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1. 1 Purpose of the Study When the Agreement for the Foundation of the European Economic Community (EC Treaty) was extended and changed by the Single European Act (SEA), ratified by all the Member States of the European Community (EC) in July 1987, research and techno­ logical development were placed for the first time on an equal footing with other politi­ cal competences of the EC. In the newly added Articles 130 f - q of the EC Treaty the aims and policy measures are clearly formulated, thus giving the EC a real competence to act. The main aim of European research and technological development policy (RID policy) is (according to Article 130f of the SEA) to strengthen the scientific and technical basis of European industry and the development of its international competitiveness, to support transnational cooperation between industry and science, and to integrate the area of research and technological development into the general concept for the realisation of the internal market of the European Community. The main instruments of European RID policy are the "Community Framework Pro­ grammes", running for several years, in which the aims, priorities and fmancial dimen­ sions are defmed for a period of four to five years.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. Introduction

Abstract
When the Agreement for the Foundation of the European Economic Community (EC Treaty) was extended and changed by the Single European Act (SEA), ratified by all the Member States of the European Community (EC) in July 1987, research and technological development were placed for the first time on an equal footing with other political competences of the EC. In the newly added Articles 130 f — q of the EC Treaty the aims and policy measures are clearly formulated, thus giving the EC a real competence to act. The main aim of European research and technological development policy (RTD policy) is (according to Article 130f of the SEA)
  • to strengthen the scientific and technical basis of European industry and the development of its international competitiveness,
  • to support transnational cooperation between industry and science, and
  • to integrate the area of research and technological development into the general concept for the realisation of the internal market of the European Community.
Guido Reger, Stefan Kuhlmann

2. The RTD Policy of Germany and the European Community

Abstract
Before analysing the importance of EC RTD support for Germany, it is appropriate to describe the German research and innovation system and present its actors.
Guido Reger, Stefan Kuhlmann

3. The Structure of German Participants in the Second Framework Programme

Abstract
Precise and systematically coordinated data on the structure of German participants in the research and technological development support of the European Community under the Second Framework Programme were not publicly available until now. In order to fill this information gap, ISI had access to the AMPERE data bank of the Commission of the European Community, which placed these data on German participation at our disposal. This enabled us to undertake a structural analysis of German participants according to type of institution (enterprise, higher education institute, non-university R&D institute), size, position in the project consortium, regional distribution and EC programme affiliation. The analysis was mainly confined to the frequency of participation in EC projects; only in a few cases could the financial contribution of the EC be used as an indicator. Unfortunately, for some programmes information is only available on the EC’s financial contribution to the EC project as a whole, and not on the shares of the German participant.
Guido Reger, Stefan Kuhlmann

4. Importance of EC RTD Policy and its Influence on Enterprises

Abstract
209 of the enterprises participating in the Second Framework Programme completed our written questionnaire. However, they did not always answer all questions, so that in some questions there are slight deviations from the figure of 209 replies. Two participating and six non-participating enterprises did not answer the question on firm size categories; thus in the tables the disaggregation of responses into BIGs and SMEs relates to 207 participating and 271 non-participating firms (cf. Table 4.1.1). The sum of the answers of BIGs and SMEs when separately given is thus smaller than those of the whole group of enterprises together.
Guido Reger, Stefan Kuhlmann

5. Importance of EC RTD Policy and its Influence on Institutes of Higher Education

Abstract
The German higher education sector is regarded as well developed and — following a wave of foundations in the 1960s and 1970s — well distributed regionally. In the new Länder (previously the GDR) the higher education system was totally re-organised at the beginning of the 90s (see also Krull 1992). Today there are 312 higher education institutes (HEIs) in Germany (state at the beginning of 1992); these comprise
  • 86 academic universities (“Hochschulen”) that are universities with the right to confer PhDs. With a few exceptions, the universities engage in teaching and research in a wide range of scientific disciplines. After the research laboratories of industry, the universities represent the most extensive research potential in Germany.
  • 124 technical colleges (“Fachhochschulen”): These arose in the 1970s (usually superseding previous, older institutions, such as state colleges of engineering) and provide practice-oriented, job-oriented, science-based training particularly in the various fields of engineering, especially electrotechnics, mechanical engineering, civil engineering and architecture. The technical colleges do not have the right to confer PhDs. For some years now, they have increasingly been performing applications-related R&D, and they are also involved in the process of technology transfer to regional industry. For these reasons they were included in this survey.
  • About 100 other higher education establishments in the fields of teacher training, theology, music, the fine arts and public administration; these are not included in this survey.
Guido Reger, Stefan Kuhlmann

6. The Importance of EC RTD Policy and its Influence on Non-university R&D Institutes

Abstract
The following chapter is concerned with R&D institutions outside the higher education sector. This is a heterogeneous sector which has been enlarged and has undergone some changes as a result of German unification. In the new Länder (formerly the GDR), a research landscape which was previously quite differently structured has been being assimilated since 1990 into the western research landscape of the Federal Republic of Germany. Non-university research institutes, referred to in the following as non-university R&D institutes (RDIs), are made up of (cf BMFT 1993):
  • 16 national research centres (Großforschungseinrichtungen/GFEs) in the old Länder, and 8 branch institutes and 3 new national research centres in the new Länder, accounting for a total of ca. 5% of German expenditure on R&D; these GFEs perform basic and applied research and have big items of equipment designed for special fundamental high technology research; these institutes receive varying rates of public support which may be up to 90% of basic financing; 90% of this is contributed by the federal government and 10% by the Länder in which the institutes are located.
  • The Max Planck Society (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft/MPG), which currently has 62 research institutes in the old Länder, and in the new Länder 2 institutes, 2 branch institutes and 28 working groups on a temporary 5-year basis; the MPG conducts mainly basic research in selected areas of the natural sciences and the arts, and accounts for just under 2% of German R&D expenditure; the MPG receives institutional support from the federal government and the Länder; the level of this basic financing in 1991 was 83%.
Guido Reger, Stefan Kuhlmann

7. RTD Support and the New Länder

Abstract
When the previous German Democratic Republic (GDR) joined the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990, the European Community’s Second Framework Programme was already running. Thus it was not to be expected that institutions in the new Länder would take part in this EC Programme to any great extent. Consequently, Chapter 7 can only give first indications of conditions that affect the use of EC RTD support which arise from the special situation in the new Länder.
Guido Reger, Stefan Kuhlmann

8. Assessment and Conclusions: Impact of Community Policy for the German Research Landscape

Abstract
In the preceding chapters we have presented the results of our written questionnaire and interviews with R&D performers in the German research landscape. This chapter gives a summary and assessment of these results as we see them. The structure of the chapter does not follow the various groups of protagonists separately, but centres on a cross-group examination of the following points:
  • the importance of EC RTD support for the German research landscape and for participating R&D institutions,
  • a characterisation of EC projects,
  • the aims of the Second Framework Programme and the extent to which they are reflected in the aims of participants,
  • impacts on R&D performers and policy actors, and their relationship to the aims of the Second Framework Programme.
Guido Reger, Stefan Kuhlmann

9. Outlook

Abstract
Important reasons for the present high degree of acceptance of EC support in Germany are the transnational cooperation towards which the EC programmes are directed and the orientation towards medium-term or applied research. Provided the participating enterprises do not have to worry about distortions of their competitive situation or know-how “leaks” to competitors they will participate in a joint R&D project. Thus, from the viewpoint of many German actors, the orientation of the Community programmes towards applied research is a “conditio sine qua non” for the shaping of future EC programmes.
Guido Reger, Stefan Kuhlmann

Backmatter

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