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The EU was jolted awake from its period of strategic consciousness as the result of a combination of internal challenges (such as the sovereign debt crisis and later the challenges emerging from irregular migration) as well as external changes in the international system. In spite of the Union’s dawning consciousness, precious years were lost in introversion stemming from the financial crisis as well as the implementation of institutional and structural changes within the EU stemming from the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty. The continuing lack of any convincing overarching strategy to guide the EU in the world, or meta-narrative, led to reliance upon process-led diplomacy and an audit culture. Efforts were made to link together the various tools and instruments of the Union’s external actions in the form of a comprehensive approach, but at risk that this would became a qua strategy in its own right.
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- Existential Doubts and Strategic Dilemmas
- Palgrave Macmillan UK
- Chapter 3
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