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Über dieses Buch

This book is the first issue of a EUROGRAPHICS publication series in the field of computer graphics, an important field of research and a versatile tool for various application areas. The availability of powerful hardware at an affordable price and the evolution of high standard software have led to a rapidly increas­ ing expansion of computer graphics and the penetration of compu­ ter graphics techniques and systems into a wide range of applica­ tion areas. This book series will cover state-of-the-art surveys as well as scientific contributions on specific areas of research and develop­ ment. The first book in the series contains the Tutorial Notes of the EUROGRAPHICS '83 conference, held in Zagreb, Yugoslavia, in September 1983. It covers four major aspects of computer graphics today: - The first part contains a detailed introduction into computer graphics, its concepts, its methods, its tools, and its devices. It gives an easy access for the newcomer to the field and it offers an overview of the state of the art in computer graphics. - The second part is devoted to interactive techniques. This is currently one of the most important fields of research in computer graphics. Important aspects of this research and its current state are reported. From the developments described here, in the near future powerful generally applicable user interface management systems are likely to evolve.



Introduction to Computer Graphics (Part I)

I. Introduction to Computer Graphics (Part I)

I should like to thank my colleagues Tony Arnold and Terry Hewitt for their help in producing these notes. The notes on graphics hardware are based partially on those written by Tony for Eurographics 82.
R. J. Hubbold

Introduction to Computer Graphics (Part II)

II. Introduction to Computer Graphics (Part II)

Use of perspective is an example of a projection technique with which we are all familiar. Engineers and others commonly use other types of projection for their drawings, such as multi-view orthographic projections and axonometric projection.
R. J. Hubbold

Introduction to Computer Graphics (Part III)

III. Introduction to Computer Graphics (Part III)

As shown in Figure 1, there are two major functional components to every graphics application:
  • construct objects by extracting information from the data base.
  • convert the object specifications into image specifications.
R. D. Bergeron

Interactive Techniques

IV. Interactive Techniques

The programmer of an interactive program has a complex task to perform. In addition to the specification of correct, efficient algorithms he must pay continuous attention to the way the program will manifest itself to the observing user when run and by what means the user can influence the problem solving process. The success of the program depends as much on how easily the user can interact with it as on the efficiency and correctness of the algorithms.
P. J. W. ten Hagen

Specification Tools and Implementation Techniques

V. Specification Tools and Implementation Techniques

Within the last few years, more and more research work has been invested in the area of man-machine communication. This is a natural consequence of the ongoing demand for improved man-machine-interfaces of a growing user community. Reviewing the history of computing starting with batch processing steps of improvement have been the fixed dialogue, offering the user on-line editing, testing and computing, and the programmable dialogue, allowing the system’s programmer or expert user to adjust the dialogue to applications1 and users’ requirements. Today’s efforts aim at systems capable to adjust the dialogue structure themselves to user characteristics. It is assumed that a successful solution to this problem would increase acceptance and efficiency of computer usage.
H. G. Borufka, H. Hanusa, H. R. Weber

The Graphical Kernel System

VI. The Graphical Kernel System

The Graphical Kernel System GKS /1/ has been developed in a long process since 1976 and finally evolved as the internationally recognized sound standard for computer graphics it is today. The original design was done by the German Standards Institute DIN subcommittee NI 5.9. It was accepted by ISO as work item covered by ISO working group ISO TC97/SC5/WG2 Graphics. During the process of international reviewing GKS was refined and improved. The actual status of GKS is ISO Draft International Standard (ISO/DIS 7942) and is expected soon to become International Standard. During this last step from ISO DIS to IS only editorial but no more technical changes are possible.
J. Schönhut

Case Study of GKS Development


Chapter 1. Introduction

The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (Rutherford) is the largest of the institutes run by the Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) of Great Britain: about 2000 people work there. The SERC provides extensive computing facilities to about 3500 research workers throughout Great Britain. The computer power is provided by a number of mainframes located at Rutherford and another laboratory:
  • 1 IBM 3081
  • 1 IBM 3032
  • 1 ICL Atlas 10 (alias Fujitsu M380)
  • 1 NAS 7000
and a network of smaller machines that cover the whole country:
  • 15 Prime 400/550/750
  • 25 GEC 4000
  • 8 VAX 11/780
Paul J. W. ten Hagen

Chapter 2. Output and Attributes

As noted above, the workstation interface is very ‘high’ in our implementation; most GKS functions are either passed through the front-end directly to the relevant workstations or are handled entirely within the front-end.
Paul J. W. ten Hagen

Chapter 3. Input System

GKS organizes its input functions into six classes:
  • * STROKE
  • * CHOICE
  • * PICK
  • * STRING
and three modes:
  • * SAMPLE
  • * EVENT
Paul J. W. ten Hagen

Chapter 4. Segments

A number of possibilities existed for the implementation of segments.
Paul J. W. ten Hagen

Chapter 5. Metafiles

Since the days when GKS was purely a DIN paper, the document has defined an interface to a graphics metafile system and has included an example of a format that is sufficient for the purpose. In the GKS document, this is in annex E and is provided purely as an example, since it is not part of the formal standard.
Paul J. W. ten Hagen

Chapter 6. Conclusions

The problems may be split into those that were self-inflicted and those that are intrinsic to GKS.
Paul J. W. ten Hagen

Surface Design Foundations

VIII. Surface Design Foundations

The tutorial covers all major surface design methods, including the underlying curve schemes. Tensor product surfaces are described in the forms of Bezier, Coons, and B-Spline surfaces. These methods are also carried over to triangular surface patches. Where appropriate, interpolation aspects are treated as well as approximations.
W. Böhm, G. Farin

Geometric Modelling — Fundamentals

IX. Geometric Modelling — Fundamentals

A model is some analogue of an entity of interest, sharing some of its properties. Physical models typically share shape but not size, nor detail.
M. A. Sabin

Solid Modeling: Theory and Applications

X. Solid Modeling: Theory and Applications

In his famous article in Scientific American, Ivan Sutherland introduced computer graphics by the following:
“I think of a computer display as a window on Alice’s Wonderland in which a programmer can depict either objects that obey well-known natural laws or purely imaginary objects that follow laws he has written into his program. Through computer displays I have landed an airplane on the deck of a moving carrier, observed a nuclear particle hit a potential wall, flown in a rocket at nearly the speed of light and watched a computer reveal its innermost workings.” (Sutherland, 1970)
Now, little more than a decade later, similar experiences are within the reach of almost everyone. Ingenious electrical toys use computer graphics to give their user the possibility to fight against enemies from other worlds, to drive a Grand Prix car race, or to hunt savage animals. Popular movies include synthesized scenes that could not be created by other means than computer graphics. In their profession, many people utilized computer graphics as a means to interact with phenomena ranging from simulated mechanical assemblies to office procedures.
M. Mäntylä
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