Whitfield, M. F., & Fay, T. B. (2004). Psychosocial and academic characteristics of extremely low birth weight (<800 g) adolescents who are free of major impairment compared with term-born control subjects. Pediatrics, 114(6), e725–e732. CrossRef
Heckman, J. J., Moon, S. H., Pinto, R., Savelyev, P. A., & Yavitz, A. (2009). The Rate of Return to High/Scope Perry Preschool Program. NBER Working Paper No. 15471.
Henderson, A. T., & Berla, N. (1994). A new generation of evidence. The family is critical to student achievement. Washington, DC: National Committee for Citizens in Education.
Henderson, J., & Chatfield, S. (2011). Who matches? Propensity scores and bias in the causal effects of education on participation. Journal of Politics, 73(3), 646–658. CrossRef
Holland, P. W. (1986). Statistics and causal inference. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 81, 945–960. CrossRef
Isacsson, G. (1999). Estimates of the return to schooling in Sweden from a large sample of twins. Labour Economics, 6(4), 471–489. CrossRef
Kam, C. D., & Palmer, C. (2008). Reconsidering the effects of education on political participation. Journal of Politics, 70(3), 612–631. CrossRef
Kam, C. D., & Palmer, C. (2011). Rejoinder: Reinvestigating the causal relationship between higher education and political participation. Journal of Politics, 73(3), 659–663. CrossRef
Kendler, K. S., & Gardner, C. O. (2001). Monozygotic twins discordant for major depression: A preliminary exploration of the role of environmental experiences in the aetiology and course of illness. Psychological Medicine, 31, 411–423.
Klemmensen, R., Hatemi, P., Hobolt, S. B., Petersen, I., Skytthe, A., & Nørgaard, A. S. (2012a). The genetics of political participation, civic duty, and political efficacy across cultures: Denmark and the United States. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 24(3), 409–427. CrossRef
Klemmensen, R., Hobolt, S. B., Dinesen, P. T., Skytthe, A., & Nørgaard, A. S. (2012b). The Danish political twin study: Political traits in Danish twins and the general population. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 15(1), 74–78. CrossRef
Krueger, R. F., & Johnson, W. (2002). The Minnesota twin registry: Current status and future directions. Twin Research, 5(5), 488–492. CrossRef
Lichtenstein, P., Sullivan, P. F., Cnattingius, S., Gatz, M., Johansson, S., Carlström, E., et al. (2006). The Swedish twin registry in the third millennium: An update. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9(6), 875–882. CrossRef
Lipset, S. M., & Rokkan, S. (1967). Cleavage structures, party systems, and voter alignments: An introduction. In S. M. Lipset & S. Rokkan (Eds.), Party systems and voter alignments: Cross-national perspectives (pp. 1–64). New York: Free Press.
Lundborg, P. (2008). The health returns to education. What can we learn from twins? IZA Working paper No. 3399.
Lynskey, M. T., Heath, A. C., Bucholz, K. K., Slutske, W. S., Madden, P. A. F., Nelson, E. C., et al. (2003). Escalation of drug use in early-onset cannabis users vs co-twin control. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289(4), 427–433. CrossRef
Madsen, M., Andersen, A.-M. N., Christensen, K., Andersen, P. K., & Osler, M. (2010). Does educational status impact adult mortality in Denmark? A twin approach. American Journal of Epidemiology, 172(2), 225–234. CrossRef
Mayer, A. (2011). Does education increase participation? Journal of Politics, 73(3), 633–645. CrossRef
McGue, M., Osler, M., & Christensen, K. (2010). Causal inference and observational research: The utility of twins. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(5), 546–556. CrossRef
Milligan, K., Moretti, E., & Oreopoulos, P. (2004). Does education improve citizenship? Evidence from the United States and the United Kingdom. Journal of Public Economics, 88(9–10), 1667–1695. CrossRef
Mondak, J. J. (2010). Personality and the foundations of political behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Morton, R. B., & Williams, K. C. (2010). Experimental political science and the study of causality: From nature to the lab. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Newcombe, R., Milne, B. J., Caspi, A., Poulton, R., & Moffit, T. E. (2007). Birthweight predicts IQ: Fact or artefact? Twin Research and Human Genetics, 10(4), 581–586. CrossRef
Nie, N., Junn, J., & Stehlik-Barry, K. (1996). Education and democratic citizenship in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Nielsen, F. (2006). Achievement and ascription in educational attainment: Genetic and environmental influences on adolescent schooling. Social Forces, 85(1), 193–216. CrossRef
Osler, M., McGue, M., Lund, R., & Christensen, K. (2008). Marital status and twins’ health and behavior: An analysis of middle-aged Danish twins. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(4), 482–487. CrossRef
Pelkonen, P. (2012). Length of compulsory education and voter turnout—Evidence from a staged reform. Public Choice, 150, 51–75. CrossRef
Persson, M. (2012). Does type of education affect political participation? Results from a panel survey of swedish adolescents. Scandinavian Political Studies, 35(3), 198–221. CrossRef
Persson, M. (2014). Testing the relationship between education and political participation using the 1970 British cohort study. Political Behavior, 36(4), 877–897. CrossRef
Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., McClearn, G., & McGuffin, P. (2008). Behavioral genetics (5th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.
Poropat, A. E. (2009). A meta-analysis of the five-factor model of personality and academic performance. Psychological Bulletin, 135(2), 322–338. CrossRef
Richards, M., Hardy, R., Kuh, D., & Wadsworth, M. (2001). Birth weight and cognitive function in the British 1946 birth cohort: Longitudinal population based study. British Medical Journal, 322, 199–203. CrossRef
Rubin, D. B. (1974). Estimating causal effects of treatments in randomized and nonrandomized studies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 66(5), 688–701. CrossRef
Schmidt, L. A., Miskovic, V., Boyle, M. H., & Saigal, S. (2008). Shyness and timidity in young adults who were born at extremely low birth weight. Pediatrics, 122(1), e181–e187. CrossRef
Shenkin, S. D., Starr, J. M., & Deary, I. J. (2004). Birth weight and cognitive ability in childhood: A systematic review. Psychological Bulletin, 130(6), 989–1013. CrossRef
Siedler, T. (2010). Schooling and citizenship in a young democracy: Evidence from postwar Germany. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 112(2), 315–338. CrossRef
Simonsson, P., & Sandström, G. (2011). Ready, willing, and able to divorce: An economic an and cultural history of divorce in twentieth-century Sweden. Journal of Family History, 36(2), 210–229. CrossRef
Skytthe, A., Kyvik, K., Holm, N. V., Vaupel, J. W., & Christensen, K. (2002). The Danish twin registry: 127 birth cohorts of twins. Twin Research, 5(1), 352–357. CrossRef
Sondheimer, R. M., & Green, D. P. (2010). Using experiments to estimate the effects of education on voter turnout. American Journal of Political Science, 54(1), 174–189. CrossRef
Suhay, E. & Kalmoe, N. (2010). The equal environment assumption in twin studies of political traits: Social confounds and suggested remedies. Mimeo. Retrieved from http://sites.lafayette.edu/suhaye/files/2013/07/Violations-of-the-EEA-Suhay-Kalmoe.pdf.
Sulloway, F. J. (1995). Birth order and evolutionary psychology: A meta-analytic overview. Psychological Inquiry, 6(1), 75–80. CrossRef
Tenn, S. (2007). The effect of education on voter turnout. Political Analysis, 15(4), 446–464. CrossRef
Thompson, L. A., Dettermam, D. K., & Plomin, R. (1991). Associations between cognitive abilities and scholastic achievement: genetic overlap but environmental differences. Psychological Science, 2(3), 158–165. CrossRef
Touya, D. M. (2006). Can we teach civic attitudes? FEDEA Working Paper EEA, 225, July 2006.
Verba, S., & Nie, N. (1972). Participation in America: Political democracy and social equality. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Verba, S., Nie, N., & Kim, J. (1978). Participation and political equality: A seven-nation comparison. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Verba, S., Schlozman, K. L., & Brady, H. E. (1995). Voice and equality: Civic voluntarism in American politics. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Very, P. S., & Van Hine, N. P. (1969). Effects of birth order upon personality development of twins. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 114, 93–95. CrossRef
Wolfinger, R. E., & Rosenstone, S. J. (1980). Who votes?. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Wooldridge, J. M. (2006). Introductory econometrics (3rd ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson/South-Western.
- Estimating the Impact of Education on Political Participation: Evidence from Monozygotic Twins in the United States, Denmark and Sweden
Peter Thisted Dinesen
Christopher T. Dawes
Asbjørn Sonne Nørgaard
- Springer US
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, digitale Transformation/© Maksym Yemelyanov | Fotolia