Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
The chapter offers a systematic overview of the use of digital tools for various forms of political participation and the experiences made so far, based on an extensive literature review. Discerning three key functions of e-participation—monitoring, agenda-setting and input to decision-making—the authors review a variety of formally institutionalised mechanisms as well as informal expressions of civic engagement, including social media. The examination of digital tool use for monitoring purposes extends from electronic information access and exchange to e-deliberation, while the role for agenda-setting mainly includes uses for e-petitions and e-campaigning, showing a mixed picture of democratic impacts. The review of e-participation providing input for decision-making focusses on e-consultations, e-participative budgeting and e-voting, identifying several persisting problems with the latter instrument. A special section examines e-participation at EU-level, from deliberative citizens’ involvement projects and e-consultation to the European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI) and e-petitions to the European Parliament. Findings show that digital tools enhance direct and participative democracy in many respects; however, exaggerated expectations of new democratic potentials remain unfulfilled: deliberative participative designs lack any impact on decision-making, and the ECI still is rather an instrument for civil society mobilisation than citizen empowerment.
Aitamurto, T., & Landemore, H. (2016). Crowdsourced deliberation: The case of the law on off-road traffic in Finland. Policy and Internet, 8(2), 174–196. CrossRef
Alathur, S., Ilavarasan, P. V., & Gupta, M. P. (2012). Citizen participation and effectiveness of e-petition: Sutharyakeralam – India. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 6(4), 392–403. CrossRef
Albrecht, S. (2012). E-Consultations: A review of current practice and a proposal for opening up the process. In E. Tambouris, A. Macintosh, & O. Saebo (Eds.), Electronic participation (pp. 13–24). Berlin: Springer. CrossRef
Alemanno, A. (2018). Beyond consultations: Reimagining European participatory democracy. Carnegie Europe, reshaping European democracy. Accessed January 23, 2019, from https://ssrn.com/abstract=3304510
Allcott, H., & Gentzkow, M. (2017). Social media and fake news in the 2016 election. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31(2), 211–236. CrossRef
Andersen, K. N., & Medaglia, R. (2009). The use of Facebook in national election campaigns: Politics as usual? Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 5694, 101–111. CrossRef
Arthur, C. (2014, May 12). Estonian e-voting shouldn’t be used in European elections, say security experts. Accessed February 23, 2019, from https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/may/12/estonian-e-voting-security-warning-european-elections-research
Åström, J., Jonsson, M., & Karlsson, M. (2016). Democratic innovations: Reinforcing or changing perceptions of trust? International Journal of Public Administration, 1–13.
Badouard, R. (2010). Pathways and obstacles to eParticipation at the European level. A comparative analysis of the European Citizens’ Consultation 2009 and the online consultations of the European Commission . JeDEM, 2 (2), 99–110. Accessed January 23, 2019, from http://jedem.org/index.php/jedem/article/view/30 CrossRef
Baek, Y. M., Wojcieszak, M., & Carpini, M. X. D. (2012). Online versus face-to-face deliberation: Who? Why? What? With what effects? New Media and Society, 14(3), 363–383. CrossRef
Ballesteros, M., Canetta, E., & Zaciu, A. (2014). European citizens’ initiative – First lessons of implementation. Study. European Parliament, Directorate General for Internal Policies, Policy Department C: Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs. Brussels: European Parliament. Accessed January 23, 2019, from www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2014/509982/IPOL_STU(2014)509982_EN.pdf
Barber, B. J. (1984). Strong democracy: Participatory politics for a new age. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Baringhorst, S. (2009). Introduction. Political campaigning in changing media cultures – typological and historical approaches. In S. Baringhorst, V. Kneip, & J. Niesyto (Eds.), Political campaigning on the web (pp. 9–30). Bielefeld: Transcript. CrossRef
Barrett, G., Wyman, M., & Schattan, P. C. V. (2012). Assessing the policy impacts of deliberative civic engagement. In T. Nabatchi, J. Gastil, M. Leighninger, & G. M. Weiksner (Eds.), Democracy in motion: Evaluating the practice and impact of deliberative civic engagement (pp. 181–204). Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.
Berg, C., & Głogowski, P. (2014). An overview of the first two years of the European citizens’ initiative. In C. Berg, & J. Thomson (Eds.), An ECI that works! Learning from the first two years of the European Citizens’ Initiative. The ECI Campaign (pp. 11–18). Accessed January 22, 2019, from www.ecithatworks.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/An_ECI_That_Works.pdf
Berg, C., & Thomson, J. (2014). Lessons and recommendations for an ECI that works. In C. Berg, & J. Thomson (Eds.), An ECI that works! Learning from the first two years of the European Citizens’ Initiative. The ECI Campaign (pp. 118–122). Accessed January 22, 2019, from http://www.ecithatworks.org/wpcontent/uploads/2014/04/An_ECI_That_Works.pdf
Beroggi, G. (2014). Internet voting: An empirical evaluation. Computer, 47(4), 44–50. CrossRef
Beroggi, G., Moser, P., & Bierer, D. (2011). Evaluation der E-Voting Testphase im Kanton Zürich 2008-2011: Testphase basierend auf RRB 1770/2007.
Bochel, C. (2013). Petitions systems: Contributing to representative democracy? Parliamentary Affairs, 66(4), 798–815. CrossRef
Boussaguet, L. (2016). Participatory mechanisms as symbolic policy instruments? Comparative European Politics, 14(1), 107–124. CrossRef
Bouza García, L. (2012). New rules, new players? The ECI as a source of competition and contention in the European public sphere. Perspectives on European Politics and Society, 13(3), 337–351. CrossRef
Bräunlich, K., Grimm, R., Richter, P., & Roßnagel, A. (2013). Sichere Internetwahlen: Ein rechtswissenschaftlich-informatisches Modell. Baden-Baden: Nomos. CrossRef
Buell, D. A. (2015). Computer Security and the Risks of Online Voting. Communications of the ACM, 58(7), 13–14.
Cabannes, Y. (2015). The impact of participatory budgeting on basic services: Municipal practices and evidence from the field. Environment and Urbanization, 27(1), 257–284. CrossRef
Cardenal, A. S. (2011). Why mobilize support online? The paradox of party behavior online. Party Politics, 19(1), 83–103. CrossRef
Carrara, S. (2012). Towards e-ECIs? European participation by online pan-European mobilization. Perspectives on European Politics and Society, 13(3), 352–369. CrossRef
Carter, L., & Campbell, R. (2011). The impact of trust and relative advantage on internet voting diffusion. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 6(3), 28–42. CrossRef
Chadwick, A. (2011). Explaining the failure of an online citizen engagement initiative: The role of internal institutional variables. Journal of Information Technology and Politics, 8(1), 21–40. CrossRef
Cho, J., & Keum, H. (2016). Leveling or tilting the playing field: Social networking sites and offline political communication inequality. Social Science Journal, 53(2), 236–246. CrossRef
Coleman, S., & Moss, G. (2012). Under construction: The field of online deliberation research. Journal of Information Technology and Politics, 9(1), 1–15. CrossRef
Coleman, S., & Spiller, J. (2003). Exploring new media effects on representative democracy. The Journal of Legislative Studies, 9(3), 1–16. CrossRef
Collingwood, L., & Reedy, J. (2012). Listening and responding to criticisms of deliberative civic engagement. In T. Nabatchi, J. Gastil, M. Leighninger, & G. M. Weiksner (Eds.), Democracy in motion: Evaluating the practice and impact of deliberative civic engagement (pp. 233–259). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Conrad, M. (2013). Small-states perspective on the European citizens’ initiative. Icelandic Review of Politics and Administration, 9(2), 301–322. CrossRef
Council of Europe. (2005). Legal, operational and technical standards for e-voting: Recommendation Rec(2004)11 adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 30 September 2004 and explanatory memorandum.
Davies, T., & Chandler, R. (2013). Online deliberation design: Choices, criteria, and evidence. In T. Nabatchi, J. Gastil, M. Leighninger, & G. M. Weiksner (Eds.), Democracy in motion: Evaluating the practice and impact of deliberative civic engagement (pp. 103–131). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Davis, R. (2005). Politics online. Blogs, chatrooms and discussion groups in American democracy. New York, NY: Routledge.
Driza-Maurer, A., Spycher, O., & Taglioni, G., Weber, A. (2012). E-voting for Swiss Abroad: A joint project between the confederation and the cantons. In M. Kripp, M. Volkamer, & R. Grimm (Eds.), Electronic Voting 2012. Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Electronic Voting 2012 (EVOTE2012) (pp. 173–187), Bonn.
Duinkerken, M. J. (2013). Die Europäische Bürgerinitiative – Ein effektives Instrument direkter Partizipation? Bachelor thesis. Accessed January 22, 2019, from www.epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/15085/1/Duinkerken_Final_41.pdf
Dunne, K. (2015). ICTs: Convenient, yet subsidiary tools in changing democracy. International Journal of E-Politics (IJEP), 6(2), 1–13. CrossRef
EC – European Commission. (2002). Towards a reinforced culture of consultation and dialogue – General principles and minimum standards for consultation of interested parties by the Commission. Communication from the Commission, COM(2002) 704 final Brussels, 11.12.2002.
EC – European Commission. (2015). Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council. Report on the application of Regulation (EU) No 211/2011 on the citizens’ initiative. Brussels, 31.3.2015, COM(2015) 145 final. Accessed January 23, 2019, from http://ec.europa.eu/transparency/regdoc/rep/1/2015/EN/1-2015-145-EN-F1-1.PDF
EC – European Commission. (2016). Compendium of international standards for Elections. Accessed January 23, 2019, from www.eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/compendium-en-n-pdf.pdf
EC – European Commission. (2017). Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the European Citizens’ Initiative. Brussels, 13.9.2017, COM(2017) 482 final. Accessed January 23, 2019, from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/docs_autres_institutions/commission_europeenne/com/2017/0482/COM_COM(2017)0482_EN.pdf
Edwards, A., & de Kool, D. (2016). Digital democracy: Opportunities and dilemmas. The Dutch parliament in a networked society. Den Haag: Rathenau Instituut.
El Noshokaty, A. S., Deng, S., & Kwak, D. H. (2016). Success factors of online petitions: Evidence from change.org . Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
EP – European Parliament. (2014). European Citizens’ initiative – First lessons of implementation. Directorate General for Internal Policies. Policy Department C: Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs. Petitions and Constitutional Affairs.
Escher, T. (2011). TheyWorkForYou.com . Analysis of users and usage for UK Citizens Online Democracy. Retrieved from http://www.mysociety.org/files/2011/06/TheyWorkForYou_research_report-2011-Tobias-Escher1.pdf. Accessed January 23, 2019.
Fedotova, O., Teixeira, L., & Alvelos, H. (2012). E-participation in Portugal: Evaluation of government electronic platforms. In J. Varajao, M. Cunha, P. Yetton, & R. Rijo (Eds.), 4th Conference of enterprise information systems – Aligning technology, organizations and people (Vol. 5, pp. 152–161).
Font, J., del Amo, S. P., & Smith, G. (2016). Tracing the impact of proposals from participatory processes: Methodological challenges and substantive lessons. Journal of Public Deliberation, 12(1), Article 3.
Frey, C. B., Berger, T., & Chen, C. (2018). Political machinery: Did robots swing the 2016 US presidential election? Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 34(3), 418–442. CrossRef
Garrone, P. (2005). Fundamental and political rights in electronic elections. In A. H. Trechsel & F. Mendez (Eds.), The European Union and E-voting – Addressing the European Parliament’s internet voting challenge (pp. 111–123). New York: Routledge.
Gastil, J. (2013). A comparison of deliberative designs and policy impact in the EU and across the globe, Chapter 9. In R. Kies & P. Nanz (Eds.), Is Europe listening to us? Success and failure of EU citizen consultations (pp. 217–237). Farnham: Ashgate.
Germann, M., & Serdült, U. (2014). Internet voting for expatriates: The Swiss case. Journal of eDemocracy, 6(2), 197–215.
Gherghina, S., & Groh, A. (2016). A poor sales pitch? The European citizens’ initiative and attitudes toward the EU in Germany and the UK. European Politics and Society, 17(3), 373–387. CrossRef
Głogowski, P., & Maurer, A. (2013). The European citizens’ initiative – Chances, constraints and limits, political science series. Vienna, Austria: Institute for Advanced Studies.
Goncalves, S. (2013). The effects of participatory budgeting on municipal expenditures and infant mortality in Brazil. World Development, 53, 94–110. CrossRef
Gordon, V., Osgood, J. L., & Boden, D. (2017). The role of citizen participation and the use of social media platforms in the participatory budgeting process. International Journal of Public Administration, 40(1), 65–76.
Graham, T., Jackson, D., & Wright, S. (2016). ‘We need to get together and make ourselves heard’: Everyday online spaces as incubators of political action. Information Communication and Society, 19(10), 1373–1389. CrossRef
Greenwood, J. (2012). The European citizens’ initiative and EU civil society organisations. Perspectives on European Politics and Society, 13(3), 325–336. CrossRef
Grimmelikhuijsen, S. G., & Meijer, A. J. (2014). Effects of transparency on the perceived trustworthiness of a government organization: Evidence from an online experiment. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 24(1), 137–157. CrossRef
Guidetti, M., Cavazza, N., & Graziani, A. R. (2016). Perceived disagreement and heterogeneity in social networks: Distinct effects on political participation. Journal of Social Psychology, 156(2), 222–242. CrossRef
Hale, S. A., Margetts, H., & Yasseri, T. (2013, May). Petition growth and success rates on the UK No. 10 Downing Street website. In Proceedings of the 5th Annual ACM Web Science Conference (pp. 132–138).
Hall, T. (2012). Electronic voting. In N. Kersting (Ed.), Electronic democracy (pp. 153–176). Opladen: Barbara Budrich Publishers. CrossRef
Heiberg, S., Laud, P., & Willemson, J. (2012). The application of I-voting for Estonian parliamentary elections of 2011. In A. Kiayias & H. Lipmaa (Eds.), E-Voting and Identity. Vote ID 2011. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 7187 (pp. 208–223). Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.
Heidelberger, C. A. (2009). Electronic participatory budgeting: Supporting community deliberation and decision-making with online tools. Conference Paper Midwest Decision Sciences Institute Conference, Miami University, Oxford, OH, April 16–18.
Hern, A. (2018). The Guardian. Cambridge Analytica: How did it turn clicks into votes? (online). Published 6.05.2018. Accessed January 23, 2019, from https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/may/06/cambridge-analytica-how-turn-clicks-into-votes-christopher-wylie
Hill, R. (2015). Challenging an E-voting system in court: An experience report. In R. Haenni et al. (Eds.), VoteID 2015 (pp. 161–171).
Howard, P. N., Woolley, S., & Calo, R. (2018). Algorithms, bots, and political communication in the US 2016 election: The challenge of automated political communication for election law and administration. Journal of Information Technology and Politics, 15(2), 81–93. CrossRef
Hrbek, R. (2012). National and European political parties and the European citizens’ initiative. Perspectives on European Politics and Society, 13(3), 370–384. CrossRef
Hüller, T. (2008). Gut beraten? Die Online-Konsultationen der EU Kommission. Zeitschrift für Politikberatung, 1(3), 359–382. CrossRef
Im, T., Cho, W., Porumbescu, G., & Park, J. (2014). Internet, trust in government, and citizen compliance. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 24(3), 741–763. CrossRef
Jones, D., & Simons, B. (2012). Broken ballots: Will your vote count? (CSLI lecture notes, Vol. 204). Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Karatzia, A. (2013). The European citizens’ initiative: Giving voice to EU citizens. King’s student law review. London: King’s College. Accessed January 23, 2019, from http://blogs.kcl.ac.uk/kslreuropeanlawblog/?p=452#.VIbxlsnm59M
Karlsen, R. (2011). Still broadcasting the campaign. On the Internet and the fragmentation of political communication with evidence from Norwegian electoral politics. Journal of Information Technology and Politics, 8(2), 146–162. CrossRef
Karlsson, M. (2010). A panacea for Pan-European citizen participation? Analysis of the 2009 European citizen consultations. In E. Amna (Ed.), New forms of citizen participation: Normative implications (pp. 97–112). Baden-Baden: Nomos.
Karlsson, M. (2011). Connecting citizens to the European parliament: E-consultations as a tool for political representation. In Z. Sobaci (Ed.), E-Parliament and ICT-based legislation: Concept, experiences and lessons (pp. 80–102). Hershey, PA: IGI-Global.
Kaufmann, B. (2012). Transnational ‘Babystep’: The European citizens’ initiative. In M. Setala & T. Schiller (Eds.), Citizens’ initiatives in Europe. Procedures and consequences of Agenda-setting by citizens (pp. 101–116). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kersting, N. (2005). The quality of political discourse: Can e-discussion be deliberative? Paper presented at the British Political Studies Association Annual Conference 5–7 April, Leeds.
Kersting, N. (2013). Online participation: from ‘invited’ to ‘invented’ spaces. International Journal of Electronic Governance, 6(4), 270–280. CrossRef
Kersting, N., & Baldersheim, H. (Eds.). (2004). Electronic voting and democracy. A comparative analysis. London: Palgrave.
Kies, R., & Nanz, P. (2013). Introduction. In R. Kies & P. Nanz (Eds.), Is Europe listening to us? Success and failure of EU citizen consultations (pp. 1–16). Farnham: Ashgate.
Kies, R., Leyenaar, M., & Niemöller, K. (2013). European citizen’s consultation: A large consultation on a vague topic. In R. Kies & P. Nanz (Eds.), Is Europe listening to us? Success and failure of EU citizen consultations (pp. 59–78). Farnham: Ashgate.
Kim, S., & Lee, J. (2012). E-participation, transparency, and trust in local government. Public Administration Review, 72(6), 819–828. CrossRef
Kinney, B. (2012). Deliberation’s contribution to community capacity building. In T. Nabatchi, J. Gastil, M. Leighninger, & G. M. Weiksner (Eds.), Democracy in motion: Evaluating the practice and impact of deliberative civic engagement (pp. 1–23). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Kitsing, M. (2014). Rationality of internet voting in Estonia. Electronic government and electronic participation. In M. F. W. H. A. Janssen, et al. (Eds.), Electronic government and electronic participation joint proceedings of ongoing research, posters, workshop and projects of IFIP EGOV 2014 and ePart 2014 (pp. 55–64).
Knaut, A. (2013). Die Europäische Bürgerinitiative – innovativ, transnational und demokratisch? Paper zum Panel “Demokratische Innovationen im Kontext gesellschaftlicher Diversität”, Politik der Vielfalt. Drei-Länder-Tagung der ÖGPW, DVPW und SVPW, 19.–21. September 2013, Universität Innsbruck.
Knobloch, K. R., & Gastil, J. (2015). Civic (Re)socialisation: The educative effects of deliberative participation. Politics, 35(2), 183–200. CrossRef
Knobloch, K. R., Gastil, J., Reedy, J., & Walsh, K. C. (2013). Did they deliberate? Applying an evaluative model of democratic deliberation to the Oregon citizens’ initiative review. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 41(2), 105–125. CrossRef
Koc-Michalska, K., Gibson, R., & Vedel, T. (2014). Online campaigning in France, 2007-2012: Political actors and citizens in the aftermath of the Web.2.0 evolution. Journal of Information Technology and Politics, 11(2), 220–244. CrossRef
Lampe, C., Zube, P., Lee, J., Park, C. H., & Johnston, E. (2014). Crowdsourcing civility: A natural experiment examining the effects of distributed moderation in online forums. Government Information Quarterly, 31(2), 317–326. CrossRef
Leighninger, M. (2012). Mapping deliberative civic engagement. In T. Nabatchi, J. Gastil, M. Leighninger, & G. M. Weiksner (Eds.), Democracy in motion: Evaluating the practice and impact of deliberative civic engagement (pp. 1–23). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Liberini, F., Redoano, M., Russo, A., Cuevas, A., & Cuevas, R. (2018). Politics in the Facebook Era. Evidence from the 2016 US Presidential Elections. Online Working Paper Series No. 389, Centre for Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy, The University of Warwick. Accessed January 23, 2019, from https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/economics/research/centres/cage/manage/publications/389-2018_redoano.pdf
Lim, S., & Oh, Y. (2016). Online versus offline participation: Has the democratic potential of the internet been realized? Analysis of a participatory budgeting system in Korea. Public Performance and Management Review, 39(3), 676–700. CrossRef
Lindner, R. (2012). Wie verändert das Internet die Demokratie? Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft, Politik (GWP), 61(4), 517–525.
Lindner, R., & Riehm, U. (2011). Broadening participation through e-petitions? An empirical study of petitions to the German parliament. Policy and Internet, 3(1, Article 3), 1–23. CrossRef
Lindner, R., Aichholzer, G., & Hennen, L. (Eds.). (2016). Electronic democracy in Europe. Prospects and challenges of e-publics, e-participation and e-voting. Cham: Springer International.
Lironi, E. (2016). Potential and challenges of E-participation in the European Union. Study for the AFCO Committee, European Parliament, Policy Department for Citizens’ rights and constitutional affairs. Brussels: European Parliament.
Loukis, E., & Wimmer, M. (2012). A multi-method evaluation of different models of structured electronic consultation on government policies. Information Systems Management, 29(4), 284–294. CrossRef
Loveland, M. T., & Popescu, D. (2011). Democracy on the web: Assessing the deliberative qualities of internet forums. Information Communication and Society, 14(5), 684–703. CrossRef
Lu, Y., Heatherly, K. A., & Lee, J. K. (2016). Cross-cutting exposure on social networking sites: The effects of SNS discussion disagreement on political participation. Computers in Human Behavior, 59, 74–81. CrossRef
Mahrer, H., & Krimmer, R. (2005). Towards the enhancement of e-democracy: Identifying the notion of the ‘middleman paradox’. Information Systems Journal, 15(1), 27–42. CrossRef
Markussen, R., Ronquillo, L., & Schürmann, C. (2014). Trust in internet election observing the Norwegian decryption and counting ceremony. Conference Paper, Electronic Voting: Verifying the Vote (EVOTE), 2014 6th International Conference.
McGaley, M., & McCarthy, J. (2004). Transparency and e-voting – Democratic vs. commercial interests. In A. Prosser, & R. Krimmer (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Electronic Voting in Europe (pp. 153–163). Lecture Notes in Informatics.
Mechant, P., Stevens, I., Evens, T., & Verdegem, P. (2012). E-deliberation 2.0 for smart cities: A critical assessment of two ‘idea generation’ cases. International Journal of Electronic Governance, 5(1), 82–98. CrossRef
Medaglia, R. (2011). eParticipation research: A longitudinal overview. In E. Tambouris, A. Macintosh, & H. DeBruijn (Eds.), Electronic Participation, Epart, Vol. 6847 (pp. 99–108).
Medaglia, R. (2012). eParticipation research: Moving characterization forward (2006-2011). Government Information Quarterly, 29(3), 346–360. CrossRef
Miori, V., & Russo, D. (2011). Integrating online and traditional involvement in participatory budgeting. Electronic Journal of e-Government, 9(1), 41–57.
Mkude, C. G., Perez-Espes, C., & Wimmer, M. A. (2014). Participatory budgeting: A framework to analyze the value-add of citizen participation. In Proceedings of 47th International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 6–9 Jan 2014, Waikoloa, HI, pp. 2054–2062.
MLGRD, Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development. (2012). Summary of the ISF report: Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development.
Monaghan, E. (2012). Assessing participation and democracy in the EU: The case of the European citizens’ initiative. Perspectives on European Politics and Society, 13(3), 285–298. CrossRef
Organ, J. (2014). Decommissioning direct democracy? A critical analysis of commission decision-making on the legal admissibility of European citizens initiative proposals. European Constitutional Law Review, 10(3), 422–443. CrossRef
OSCE. (2010). Election observation handbook, 6th edn.
OSCE/ODIHR. (2011). Estonia Parliamentary Elections 6 March 2011: OSCE/ODIHR Election Assessment Mission Report. Accessed January 23, 2019, from http://www.osce.org/odihr/77557?download=true
OSCE/ODIHR. (2012). Swiss Confederation Federal Assembly Elections 23 October 2011: OSCE/ODIHR Election Assessment Mission Report.
OSCE/ODIHR. (2013). Norway Parliamentary Elections 9 September 2013: OSCE/ODHIR Election Assessment Mission Final Report.
Pammett, J. H., & Goodman, N. (2013). Consultation and evaluation practices in the implementation of Internet Voting in Canada and Europe. Ottawa: Elections Canada. Accessed January 23, 2019, from www.elections.ca/res/rec/tech/consult/pdf/consult_e.pdf
Panagiotopoulos, P., Moody, C., & Elliman, T. (2011). An overview assessment of ePetitioning tools in the English local government. In E. Tambouris, A. Macintosh, DeBruijn, H. (Eds.), Electronic participation, Epart, Vol. 6847, pp. 204–215.
Panopoulou, E., Tambouris, E., & Tarabanis, K. (2014). Success factors in designing eParticipation initiatives. Information and Organization, 24(4), 195–213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infoandorg.2014.08.001. CrossRef
Parycek, P., Sachs, M., Sedy, F., & Schossboeck, J. (2014). Evaluation of an E-participation Project: Lessons learned and success factors from a cross-cultural perspective. In E. Tambouris, A. Macintosh, F. Bannister (Eds.), Electronic Participation, Epart. Vol. 8654, pp. 128–140.
People2power. (2017). Spring Comeback Kid: The European Citizens’ Initiative. Accessed January 23, 2019, from http://www.people2power.info/insight/spring-comeback-kid-the-european-citizens-initiative/
Persily, N. (2017). The 2016 U.S. election: Can democracy survive the internet? Journal of Democracy, 28(2), 63–76. CrossRef
PETI – Committee on Petitions (2015). Report on the activities of the Committee on Petitions 2014, 2014/2218(INI), European Parliament. Accessed January 23, 2019, from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//NONSGML+REPORT+A8-2015-0361+0+DOC+PDF+V0//EN
Pichler, J. W., & Kaufmann, B. (Eds.) (2012). Modern transnational democracy. How the 2012 launch of the European Citizen’s initiative can change the world. Schriften zur Rechtspolitik, Bd. 33. Wien-Graz: Neuer Wissenschaftlicher Verlag.
Pimentel Walker, A. P. (2016). Self-help or public housing? Lessons from co-managed slum upgrading via participatory budget. Habitat International, 55, 58–66. CrossRef
Quittkat, C. (2011). The European commission’s online consultations: A success story? Journal of Common Market Studies, 49(3), 653–674. CrossRef
Quittkat, C., & Finke, B. (2008). The EU commission consultation regime. In B. Kohler-Koch, D. De Bièvre, & W. Maloney (Eds.), Opening EU-Governance to Civil Society. Gains and Challenges, CONNEX Report Series No 05, University of Mannheim, Mannheim Centre for European Social Research (MZES), Mannheim, pp. 183–222. Accessed January 23, 2019, from http://www.mzes.uni-mannheim.de/projekte/typo3/site/fileadmin/BookSeries/Volume_Five/Chapter08_Quittkat_Finke.pdf
Riehm, U., Coenen, C., Lindner, R., & Blümel, C. (2009). Bürgerbeteiligung durch E-Petitionen. Analysen von Kontinuität und Wandel im Petitionswesen. Berlin: Edition Sigma. CrossRef
Riehm, U., Böhle, K., & Lindner, R. (2014). Electronic petitioning and modernization of petitioning systems in Europe. Technology Assessment Studies Series – 6, TAB Office of Technology Assessment at the German Bundestag.
Rikken, K. (2011, February 10). Student finds flaw in e-voting, seeks nullification of result. Accessed January 23, 2019, from https://news.err.ee/99405/student-finds-flaw-in-e-voting-seeks-nullification-of-result
Röcke, A. (2014). Framing citizen participation. Participatory budgeting in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. London: Palgrave. CrossRef
Ruesch, M., & Märker, O. (2012). Real name policy in E-participation. The case of Gütersloh’s second participatory budget. Paper presented at CeDEM 2012, Krems, Austria, May 3–4.
Rumbul, R. (2014). In the digital era, political activism can be individual as well as collective. Retrieved September 2016, from Democratic Audit UK. Accessed on January 23, 2019, from http://www.democraticaudit.com/2014/12/16/in-the-digital-era-political-activism-can-be-individual-as-well-as-collective
Russmann, U. (2011). Targeting voters via the Web. A comparative structural analysis of Austrian and German party websites. Policy and Internet, 3(3), Article 3. CrossRef
Rustema, R. (2014). Why the ECI needs a community-developed online collection system. In C. Berg, & J. Thomson (Eds.), An ECI that works! Learning from the first two years of the European Citizens’ Initiative. The ECI Campaign (pp. 104–106). Accessed January 23, 2019, from www.ecithatworks.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/An_ECI_That_Works.pdf
Ryfe, D. M., & Stalsburg, B. (2012). The participation and recruitment challenge. Democracy in motion: Evaluating the practice and impact of deliberative civic engagement.
Sál, K. (2015). Remote Internet voting and increase of voter turnout: Happy coincidence or fact? The case of Estonia. Masaryk University. Journal of Law and Technology, 9(2), 15–32.
Sangsari, M. (2013). The European citizens’ initiative: An early assessment of the European Union’s new participatory democracy instrument, Policy Paper, Canada-Europe Transatlantic Dialogue: Saurugger, S. (2010): The social construction of the participatory turn: The emergence of a norm in the European Union. European Journal of Political Research, 49(4), 471–495.
Santos, H. R., & Tonelli, D. F. (2014). Possibilities and limits of E-participation: A systematic review of E-democracy. XXXVIII Encontro de ANPAD, Rio de Janeiro, 13–17 September.
Saurugger, S. (2010). The social construction of the participatory turn: The emergence of a norm in the European Union. European Journal of Political Research, 49(4), 471–495. CrossRef
Scherer, S., & Wimmer, M. A. (2014). Trust in e-participation: Literature review and emerging research needs. Paper presented at the ACM International Conference Proceeding Series.
Schneider, S. (2018). Bürgerhaushalte in Deutschland: Individuelle und kontextuelle Einflussfaktoren der Beteiligung. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. CrossRef
Schumann, S., & Klein, O. (2015). Substitute or stepping stone? Assessing the impact of low-threshold online collective actions on offline participation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45(3), 308–322. CrossRef
Serdült, U., Germann, M., Mendez, F., Portenier, A., & Wellig, C. (2015). Fifteen years of internet voting in Switzerland: History, governance and use. In Terán, L., & Meier, A. (Eds.), ICEDEG 2015: Second International Conference on eDemocracy and eGovernment, Quito, Ecuador, 8–10 April 2015, IEEE Xplore CFP1527Y-PRT, pp. 126–132. Accessed January 23, 2019, from https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEDEG.2015.7114482
Sintomer, Y., Carsten Herzberg, C., & Röcke, A. (2008). Participatory budgeting in Europe: Potentials and challenges. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 32(1), 164–178. CrossRef
Sintomer, Y., Herzberg, C., & Röcke, A. (2010). Der Bürgerhaushalt in Europa – eine realistische Utopie? Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. CrossRef
Siu, A., & Stanisevski, D. (2012). Deliberation in multicultural societies. In T. Nabatchi, J. Gastil, M. Leighninger, & G. M. Weiksner (Eds.), Democracy in motion: Evaluating the practice and impact of deliberative civic engagement. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Sivonen, E. (2011). Supreme court rejects last voter complaint. News.err.ee, 21.3.2011. Accessed January 23, 2019, from http://news.err.ee/99529/supreme-court-rejects-last-voter-complaint
Smith, G. (2013). Designing democratic innovations at the European level: Lessons from the experiments. In R. Kies & P. Nanz (Eds.), Is Europe listening to us? Success and failure of EU citizen consultations (pp. 201–216). Farnham: Ashgate.
Spada, P., Mellon, J., Peixoto, T., & Sjoberg, F. M. (2016). Effects of the internet on participation: Study of a public policy referendum in Brazil. Journal of Information Technology and Politics, 13(3), 187–207.
Springall, D., Finkenauer, T., Durumeric, Z., Kitcat, J., Hursti, H., MacAlpine, M., & Halderman, J. A. (2014). Security analysis of the Estonian internet voting system. In CCS’14: 21st ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (pp. 703–715).
Starskaya, M., & Çagdas, Ö. (2012). Analysis of the online collection software provided by the European Commission for the European Citizens’ Initiative. Working Papers on Information Systems, Information Business and Operations, 01/2012. Vienna University of Economics and Business, Vienna. Accessed January 23, 2019, from http://epub.wu.ac.at/3643/1/Binder1_(2).pdf
Stein, R., & Wenda, G. (2014). The Council of Europe and e-voting: History and impact of Rec(2004)11. Conference Paper, International Conference on Electronic Voting EVOTE2014.
Strandberg, K. (2015). Designing for democracy?: An experimental study comparing the outcomes of citizen discussions in online forums with those of online discussions in a forum designed according to deliberative principles. European Political Science Review, 7(3), 451–474. CrossRef
Strandberg, K., & Grönlund, K. (2012). Online deliberation and its outcome-evidence from the virtual polity experiment. Journal of Information Technology and Politics, 9(2), 167–184. CrossRef
Talpin, J. (2012). When democratic innovations let the people decide. An evaluation of co-governance experiments. In B. Geissel & K. Newton (Eds.), Evaluating democratic innovations: Curing the democratic malaise? (pp. 184–206). New York: Routledge.
Thomson, J. (2014). What didn’t happen with the European citizens’ initiative…and what did. In C. Berg, & J. Thomson (Eds.), An ECI that works! Learning from the first two years of the European Citizens’ Initiative. The ECI Campaign (pp. 73–76). Accessed January 23, 2019, from www.ecithatworks.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/An_ECI_That_Works.pdf
Tiburcio, T. (2015). The right to petition. Study for the PETI Committee. Directorate General for Internal Policies, Policy Department C: Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs, Brussels. Accessed January 23, 2019, from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2015/519223/IPOL_STU(2015)519223_EN.pdf
Tomkova, J. (2009). E-consultations: New tools for civic engagement or facades for political correctness? European Journal of ePractice, 7, March.
Toots, M., Kalvet, T., & Krimmer, R. (2011). Success in eVoting – Success in eDemocracy? The Estonian Paradox. Accessed January 23, 2019, from http://ssrn.com/abstract=2757704
Torcal, M., & Maldonado, G. (2014). Revisiting the dark side of political deliberation the effects of media and political discussion on political interest. Public Opinion Quarterly, 78(3), 679–706. CrossRef
Towner, T. L., & Dulio, D. A. (2012). New media and political marketing in the United States: 2012 and beyond. Journal of Political Marketing, 11(2), 95–119. CrossRef
van Dijk, J. A. G. M. (2012). Digital democracy: Vision and reality. In I. Snellen, W. Thaens, & W. van de Donk (Eds.), Public administration in the information age: Revisited (pp. 49–61). Amsterdam: IOS-Press.
Vassil, K., & Weber, T. (2011). A bottleneck model of e-voting. New Media and Society, 13(8), 1336–1354. CrossRef
Venice Commission. (2003). Code of good practice in electoral matters: Guidelines and explanatory report: Adopted by the Venice Commission at its 51st and 52nd sessions (Venice, 5–6 July and 18–19 October 2002). Opinion no. 190/2002. Strasbourg.
Vinkel, P. (2012). Internet voting in Estonia. In P. Laud (Ed.) Information security technology for applications (pp. 4–12). Springer.
Volodin, D. S. (2014). Participative budgeting as an effective approach for local budgets distribution improvement in Ukraine. Actual Problems of Economics, 160(1), 373–379.
Wang, X., & Wan Wart, M. (2007). When public participation in administration leads to trust: An empirical assessment of managers’ perceptions. Public Administration Review, 67(2), 265–278. CrossRef
Ward, S., Gibson, R., & Nixon, P. (2003). Parties and the Internet. In R. Gibson, P. Nixon, & S. Ward (Eds.), Political parties and the internet. Net gain? (pp. 11–38). London/New York: Routledge.
Weiksner, G. M., Gastil, J., Nabatchi, T., & Leighninger, M. (2012). Advancing the theory and practice of deliberative civic engagement. In T. Nabatchi, J. Gastil, M. Leighninger, & G. M. Weiksner (Eds.), Democracy in motion: Evaluating the practice and impact of deliberative civic engagement (pp. 1–16). Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.
Wolchok, S., Wustrow, E., Isabel, D., & Halderman, J. A. (2012). Attacking the Washington, D.C. Internet Voting System. In A. D. Keromytis (Ed.), Financial cryptography and data security (pp. 114–128). Berlin: Springer. CrossRef
Woolley, S. C., & Guilbeault, D. (2017). Computational propaganda in the United States of America: Manufacturing consensus online. In S. Woolley, & P. N. Howard (Eds.) Working Paper 2017.5. Oxford: Project on Computational Propaganda. Accessed January 23, 2019, from http://blogs.oii.ox.ac.uk/politicalbots/wp-content/uploads/sites/89/2017/06/Comprop-USA.pdf
Woolley, S. C., & Howard, P. N. (2016). Automation, algorithms, and politics. Political communication, computational propaganda, and autonomous agents – Introduction. International Journal of Communication, 10, 4882–4890.
Woolley, S. C., & Howard, P. N. (eds.) (2018). Computational propaganda. Political parties, politicians, and political manipulation on social media. Oxford Studies in Digital Politics, Oxford University Press.
Wright, S. (2012). Assessing (e-)democratic innovations: “Democratic goods” and downing street e-petitions. Journal of Information Technology and Politics, 9(4), 453–470. CrossRef
Wright, S. (2016). ‘Success’ and online political participation: The case of Downing Street E-petitions. Information Communication and Society, 19(6), 843–857. CrossRef
Yang, M. (2013). Europe’s new communication policy and the introduction of transnational deliberative citizen’s involvement projects. In R. Kies & P. Nanz (Eds.), Is Europe listening to us? Success and failure of EU citizen consultations (pp. 17–34). Farnham: Ashgate.
Zhang, W., Xu, X., Zhang, H., & Chen, Q. (2016). Online participation chaos: A case study of Chinese government-initiated e-polity square. International Journal of Public Administration, 1–8.
- Experience with Digital Tools in Different Types of e-Participation
- Chapter 4
Neuer Inhalt/© ITandMEDIA