Antifouling paints incorporating tributyltin (TBT) compounds were introduced in Europe in the 1960s and within a decade were in widespread use. The French shellfish industry experienced problems with the cultivation of oysters in the 1970s, and scientific investigations suggested these were caused by TBT. Many of the problems were resolved when the use of TBT paints on small boats was banned in 1982. Similar effects were noted in the United Kingdom, and controls were first introduced to limit the TBT content of paints. These controls proved insufficient to protect shell fisheries and the general environment, and new problem areas were seen in fresh waters and where TBT was used on nets in salmon farms. The United Kingdom therefore banned the use of TBT, except on vessels >25 m, in 1987. A number of European countries have taken some action, or are considering doing so, and a European Community Directive will harmonize the regulations of member states by 1991. Scientists and policy makers are still undecided on whether TBT antifoulants used on large vessels constitute a risk to the environment during normal operations; current research is addressing this issue. Unregulated drydock practices involving cleaning and repainting can, however, lead to discharges containing unacceptably high concentrations of TBT; steps are therefore being taken to control these discharges. The need for further action is being considered within the international conventions (Paris, Helsinki, and Barcelona) and in the International Maritime Organization.
Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
- European Policy and Regulatory Action for Organotin-Based Antifouling Paints
- Springer Netherlands
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen