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2021 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

2. Eucken’s Competition with Keynes: Beyond the Ordoliberal Allergy to the Keynesian Medicine

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Abstract

This chapter explores how Walter Eucken situated himself in respect to John Maynard Keynes’s thought. It will be shown in particular that Keynes and Eucken were less alien to one another than is commonly assumed in the secondary literature. By considering together Keynes and Eucken’s letters to Hayek in response to The Road to Serfdom (1944), a somehow shared criticism is revealed. Keynes and Eucken both notably concentrated on the state positive assignments in order to ensure the proper functioning of a decentralised market economy. Moreover, there was a significant parallel in both methodological and theoretical arguments. Eventually, the Keynes/Eucken contrast proved meaningful for those who wanted to shed light on how they both left such a long-lasting mark on post-WWII European Liberalism.

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Fußnoten
1
My translation from the original German. I am grateful to Jean Solchany for sending me a reproduction of this letter, which he quotes in his intellectual biography of Wilhelm Röpke (Solchany 2015, 310).
 
2
Recent years have witnessed the rise of the copious literature on ordoliberalism, with an emphasis on the place of this tradition in the history of political ideas on the one hand (Ptak 2004; Bonefeld 2017; Biebricher 2019), and in the history of economic thought on the other (Kolev 2013; Fèvre 2017a).
 
3
On the tortuous path of Keynesian ideas in Germany, see articles by Jürgen Backhaus (1985), Jan-Otmar Hesse (2012) and Harald Hagemann (2013).
 
4
In the following pages, I will elaborate on Keynes and Eucken’s letters to Hayek in response of The Road to Serfdom (1944), using them as a heuristic tool for further investigation. Nils Goldschmidt and Jan-Otmar Hesse (2013) published and commented on a translated version of Eucken’s letter. The original (German) version of this letter can be found in Friedrich Hayek’s Papers at Stanford University [HIA FAH Papers, Box 18, Fo. 40].
 
5
Translated by Fritz Waeger, the German version was entitled Allgemeine Theorie der Beschäftigung, des Zinses und des Geldes (1936), and printed by Duncker & Humblot (Berlin).
 
6
Here I rely on Bertram Schefold (1980, 175), who corrected (and translated) the omission of The Collected Writings.
 
7
At that time, Röpke (1932, 1936a) was aiming to conciliate Hayek’s and Keynes’s approach to business cycles (see Fèvre 2018c).
 
8
’Within a broader perspective, the study directed by Peter E. Hall (1989) on The Political Power of Economic Ideas: Keynesianism across Nations showed how western countries’ counter-cyclical fiscal policies against unemployment came about primarily without any reference to Keynes. Theodor Roosevelt’s New Deal is an obvious example, but other examples can also be seen in Sweden, France or Italy (see also Bateman 2006, 283–86).
 
9
On the characterisation of the Nazi Sozialstaat, see Hong (1998) and Kurlander (2011).
 
10
Further arguments and proof of Keynes’ anti-Nazism were condensed in Mark Pernecky and Thomas Richter (2009, 259–60). Interestingly enough, some ordoliberals too—but neither Röpke (exile) nor Eucken (half-exile) (see Johnson 1989)—had been accused of sympathy with the authoritarian Nazi State (Tribe 1995; Ptak 2004; Goldschmidt 2005; Köhler and Nientiedt 2017).
 
11
From this perspective, post-war Lionel Robbins turned out to be decidedly the anti-Röpke, as he stressed: “I find myself in the reverse position to Professor Roepke, who was Keynesian, and is so no longer. There was a time when I thought Keynesian stabilisation schemes utterly reprehensible, but I have gradually been forced to believe that these ideas were not so wrong” (Robbins quoted in Howson 2011, 663).
 
12
Here, I have borrowed Skidelsky’s metaphor (2006, 84). Challenging Hayek’s viewpoint, Skidelsky referred to Hayek’s so-called value-free economic theory. I use “Olympian” here in line with Hayek’s way of reading his work as utopian, claiming the indispensability of “an ideal picture of a society which may not be wholly achievable, or a guiding conception of the overall order” (Hayek 1982, 62).
 
13
The book (Hayek 1945) was edited and introduced by Wilhelm Röpke, translated by his wife Eva Röpke. For the same publishing house (Eugen Rentsch Verlag), two years earlier Wilhelm Röpke had published The Social Crisis of our Time (1942), a book in many ways comparable to the RS.
 
14
The many political implications of Keynes’s work have been meticulously documented (Skidelsky 2005).
 
15
In fact, in the post-war period an ambiguous use of terms like planning, collectivism, socialism and the like prevailed among economists and social reformers, sometimes used as synonymous, sometimes with different meanings. Focusing on Hayek’s case, the paper by David M. Levy et al. (2005) provides a stimulating analysis of this issue.
 
16
For instance, see reviews in leading journals (Branch 1945; Friedrich 1945; Greene 1945; Guillebaud 1944; Mayer 1945; Nourse 1945; Roll 1945; Smith 1945).
 
17
As Caldwell (2003, 289) noted, Hayek would (much) later address Keynes’s (and also Eucken’s) comments in The Constitution of Liberty (1960) and in Law, Legislation and Liberty (1982). But Keynes’s seminal criticism of Hayek, outlined by Skidelsky (2006, 82) as “lacking a short-period theory of statesmanship”, remains unanswered.
 
18
The Italian historian and philosopher Benedetto Croce (1866–1952) was a Hegelian liberal, famous for his distinction between liberalismo and liberismo (see Soliani 2011, 145–49). Broadly speaking, he made a sharp separation between the ideal ends of liberalism, as a philosophical category (liberalismo), and the practical means that can be used in order to fulfil this purpose, which lie in the field of political economy (liberismo).
 
19
The evaluation of Capitalism in “moral terms” was one of the components that “helped carry his economic message both inward to the most elite policy circles and outward to the larger public” (Backhouse and Bateman 2009, 669; 2013, 86).
 
20
Quinn Slobodian (2018) insisted especially on the rise of the international outlook among neoliberals, what he at times referred to as “ordoglobalism”.
 
21
The text entitled “Bemerkungen zum Währungplan von Keynes” (1943) was discussed at the end of November 1943 in private seminars within the Freiburg resistance circle. In April 1944, Eucken made some additional comments (Eucken 1944).
 
22
With the Bancor, Keynes sought to deprive the international currency of its function as a store of value and, through negative interest rates applied to both debtors and creditors, to promote balanced accounts of each country in the Union (Amato and Fantacci 2014, 93–94). Money is obviously the great absentee in the present article. While analysing the contradiction between Keynesian and ordoliberal monetary policy, and the links with contemporary Euro policies, Jörg Bibow (2013) gives some hints on the Keynes/Eucken comparison on this issue.
 
23
The concept of consumer sovereignty was shaped by the early neoliberals of the interwar period (Olsen 2018).
 
24
I am very grateful to Luca Fantacci for drawing my attention to this aspect of Keynes’s work, as well as to the last quotation.
 
25
By contrast to Bruce Caldwell’s authoritative—and widely accepted—reading of Hayek’s transformation (1988), Richard Arena (2003) suggested a contradictory interpretation by pointing out that, first, Hayek’s work never implied the use of a Walrasian, or neo-Walrasian, general economic equilibrium; second, Hayek had already shown, before 1936, keen attention to the question of knowledge; and third, the concept of equilibrium he actually used from the beginning was still prevalent after 1936.
 
26
In the political perspective, it was Clement Attlee’s Labour government that set about founding the British Welfare State. For questioning of Keynes’s parentage of the British welfare state, see the article by Backhouse and Bateman (2012, 17), which concludes that “the greatest role that Keynes played in the rise of the welfare state was the authority his name lent to the political economy that underpinned the rise of the welfare state”. In the same spirit, see Whose Welfare State? Beveridge versus Keynes by Maria C. Marcuzzo (2010).
 
27
Interestingly enough, this is not Eucken’s only borrowing from Keynes. For instance, Eucken referred to Lenin’s words about the fundamental relationship of currency stability with the overall social order, like Keynes, showing a positive response: “Lenin was certainly right” (Keynes 1919, 149), or there would be a “considerable element of truth in this remark” (Eucken 1951, 82). As a matter of fact, Keynes would be responsible for giving circulation to this quotation (White and Schuler 2009, 213–14).
 
28
Eucken devoted a specific study to economic policy, posthumously published as Grundsätze der Wirtschaftspolitik (1952).
 
29
In particular, Eucken aimed at overcoming what he called the “great antinomy” (Die Große Antinomie) between History and Theory (Herrmann-Pillath 1994; Weisz 2001; Goldschmidt 2013).
 
30
The American institutionalist John R. Commons also exerted a strong influence on Keynes’ conception of Capitalism (Atkinson and Oleson 1998).
 
31
Institutions like the Cowls Commission, M.I.T. or the University of Chicago stated the—albeit competing—main lines for what is usually labelled the “Americanisation” of post-war economics (Backhouse 2003, 320; Mirowski 2006, 352–56).
 
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Zurück zum Zitat Garvy, George. 1975. “Keynes and the Economic Activists of Pre-Hitler Germany.” Journal of Political Economy 83 (2): 391–405. Garvy, George. 1975. “Keynes and the Economic Activists of Pre-Hitler Germany.” Journal of Political Economy 83 (2): 391–405.
Zurück zum Zitat Goldschmidt, Nils, ed. 2005. Wirtschaft, Politik und Freiheit: Freiburger Wirtschaftswissenschaftler und der Widerstand. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. Goldschmidt, Nils, ed. 2005. Wirtschaft, Politik und Freiheit: Freiburger Wirtschaftswissenschaftler und der Widerstand. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 2013. “Walter Eucken’s Place in the History of Ideas.” The Review of Austrian Economics 26 (2): 127–47. ———. 2013. “Walter Eucken’s Place in the History of Ideas.” The Review of Austrian Economics 26 (2): 127–47.
Zurück zum Zitat Goldschmidt, Nils, and Jan-Otmar Hesse. 2013. “Eucken, Hayek, and the Road to Serfdom.” In Hayek: A Collaborative Biography: Part 1 Influences from Mises to Bartley, edited by Robert Leeson, 123–46. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. Goldschmidt, Nils, and Jan-Otmar Hesse. 2013. “Eucken, Hayek, and the Road to Serfdom.” In Hayek: A Collaborative Biography: Part 1 Influences from Mises to Bartley, edited by Robert Leeson, 123–46. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Zurück zum Zitat Goldschmidt, Nils, and Michael Wohlgemuth. 2008. “Social Market Economy: Origins, Meanings and Interpretations.” Constitutional Political Economy 19 (3): 261–76. Goldschmidt, Nils, and Michael Wohlgemuth. 2008. “Social Market Economy: Origins, Meanings and Interpretations.” Constitutional Political Economy 19 (3): 261–76.
Zurück zum Zitat Greene, Lancaster M. 1945. “The Road to Confusion.” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 5 (1): 134–35. Greene, Lancaster M. 1945. “The Road to Confusion.” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 5 (1): 134–35.
Zurück zum Zitat Groenewegen, Peter. 1995. “Keynes and Marshall: Methodology, Society, and Politics.” History of Political Economy 27 (Supplement): 129–155. Groenewegen, Peter. 1995. “Keynes and Marshall: Methodology, Society, and Politics.” History of Political Economy 27 (Supplement): 129–155.
Zurück zum Zitat Guillebaud, C. W. 1944. “The Road to Serfdom by F. A. Hayek.” Economica 11 (44): 215. Guillebaud, C. W. 1944. “The Road to Serfdom by F. A. Hayek.” Economica 11 (44): 215.
Zurück zum Zitat Hagemann, Harald. 2013. “Germany after World War II: Ordoliberalism, the Social Market Economy and Keynesianism.” History of Economic Thought and Policy 1 (1): 37–51. Hagemann, Harald. 2013. “Germany after World War II: Ordoliberalism, the Social Market Economy and Keynesianism.” History of Economic Thought and Policy 1 (1): 37–51.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 2014. “The German Edition of Keynes’s General Theory: Controversies on the Preface.” Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology 32: 159–166. ———. 2014. “The German Edition of Keynes’s General Theory: Controversies on the Preface.” Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology 32: 159–166.
Zurück zum Zitat Hall, Peter A., ed. 1989. The Political Power of Economic Ideas: Keynesianism across Nations. Princeton, NJ: Etats-Unis d’Amérique, Princeton University Press. Hall, Peter A., ed. 1989. The Political Power of Economic Ideas: Keynesianism across Nations. Princeton, NJ: Etats-Unis d’Amérique, Princeton University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Hayek, Friedrich A. 1937. “Economics and Knowledge.” Economica 4 (13): 33–54. Hayek, Friedrich A. 1937. “Economics and Knowledge.” Economica 4 (13): 33–54.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1944. The Road to Serfdom. Edited by Bruce J. Caldwell. The Collected Works of F. A. Hayek, Vol. 2. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007. ———. 1944. The Road to Serfdom. Edited by Bruce J. Caldwell. The Collected Works of F. A. Hayek, Vol. 2. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1945. Der Weg zur Knechtschaft. Edited by Wilhelm Röpke. Translated by Eva Röpke. Erlenbach-Zürich: E. Rentsch. ———. 1945. Der Weg zur Knechtschaft. Edited by Wilhelm Röpke. Translated by Eva Röpke. Erlenbach-Zürich: E. Rentsch.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1960. The Constitution of Liberty [The Collected Works of Hayek—XVII]. Edited by Bruce J. Caldwell. London: Routledge, 2011. ———. 1960. The Constitution of Liberty [The Collected Works of Hayek—XVII]. Edited by Bruce J. Caldwell. London: Routledge, 2011.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1982. Law, Legislation, and Liberty: A New Statement of the Liberal Principles of Justice and Political Economy. 3 vols. London: Routledge. ———. 1982. Law, Legislation, and Liberty: A New Statement of the Liberal Principles of Justice and Political Economy. 3 vols. London: Routledge.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1995. Contra Keynes and Cambridge [The Collected Works of Hayek - IX]. Edited by Bruce J. Caldwell. London: Routledge. ———. 1995. Contra Keynes and Cambridge [The Collected Works of Hayek - IX]. Edited by Bruce J. Caldwell. London: Routledge.
Zurück zum Zitat Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten. 1994. “Methodological Aspects of Eucken’s Work.” Journal of Economic Studies 21 (4): 46–60. Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten. 1994. “Methodological Aspects of Eucken’s Work.” Journal of Economic Studies 21 (4): 46–60.
Zurück zum Zitat Hesse, Jan-Otmar. 2012. “The ‘Americanisation’ of West German Economics after the Second World War: Success, Failure, or Something Completely Different?” The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 19 (1): 67–98. Hesse, Jan-Otmar. 2012. “The ‘Americanisation’ of West German Economics after the Second World War: Success, Failure, or Something Completely Different?” The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 19 (1): 67–98.
Zurück zum Zitat Hodgson, Geoffrey M. 2001. How Economics Forgot History: The Problem of Historical Specificity in Social Science. London, New York: Psychology Press. Hodgson, Geoffrey M. 2001. How Economics Forgot History: The Problem of Historical Specificity in Social Science. London, New York: Psychology Press.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 2005. “Alfred Marshall versus the Historical School?” Journal of Economic Studies 32 (4): 331–48. ———. 2005. “Alfred Marshall versus the Historical School?” Journal of Economic Studies 32 (4): 331–48.
Zurück zum Zitat Hong, Young-Sun. 1998. Welfare, Modernity, and the Weimar State, 1919–1933. Princeton, NJ: Etats-Unis d’Amérique, Princeton University Press. Hong, Young-Sun. 1998. Welfare, Modernity, and the Weimar State, 1919–1933. Princeton, NJ: Etats-Unis d’Amérique, Princeton University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Hoover, Kevin D. 2006. “Doctor Keynes.” In The Cambridge Companion to Keynes, edited by Roger E. Backhouse and Bradley W. Bateman, 78–97. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Hoover, Kevin D. 2006. “Doctor Keynes.” In The Cambridge Companion to Keynes, edited by Roger E. Backhouse and Bradley W. Bateman, 78–97. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Howson, Susan. 2011. Lionel Robbins. New York: Cambridge University Press. Howson, Susan. 2011. Lionel Robbins. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Hudson, Michael. 1985. “German Economists and the Depression of 1929–1933.” History of Political Economy 17 (1): 35–50. Hudson, Michael. 1985. “German Economists and the Depression of 1929–1933.” History of Political Economy 17 (1): 35–50.
Zurück zum Zitat Janssen, Hauke. 2009. “Zwischen Historismus Und Neoklassik: Alexander Rüstow Und Die Krise in Der Deutschen Volkswirtschaftslehre.” ORDO. Jahrbuch Für Die Ordnung von Wirtschaft Und Gesellschaft 60 (1): 101–18. Janssen, Hauke. 2009. “Zwischen Historismus Und Neoklassik: Alexander Rüstow Und Die Krise in Der Deutschen Volkswirtschaftslehre.” ORDO. Jahrbuch Für Die Ordnung von Wirtschaft Und Gesellschaft 60 (1): 101–18.
Zurück zum Zitat Johnson, Daniel. 1989. “Exiles and Half-Exiles: Wilhelm Röpke, Alexander Rüstow and Walter Eucken.” In German Neo-Liberals and the Social Market Economy, edited by Alan Peacock and Hans Willgerodt, 40–68. Trade Policy Research Centre. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Johnson, Daniel. 1989. “Exiles and Half-Exiles: Wilhelm Röpke, Alexander Rüstow and Walter Eucken.” In German Neo-Liberals and the Social Market Economy, edited by Alan Peacock and Hans Willgerodt, 40–68. Trade Policy Research Centre. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Zurück zum Zitat Keynes, John Maynard. 1919. The Economic Consequences of the Peace [The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes-II]. Edited by D. E. Moggridge. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1971. Keynes, John Maynard. 1919. The Economic Consequences of the Peace [The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes-II]. Edited by D. E. Moggridge. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1971.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1923. A Tract on Monetary Reform [The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes-IV]. Edited by Elizabeth Johnson and Donald E. Moggridge. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1973. ———. 1923. A Tract on Monetary Reform [The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes-IV]. Edited by Elizabeth Johnson and Donald E. Moggridge. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1973.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1930. A Treatise on Money: The Applied Theory of Money [The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes-VI]. Edited by Elizabeth Johnson and Donald E. Moggridge. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1973. ———. 1930. A Treatise on Money: The Applied Theory of Money [The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes-VI]. Edited by Elizabeth Johnson and Donald E. Moggridge. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1973.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1933. “National Self-Sufficiency.” Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review 22, 177–193. ———. 1933. “National Self-Sufficiency.” Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review 22, 177–193.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1936a. “Preface to the German Edition.” In The General Theory [The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes-VII], edited by D. E Moggridge, xxv–xxvii. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1973. ———. 1936a. “Preface to the German Edition.” In The General Theory [The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes-VII], edited by D. E Moggridge, xxv–xxvii. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1973.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1936b. The General Theory [The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes-VII]. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1973. ———. 1936b. The General Theory [The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes-VII]. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1973.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1943. “The Keynes Plan—Proposals for an International Clearing Union (April 1943).” In The International Monetary Fund: 1945–1965: Twenty Years of International Monetary Cooperation, edited by J. Keith Horsefield. Vol. III. Washington: International Monetary Fund, 1969. ———. 1943. “The Keynes Plan—Proposals for an International Clearing Union (April 1943).” In The International Monetary Fund: 1945–1965: Twenty Years of International Monetary Cooperation, edited by J. Keith Horsefield. Vol. III. Washington: International Monetary Fund, 1969.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1944. “Letter to Professor F. A. Hayek, June 28.” In Activities 1940–1946 [The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes-XXVII], edited by D. E Moggridge, 385–88. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1980. ———. 1944. “Letter to Professor F. A. Hayek, June 28.” In Activities 1940–1946 [The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes-XXVII], edited by D. E Moggridge, 385–88. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1980.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1972. Essays in Biography [The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes-X]. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan. ———. 1972. Essays in Biography [The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes-X]. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Zurück zum Zitat Klausinger, Hansjörg. 1999. “German Anticipations of the Keynesian Revolution? The Case of Lautenbach, Neisser and Röpke.” The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 6 (3): 378–403. Klausinger, Hansjörg. 1999. “German Anticipations of the Keynesian Revolution? The Case of Lautenbach, Neisser and Röpke.” The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 6 (3): 378–403.
Zurück zum Zitat Klump, Rainer, and Manuel Wörsdörfer. 2011. “On the Affiliation of Phenomenology and Ordoliberalism: Links between Edmund Husserl, Rudolf and Walter Eucken.” European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 18 (4): 551–78. Klump, Rainer, and Manuel Wörsdörfer. 2011. “On the Affiliation of Phenomenology and Ordoliberalism: Links between Edmund Husserl, Rudolf and Walter Eucken.” European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 18 (4): 551–78.
Zurück zum Zitat Köhler, Ekkehard A., and Daniel Nientiedt. 2017. “The Muthesius Controversy: A Tale of Two Liberalisms.” History of Political Economy 49 (4): 607–30. Köhler, Ekkehard A., and Daniel Nientiedt. 2017. “The Muthesius Controversy: A Tale of Two Liberalisms.” History of Political Economy 49 (4): 607–30.
Zurück zum Zitat Kolev, Stefan. 2010. “Hayek as an Ordo-Liberal.” HWWI Research Paper, nos. 5–11: 1–22. Kolev, Stefan. 2010. “Hayek as an Ordo-Liberal.” HWWI Research Paper, nos. 5–11: 1–22.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 2013. Neoliberale Staatsverständnisse im Vergleich. Stuttgart, Allemagne: Lucius & Lucius. ———. 2013. Neoliberale Staatsverständnisse im Vergleich. Stuttgart, Allemagne: Lucius & Lucius.
Zurück zum Zitat Kurlander, Eric. 2011. “‘Between Detroit and Moscow’: A Left Liberal ‘Third Way’ in the Third Reich.” Central European History 44 (2): 279–307. Kurlander, Eric. 2011. “‘Between Detroit and Moscow’: A Left Liberal ‘Third Way’ in the Third Reich.” Central European History 44 (2): 279–307.
Zurück zum Zitat Levy, David M., Sandra J. Peart, and Andrew Farrant. 2005. “The Spatial Politics of F.A. Hayek’s Road to Serfdom.” European Journal of Political Economy 21 (4): 982–99. Levy, David M., Sandra J. Peart, and Andrew Farrant. 2005. “The Spatial Politics of F.A. Hayek’s Road to Serfdom.” European Journal of Political Economy 21 (4): 982–99.
Zurück zum Zitat Maas, Harro. 2011. “Sorting Things Out: The Economist as an Armchair Observer.” In Histories of Scientific Observation, edited by Lorraine Daston and Elizabeth Lunbeck, 206–29. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. Maas, Harro. 2011. “Sorting Things Out: The Economist as an Armchair Observer.” In Histories of Scientific Observation, edited by Lorraine Daston and Elizabeth Lunbeck, 206–29. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Magliulo, Antonio. 2018. “Before Hitler: The Expansionary Programme of the Brauns Commission.” In Hayek: A Collaborative Biography: Part XIII: “Fascism” and Liberalism in the (Austrian) Classical Tradition, edited by Robert Leeson, 129–59. Archival Insights into the Evolution of Economics. Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-91358-2_3. Magliulo, Antonio. 2018. “Before Hitler: The Expansionary Programme of the Brauns Commission.” In Hayek: A Collaborative Biography: Part XIII: “Fascism” and Liberalism in the (Austrian) Classical Tradition, edited by Robert Leeson, 129–59. Archival Insights into the Evolution of Economics. Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-3-319-91358-2_​3.
Zurück zum Zitat Marcuzzo, Maria C. 2010. “Whose Welfare State? Beveridge versus Keynes.” In No Wealth But Life: Welfare Economics and the Welfare State in Britain, 1880–1945, edited by Roger E. Backhouse and Tamotsu Nishizawa, 189–206. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Marcuzzo, Maria C. 2010. “Whose Welfare State? Beveridge versus Keynes.” In No Wealth But Life: Welfare Economics and the Welfare State in Britain, 1880–1945, edited by Roger E. Backhouse and Tamotsu Nishizawa, 189–206. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Marshall, Alfred. 1890. Principles of Economics. 8th ed. Basingstoke and London: Macmillan, 1964. Marshall, Alfred. 1890. Principles of Economics. 8th ed. Basingstoke and London: Macmillan, 1964.
Zurück zum Zitat Mayer, Joseph. 1945. “The Road to Serfdom by Friedrich A. Hayek.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 239 (May): 202–3. Mayer, Joseph. 1945. “The Road to Serfdom by Friedrich A. Hayek.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 239 (May): 202–3.
Zurück zum Zitat Mirowski, Philip. 2006. “Twelve Theses Concerning the History of Postwar Neoclassical Price Theory.” In Agreement on Demand: Consumer Theory in the Twentieth Century, edited by Philip Mirowski and D. Wade Hands, 38:343–79. History of Political Economy (Annual Supplement). Durham and London: Duke University Press. Mirowski, Philip. 2006. “Twelve Theses Concerning the History of Postwar Neoclassical Price Theory.” In Agreement on Demand: Consumer Theory in the Twentieth Century, edited by Philip Mirowski and D. Wade Hands, 38:343–79. History of Political Economy (Annual Supplement). Durham and London: Duke University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Muresan, Stefan Sorin. 2014. Social Market Economy. Bonn: Springer. Muresan, Stefan Sorin. 2014. Social Market Economy. Bonn: Springer.
Zurück zum Zitat Newton, Scott. 2000. “A ‘Visionary Hope’Frustrated: JM Keynes and the Origins of the Postwar International Monetary Order.” Diplomacy and Statecraft 11 (1): 189–210. Newton, Scott. 2000. “A ‘Visionary Hope’Frustrated: JM Keynes and the Origins of the Postwar International Monetary Order.” Diplomacy and Statecraft 11 (1): 189–210.
Zurück zum Zitat Nourse, Edwin G. 1945. “The Road to Serfdom by Friedrich A. Hayek.” Journal of Farm Economics 27 (2): 484–88. Nourse, Edwin G. 1945. “The Road to Serfdom by Friedrich A. Hayek.” Journal of Farm Economics 27 (2): 484–88.
Zurück zum Zitat Olsen, Niklas. 2018. The Sovereign Consumer: A New Intellectual History of Neoliberalism. Cham: Springer. Olsen, Niklas. 2018. The Sovereign Consumer: A New Intellectual History of Neoliberalism. Cham: Springer.
Zurück zum Zitat Pernecky, Mark, and Thomas Richter. 2009. “Keynes’ Preface to the German Edition of the General Theory: Nazi Sympathies or Methodological Empathies?” Forum for Social Economics 40 (2): 253–64. Pernecky, Mark, and Thomas Richter. 2009. “Keynes’ Preface to the German Edition of the General Theory: Nazi Sympathies or Methodological Empathies?” Forum for Social Economics 40 (2): 253–64.
Zurück zum Zitat Pigou, Arthur C., ed. 1925. Memorials of Alfred Marshall. London: MacMillan. Pigou, Arthur C., ed. 1925. Memorials of Alfred Marshall. London: MacMillan.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1944. “The Road to Serfdom by F. A. Hayek.” The Economic Journal 54 (214): 217–19. ———. 1944. “The Road to Serfdom by F. A. Hayek.” The Economic Journal 54 (214): 217–19.
Zurück zum Zitat Ptak, Ralf. 2004. Vom Ordoliberalismus Zur Sozialen Marktwirtschaft: Stationen Des Neoliberalismus in Deutschland. Opladen: Leske + budrich. Ptak, Ralf. 2004. Vom Ordoliberalismus Zur Sozialen Marktwirtschaft: Stationen Des Neoliberalismus in Deutschland. Opladen: Leske + budrich.
Zurück zum Zitat Rieter, Heinz, and Matthias Schmolz. 1993. “The Ideas of German Ordoliberalism 1938–45: Pointing the Way to a New Economic Order.” European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 1 (1): 87–114. Rieter, Heinz, and Matthias Schmolz. 1993. “The Ideas of German Ordoliberalism 1938–45: Pointing the Way to a New Economic Order.” European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 1 (1): 87–114.
Zurück zum Zitat Robinson, Joan. 1972. “The Second Crisis of Economic Theory.” The American Economic Review 62 (1/2): 1–10. Robinson, Joan. 1972. “The Second Crisis of Economic Theory.” The American Economic Review 62 (1/2): 1–10.
Zurück zum Zitat Roll, Eric. 1945. “The Road to Serfdom by Friedrich A. Hayek.” The American Economic Review 35 (1): 176–80. Roll, Eric. 1945. “The Road to Serfdom by Friedrich A. Hayek.” The American Economic Review 35 (1): 176–80.
Zurück zum Zitat Röpke, Wilhelm. 1932. Krise Und Konjunktur. Wissenschaft Und Bildung 300. Leipzig: Quelle und Meyer. Röpke, Wilhelm. 1932. Krise Und Konjunktur. Wissenschaft Und Bildung 300. Leipzig: Quelle und Meyer.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1935. “Letter to L. Robbins, December 22. [LSE Archive: ROBBINS/3/1/2].” ROBBINS/3/1/2. [LSE Archive]. ———. 1935. “Letter to L. Robbins, December 22. [LSE Archive: ROBBINS/3/1/2].” ROBBINS/3/1/2. [LSE Archive].
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1936a. Crises and Cycles. Edinburgh, London, and Glasgow: W. Hodge. ———. 1936a. Crises and Cycles. Edinburgh, London, and Glasgow: W. Hodge.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1936b. “Letter to L. Robbins, May 6. [LSE Archive: ROBBINS/3/1/2].” ROBBINS/3/1/2. [LSE Archive]. ———. 1936b. “Letter to L. Robbins, May 6. [LSE Archive: ROBBINS/3/1/2].” ROBBINS/3/1/2. [LSE Archive].
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1942. Die Gesellschaftskrisis Der Gegenwart [The Social Crisis of Our Time]. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950. ———. 1942. Die Gesellschaftskrisis Der Gegenwart [The Social Crisis of Our Time]. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1944. The Moral Foundations of Civil Society [Civitas Humana]. 2nd Revised edition. New Brunswick (U.S.A): Transaction Publishers, 2002. ———. 1944. The Moral Foundations of Civil Society [Civitas Humana]. 2nd Revised edition. New Brunswick (U.S.A): Transaction Publishers, 2002.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1945. Internationale Ordnung – Heute [International Order and Economic Integration]. Dordrecht: Springer, 1959. ———. 1945. Internationale Ordnung – Heute [International Order and Economic Integration]. Dordrecht: Springer, 1959.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1963. Economics of the Free Society. Based on the 9th German edition. Chicago: H. Regnery. ———. 1963. Economics of the Free Society. Based on the 9th German edition. Chicago: H. Regnery.
Zurück zum Zitat Schefold, Bertram. 1980. “The General Theory for a Totalitarian State? A Note on Keynes’s Preface to the German Edition of 1936.” Cambridge Journal of Economics 4 (2): 175–76. Schefold, Bertram. 1980. “The General Theory for a Totalitarian State? A Note on Keynes’s Preface to the German Edition of 1936.” Cambridge Journal of Economics 4 (2): 175–76.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 1995. “Theoretical Approaches to a Comparison of Economic Systems from a Historical Perspective.” In The Theory of Ethical Economy in the Historical School, edited by Professor Dr Peter Koslowski, 221–49. Studies in Economic Ethics and Philosophy. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer. ———. 1995. “Theoretical Approaches to a Comparison of Economic Systems from a Historical Perspective.” In The Theory of Ethical Economy in the Historical School, edited by Professor Dr Peter Koslowski, 221–49. Studies in Economic Ethics and Philosophy. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 2003. “Die Deutsche Historische Schule als Quelle des Ordoliberalismus.” In L’ordolibéralisme allemand : aux sources de l’économie sociale de marché, edited by Patricia Commun, 101–18. Travaux et documents du C.I.R.A.C. Cergy-Pontoise: CIRAC/CICC. ———. 2003. “Die Deutsche Historische Schule als Quelle des Ordoliberalismus.” In L’ordolibéralisme allemand : aux sources de l’économie sociale de marché, edited by Patricia Commun, 101–18. Travaux et documents du C.I.R.A.C. Cergy-Pontoise: CIRAC/CICC.
Zurück zum Zitat Schumpeter, Joseph A. 1946. “The Road to Serfdom by Friedrick A. Hayek.” Journal of Political Economy 54 (3): 269–70. Schumpeter, Joseph A. 1946. “The Road to Serfdom by Friedrick A. Hayek.” Journal of Political Economy 54 (3): 269–70.
Zurück zum Zitat Skidelsky, Robert J. A. 2005. John Maynard Keynes, 1883–1946: Economist, Philosopher, Statesman. New York: Penguin Books. Skidelsky, Robert J. A. 2005. John Maynard Keynes, 1883–1946: Economist, Philosopher, Statesman. New York: Penguin Books.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 2006. “Hayek versus Keynes: The Road to Reconciliation.” In The Cambridge Companion to Hayek, edited by Edward Feser, 82–110. Oxford: Cambridge University Press. ———. 2006. “Hayek versus Keynes: The Road to Reconciliation.” In The Cambridge Companion to Hayek, edited by Edward Feser, 82–110. Oxford: Cambridge University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Slobodian, Quinn. 2018. Globalists: The End of Empire and the Birth of Neoliberalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Slobodian, Quinn. 2018. Globalists: The End of Empire and the Birth of Neoliberalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Smith, T. V. 1945. “The Road to Serfdom by Friedrich A. Hayek.” Ethics 55 (3): 224–26. Smith, T. V. 1945. “The Road to Serfdom by Friedrich A. Hayek.” Ethics 55 (3): 224–26.
Zurück zum Zitat Solchany, Jean. 2015. Wilhelm Röpke, l’autre Hayek: aux origines du néolibéralisme. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne. Solchany, Jean. 2015. Wilhelm Röpke, l’autre Hayek: aux origines du néolibéralisme. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne.
Zurück zum Zitat Soliani, Riccardo. 2011. “Some Notes about Croce and Einaudi on ‘liberismo’ and ‘liberalismo.’” In Freedom and Happiness in Economic Thought and Philosophy: from Clash to Reconciliation, edited by Ragip Ege and Herrade Igersheim, 144–60. London: Routledge. Soliani, Riccardo. 2011. “Some Notes about Croce and Einaudi on ‘liberismo’ and ‘liberalismo.’” In Freedom and Happiness in Economic Thought and Philosophy: from Clash to Reconciliation, edited by Ragip Ege and Herrade Igersheim, 144–60. London: Routledge.
Zurück zum Zitat Tooze, J. Adam. 2001. Statistics and the German State, 1900–1945: The Making of Modern Economic Knowledge. Cambridge Studies in Modern Economic History 9. Cambridge [etc.]: Cambridge University Press. Tooze, J. Adam. 2001. Statistics and the German State, 1900–1945: The Making of Modern Economic Knowledge. Cambridge Studies in Modern Economic History 9. Cambridge [etc.]: Cambridge University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Tribe, Keith. 1995. Strategies of Economic Order: German Economic Discourse, 1750–1950. Ideas in Context 33. Cambridge and New York [etc.]: Cambridge University Press. Tribe, Keith. 1995. Strategies of Economic Order: German Economic Discourse, 1750–1950. Ideas in Context 33. Cambridge and New York [etc.]: Cambridge University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Vanberg, Viktor. 1998. “Freiburg School of Law and Economics.” In The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law, edited by Peter Newman, 2:172–79. London: Macmillan. Vanberg, Viktor. 1998. “Freiburg School of Law and Economics.” In The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law, edited by Peter Newman, 2:172–79. London: Macmillan.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 2004. “The Freiburg School: Walter Eucken and Ordoliberalism.” Walter Eucken Institute: Freiburg Discussion Papers on Constitutional Economics 4 (11). ———. 2004. “The Freiburg School: Walter Eucken and Ordoliberalism.” Walter Eucken Institute: Freiburg Discussion Papers on Constitutional Economics 4 (11).
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 2013. “Hayek in Freiburg.” In Hayek: A Collaborative Biography: Part 1. Influences from Mises to Bartley, edited by Robert Leeson, 93–122. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. ———. 2013. “Hayek in Freiburg.” In Hayek: A Collaborative Biography: Part 1. Influences from Mises to Bartley, edited by Robert Leeson, 93–122. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
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Metadaten
Titel
Eucken’s Competition with Keynes: Beyond the Ordoliberal Allergy to the Keynesian Medicine
verfasst von
Raphaël Fèvre
Copyright-Jahr
2021
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-47102-6_2