Sulfur is one of the essential elements. It plays a dominant role in atmospheric chemistry as well as in biological processes. Recent estimates of total natural sulfur emissions into the atmosphere, including the contribution of both plants and soils (4–15 Tg (S) a−1 range around 65 (± 25) Tg S a−1 (Andreae and Jaeschke, 1992), which is equivalent to estimates of man-made sulfur emissions of 93 ± 15 Tg S a−1 (Cullis and Hirschler, 1980). Organisms use sulfur for the synthesis of a large number of substances, for example amino acids and proteins. In addition resistance, defence and detoxification mechanisms including sulfur containing compounds are discussed (see Ernst 1990; Haines et al. 1989; Rennenberg 1991). Thus sulfur compounds are found in primary as well as secondary metabolism. Volatile sulfur compounds are exchanged between biosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. The original assumption that microbial activities were the main source for biogenic H2S in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems (Hill 1973, Granat et al. 1976) changed following reports on biogenic emissions from vegetation (see reviews: Aneja and Cooper, 1989; Rennenberg, 1991). Today it is well accepted that higher plants are involved in the atmospheric sulfur cycle. Both, uptake and emission of volatile reduced sulfur compounds by plants have been reported (Kluczewski et al., 1985; Taylor et al., 1983, De Kok et al., 1989, 1991; Brown et al., 1986; Goldan et al., 1988, Fall et al., 1988; Rennenberg et al., 1990, Rennenberg 1991; Kesselmeier 1991, Schröder 1993).
Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
- Exchange of Sulfur Gases between the Biosphere and the Atmosphere
J. W. Erisman
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
- Chapter 7