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## Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering, ENASE 2017, held in Porto, Portugal, in April 2017.
The 12 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 102 submissions. The mission of ENASE is to be a prime international forum to discuss and publish research findings and IT industry experiences with relation to the evaluation of novel approaches to software engineering. The conference acknowledges necessary changes in systems and software thinking due to contemporary shifts of computing paradigm to e-services, cloud computing, mobile connectivity, business processes, and societal participation.

## Inhaltsverzeichnis

### Guidelines for Designing User Interfaces to Analyze Genetic Data. Case of Study: GenDomus

New Generation Technologies (NGS) have opened new opportunities in the genetic field. Analyzing data from large quantities of DNA sequenced to transform it into knowledge has become a challenge. Several tools have been developed to support the genetic analysis, however, most of them have user interfaces that make it difficult to obtain knowledge from genetic data. The lack of design guidelines in this domain leads to the development of user interfaces that are far from satisfying the interaction needs of the domain. From the experience of designing GenDomus, a web-based application to support geneticists in the analysis of genetic data, several interaction-related considerations emerged. Based on such considerations, we present guidelines for designing user interfaces that support geneticists in the analysis of genetic data. Such guidelines become important recommendations to be considered in the design of user interfaces in the genetic field.
Carlos Iñiguez-Jarrín, Alberto García S., José F. Reyes Román, Óscar Pastor López

### Biologically Inspired Anomaly Detection Framework

Service-Oriented Computing is largely accepted as a well-founded reference paradigm for Service-Oriented Architecture that integrates Service-Oriented Middleware and the Web Service interaction patterns. In most SOA applications, SOAP as a communication protocol is adopted to develop Web services. SOAP is highly extensible and ensures confidentiality and integrity as specified within the WS-Security standards. Securing this protocol is obviously a vital issue for securing Web services and SOA applications.
One of the functionalities of SOM is to provide strong security solutions for SOC based applications. As distinct models of SOM started to develop to suit particular requirements, a complete security solution for SOA applications emerged as a new challenge. Moreover, with the wide adoption of SOC, web service applications are no longer contained within tightly controlled environments, and thus could be subjected to malicious attacks, such as Denial of Service attacks. To present, one of the most critical issues for SOM is the absence of a complete security solution. This is a state that threatens the successfulness of the Web services and SOA applications.
Our proposed Biologically Inspired Anomaly Detection Framework presents a generic security service that protects web services against denial of service attacks at the service-oriented middleware layer. It employs three processes, namely: (i) the Initiation Process, (ii) the Recognition Process and (iii) the Co-stimulation Process. These processes constitute the detection mechanism of DoS attacks usually infused in the SOAP message in the service interaction of SOA.
To evaluate our work, we have developed a prototype that showed that our proposed security service was able to detect SOAP-based DoS attacks targeting a web service. The results show that the proposed prototype was capable to detect most attacks administered to the system. The average percentage of attack detection for our prototype was 73.41% as compared to an external commercial parser which was 44.09%.
Tashreen Shaikh Jamaluddin, Hoda Hassan, Haitham Hamza

### Genomic Tools*: Web-Applications Based on Conceptual Models for the Genomic Diagnosis

Although experts in the genomics field now work with bioinformatics tools (software) to generate genomic diagnoses, the fact is that these solutions do not fully meet their needs. From the perspective of Information Systems (IS), the real problems lie in the lack of an approach (i.e., Software Engineering techniques) that can generate correct structures for data management. Due to the problems of dispersion, heterogeneity and the inconsistency of the data, understanding the genomic domain is a huge challenge. To demonstrate the advantages of Conceptual Modeling (CM) in complex domains -such as genomics- we propose two web-based tools for genomic diagnosis that incorporates: (i) a Conceptual Model for the direct-to-consumer genetic tests (DCGT), and (ii) our Conceptual Model of the Human Genome (CMHG), both with the aim of taking advantage of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) for ensuring genomic diagnostics that help to maximize the Precision Medicine (PM).
José F. Reyes Román, Carlos Iñiguez-Jarrín, Óscar Pastor

### Technological Platform for the Prevention and Management of Healthcare Associated Infections and Outbreaks

Hospital acquired infections are infections that occur in patients during hospitalization, which were not present at the time of admission. They are among the most common adverse events in healthcare around the world, leading to increased mortality and morbidity rates, prolonged hospitalization periods and considerable financial burden on both hospitals and patients. Preventive guidelines and regulations have been devised, however compliance to these is frequently poor and there is much room for improvement. This paper presents the prototype of an extensible, configurable cyber-physical system, developed under European Union funding, that will assist in the prevention of hospital infections and outbreaks. Integrating a wireless sensor network for the surveillance of clinical processes with configurable monitoring software built around a workflow engine as key component, our solution detects deviations from established hygiene practices and provides real-time information and alerts whenever an infection risk is discovered. The platform is described from both hardware and software perspective, with emphasis on the wireless network’s elements as well as the most important software components. Furthermore, two clinical workflows of different complexity, which are included in the system prototype are detailed. The finalized system is expected to facilitate the creation and automated monitoring of clinical workflows that are associated with over 90% of hospital infections.
Maria Iuliana Bocicor, Maria Dascălu, Agnieszka Gaczowska, Sorin Hostiuc, Alin Moldoveanu, Antonio Molina, Arthur-Jozsef Molnar, Ionuţ Negoi, Vlad Racoviţă

### Exploiting Requirements Engineering to Resolve Conflicts in Pervasive Computing Systems

Pervasive computing systems are complex and challenging. In this research, a novice statistical approach is introduced to resolve conflicts among the pervasive system requirements. It is based on a basic requirements model used in our reference architecture for pervasive computing (PervCompRA-SE). The approach uses the normal distribution rules to validate the solutions for the conflicts. It can save time and effort for the business analyst and the software architect especially when the system scope is too large, the access to the stakeholders is limited, or when there are constraints on the project’s timelines.
Osama M. Khaled, Hoda M. Hosny, Mohamed Shalan

### Assisting Configurations-Based Feature Model Composition

Union, Intersection and Approximate Intersection
Feature Models (FMs) have been introduced in the domain of Software Product Lines (SPL) to model and represent product variability. They have become a de facto standard, based on a logical tree structure accompanied by textual cross-tree constraints. Other representations are: (product) configuration sets from concrete software product lines, logical representations, constraint programming, or conceptual structures, coming from the Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) framework. Modeling variability through FMs may consist in extracting them from configuration sets (namely, doing FM synthesis), or designing them in several steps potentially involving several teams with different concerns. FM composition is useful in this design activity as it may assist FM iterative building. In this paper, we describe an approach, based on a configuration set and focusing on two main composition semantics (union, intersection), to assist designers in FM composition. We also introduce an approximate intersection notion. FCA is used to represent, for a product family, all the FMs that have the same configuration set through a canonical form. The approach is able to take into account cross-tree constraints and FMs with different feature sets and tree structure, thus it lets the expert free of choosing a different ontological interpretation. We describe the implementation of our approach and we present a set of concrete examples.
Jessie Carbonnel, Marianne Huchard, André Miralles, Clémentine Nebut

### A Cloud-Based Service for the Visualization and Monitoring of Factories

With standard networking technologies gaining access to the factory floors, remote monitoring and visualization of the collected information is an important topic in the field of industrial automation. Information may be used for remote operation of a production plant, for planning and conducting maintenance, for incident analysis, and for optimization purposes.
In this paper, we present a framework for the collection and visualization of data streaming from industrial automation devices such as machines in factories or robots. An important part of our framework is the use of cloud-based services to collect data from programmable logic controllers (PLCs). PLCs are used to control machines such as grippers and conveyor belts. PLCs send data to our services and clients such as analysis or visualization services can subscribe to these data channels in accordance with customer needs. Here, we focus on the visualization services themselves. In our work, data from industrial automation facilities is associated with formal semantic models. For example, a formal semantic model can be a mathematical representation of the material flow in a production plant. In general, the formal semantic models are used to represent interdependencies between entities, their functionality and other descriptive elements. Formal semantic models are in the visualization and for reasoning about systems. In order to complement the visualization and cloud-based services work, we present our demonstrator. Our demonstrator comprises an example factory, we are using Raspberry Pi-based controllers as PLCs. These are connected with each other and to the internet using standard ethernet technology.
This paper is an extended version of a previously published paper [18] by the same authors.
Guillaume Prévost, Jan Olaf Blech, Keith Foster, Heinrich W. Schmidt

### An Operational Semantics of UML2.X Sequence Diagrams for Distributed Systems

UML2.X sequence diagrams (SD) are equipped with high structures: the combined fragments (CF) that permit to model complex behaviours of systems. CF can be nested to allow more sophisticated behaviours, however they complicate the interpretation of the SD and the computation of precedence relations between the events.
In a previous work, we proposed a causal semantics for UML2.X SD. It is based partial order theory, its well-defined relations allow the computation of all precedence relations for the events of UML2.X SD with nested CF. We considered the most popular CF of control-flow altoptloopseq allowing to model respectively alternative, optional, iterative and sequential behaviours. In this work, we improve that previous work to consider a par CF allowing to model parallel behaviours, and we propose an operational semantics that is based on the causal semantics. The proposed operational semantics is a substantial step towards the refinement checking and the analysis of some properties of SD.
Fatma Dhaou, Ines Mouakher, J. Christian Attiogbé, Khaled Bsaies

### Fast Prototyping of Web-Based Information Systems Using a Restricted Natural Language Specification

Early phases of the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) like requirements elicitation and model design are often critical for the project success. These phases are also linked to several project problems and failure causes, delaying the project finalization and increasing its total cost. Several strategies to mitigate the effects of errors in these early stages have been proposed. Some of these include: GUI based fast prototyping; agile software development methodologies; and, as in this work, automatic model (or source code) generation from a natural language specification. Although these approaches can reduce production time and costs, they can also be slow and imprecise leading to development difficulties. This work proposes an approach to obtain a functional prototype of a web-based process-oriented information system, using only a restricted natural language specification as an input. This approach allows the processing of the input to be faster and more precise than the approaches proposed previously. Two case studies are presented in order to validate the proposal and demonstrate its applicability.
Jean Pierre Alfonso Hoyos, Felipe Restrepo-Calle

### Model-Based Analysis of Temporal Properties

In our previous work, we introduced a framework for property-based testing applied on formal models with temporal properties. In this paper, we discuss model-based approaches for analysis of temporal properties of safety-critical systems more deeply. We also discuss the core features of $$\textsc {Focus}^{ST}$$, framework for formal specification and analysis of temporal and spatial properties of safety-critical systems. To illustrate the feasibility of the framework, we demonstrate how to implement on its basis time-triggered and event-based view on systems with temporal properties.
Maria Spichkova

### Towards a Java Library to Support Runtime Metaprogramming

Statically typed languages such as Java offer two key advantages: robustness increase due to compile time error detection, and better runtime performance caused by the reduction of runtime type checking. However, dynamic languages are sometimes preferred in scenarios where runtime adaptability is a strong requirement, such as building software capable of adapting to runtime changing environments. The metaprogramming features of dynamic languages allow the runtime adaptation of class and object structures, modifying inheritance relationships, and the evaluation of dynamically generated code. In this position paper, we describe the steps we are following to add to Java some of the metaprogramming services provided by most dynamic languages. The objective is to provide the runtime flexibility of structural intercession, dynamic inheritance and dynamic code evaluation, without losing the robustness of compile-time type checking. The metaprogramming services are provided as a library so, unlike other existing systems, any standard virtual machine and language implementation could be used.
Ignacio Lagartos, Jose Manuel Redondo, Francisco Ortin

### Design Approaches for Critical Embedded Systems: A Systematic Mapping Study

Critical Embedded Systems (CES) are systems in which failures are potentially catastrophic and, therefore, hard constraints are imposed on them. In the last years the amount of software accommodated within CES has considerably changed. For example, in smart cars the amount of software has grown about 100 times compared to previous years. This change means that software design for these systems is also bounded to hard constraints (e.g., high security and performance). Along the evolution of CES, the approaches for designing them are also changing rapidly, so as to fit the specialized needs of CES. Thus, a broad understanding of such approaches is missing. Therefore, this study aims to establish a fair overview on CESs design approaches. For that, we conducted a Systematic Mapping Study (SMS), in which we collected 1,673 papers from five digital libraries, filtered 269 primary studies, and analyzed five facets: design approaches, applications domains, critical quality attributes, tools, and type of evidence. Our findings show that the body of knowledge is vast and overlaps with other types of systems (e.g., real-time or cyber-physical systems). In addition, we have observed that some critical quality attributes are common among various application domains, as well as approaches and tools are oftentimes generic to CES.
Daniel Feitosa, Apostolos Ampatzoglou, Paris Avgeriou, Frank J. Affonso, Hugo Andrade, Katia R. Felizardo, Elisa Y. Nakagawa

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