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This topical new book provides an illuminating overview of enterprise education, and poses the question as to whether current establishments have adequate systems in place to prepare students for the world of work. Addressing the increasing need for graduates with practical skills and expertise in the labour market, this collection of insightful chapters analyses the opportunities that are available for aspiring entrepreneurs to develop enterprise skills and experience key aspects of starting and running a business, whilst in a supported environment such as an educational program or incubator scheme. With comprehensive discussion of higher education initiatives and empirical examples of experiential learning in the workplace, this book is an important and timely read for those researching business enterprise, entrepreneurship and higher education more generally.



Experiential Learning in Education


1. Experiential Learning Philosophies of Enterprise and Entrepreneurship Education

How can educators in entrepreneurship education apply an experiential learning perspective in their curriculum design and course planning? Hannon (2005) suggested using the notions on teaching about, for, and through when developing and researching entrepreneurship education. However, other notions and overall understandings may provide us with new perspectives that can advance the field by taking into consideration other elements.
The current conceptual chapter proposes that research in entrepreneurship education has developed a narrow perspective on learning. Research on entrepreneurship education and especially experiential learning has long pursued questions of how to apply the pedagogies and didactics of experiential learning into curriculum development and course planning, but the educator’s own ability to differentiate and experiment with known learning approaches has been a highly overlooked topic.
Michael Breum Ramsgaard

2. Assessing Experiential Entrepreneurship Education: Key Insights from Five Methods in Use at a Venture Creation Programme

Experiential education continues to be challenged around student assessment. This chapter brings insights from the field of entrepreneurship education to experiential education assessment. Contributions from assessment practice in action-based entrepreneurship education are presented in regard to five established assessment methods in experiential education: performance assessment, reflective assessment, peer/self-assessment, e-assessment and constructive alignment. The chapter analyses how these methods are applied in a venture creation programme (VCP), where the key learning vessel is creation of a real-life venture. In VCPs, students experience an emotional roller-coaster, impacting learning well beyond cognitive development. Assessment-related insights from the VCP are generalized into experiential education. Contributions include a new model for emotional activity-based performance assessment, emphasis on constructive alignment and recommendations for IT-based reflective and peer assessment.
Martin Lackéus, Karen Williams Middleton

3. Enterprise Simulation Gaming: Effective Practices for Assessing Student Learning with SimVenture Classic and VentureBlocks

Despite the increasing popularity of enterprise and entrepreneurship programmes in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) worldwide, there has been a growing concern about how academics should deliver enterprise and entrepreneurship education effectively to learners using an experiential learning approach. Consequentially, the rise of technology-based simulation programmes and gaming is being implemented in various enterprise and entrepreneurship programmes in HEIs. This chapter focuses on effective practices for implementing technology-based simulation gaming as a powerful tool for experiential learning in entrepreneurship studies. We have selected two popular business simulation games from the UK and USA (Case Study A: SimVenture Classic and Case Study B: VentureBlocks) and have proposed seven effective practices for how academic instructors could implement and assess simulation gaming experiences in entrepreneurship and enterprise programmes.
Naveed Yasin, Khalid Hafeez

4. An Exploration of Experiential Education as a Catalyst for Future Entrepreneurs

Preparing students as potential future entrepreneurs has attracted great interest from both private and public sectors. In view of this, concerted efforts have integrated entrepreneurship into the curriculum. There are still deficiencies and gaps in teaching and preparing future entrepreneurs. This research considers experiential enterprise education, for undergraduate students at a post-1992 university in the North of England. Guest speakers and mentors were selected for expertise in the business world and intellectual and practical foundations of entrepreneurship and small business development. Students were given the opportunity of a real business experience, including planning, funding, developing services, marketing, and trading. Undergraduate students declare a range of expectations, beliefs, and prior experience concerning the world of business. Management of expectations is key to delivering a useful entrepreneurial experience.
Denis Hyams-Ssekasi, Elizabeth F. Caldwell

5. An Appreciation of the Stakeholder Impact in an Enterprise Education Experiential Learning Event: ‘The Enterprise Challenge’, a Case Story from Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland

This chapter relates to a specific series of competitive annual enterprise educational events collectively known as ‘the Enterprise Challenge’. The importance of experiencing a real insight into what it means to be a practising entrepreneur is highlighted whereby students are encouraged to consider the possibilities of developing new business ideas and developing enterprising skills and attributes. Adopting a part qualitative, part auto-ethnographic and action learning approach, a review of theories is used to analyse and make sense of the resultant narratives and stakeholder testimonials linking these to the industry themes. The case study concentrates on the first year as an illustrative example but reports on events across the six years as each year a different theme was adopted to reflect the wide variety of local industries within the region.
Joan Scott, Bobby Mackie, Robert Smith, Judy Crooks

6. Embedding Interdisciplinary and Challenge-Led Learning into the Student Experience

The Innovation and Creative Exchange (ICE) presents a blueprint for challenge-led learning within Higher Education (HE). It uses a combination of wicked and commercial challenges to develop knowledge exchanges and communities of practice for learning. ICE provides a dynamic and unique environment outside the traditional curriculum for undergraduate (UG) students from different disciplines to work together to build sustainable networks. It introduces disruptive parameters to impact on learning, placing students in a time-controlled environment, challenging students both creatively and technically. It was found that students who engaged in interdisciplinary challenge-led learning scenarios developed core skills associated with commercial awareness.
Jess Power

7. A Holistic Approach to the Delivery of Effective Enterprise Education

The significance of nurturing an entrepreneurial attitude is becoming widely recognised. Although universities are catalysts in this, business schools are struggling to help new entrepreneurs develop the skills, experience and behaviours needed to build a successful business in the twenty-first-century marketplace. Whilst some universities are more focused on theoretical frameworks, others place an emphasis on technical skills. The challenge for the enterprise researcher is to identify an effective approach to developing students’ entrepreneurial attitude and aptitude. Attempting to align academic milestones with industry expectations, this research seeks to identify the most effective combination of theory, technical skills and best teaching practices. This is empirically investigating by analysing over 600 undergraduate students undertaking the “Enterprise Creation” module at the University of the West of Scotland.
Veronica Scuotto, Alan Murray

Experiential Learning in the World of Work


8. Experiential Learning in Entrepreneurial Families: Lessons from Mexico

Estrada-Robles offers an insightful case study of experiential learning to examine entrepreneurial learning in an entrepreneurial family in the context of Mexico. By looking at the entrepreneurial family where multiple owner-entrepreneurs and firms co-exist, the chapter draws attention on the process of learning through the concepts of thinking, feeling, doing and watching of other owner-entrepreneurs in the same family. The author captures the diversity of learning styles and identifies the nuances through the distinct nature of roles in the family (owner, entrepreneurs, successors). This chapter differentiates between learning configurations in the entrepreneurial family with multiple firms beyond the traditional focus of members learning in single-family firms. The entrepreneurial family becomes a learning space that enables exploration and exploitation of opportunities in the core family firm and peripheral firms.
Mariana Estrada-Robles

9. Learning from a Premium Dining Restaurant to Implement a Delight Strategy in a Bar/Grill: Applying Experiential Learning

Episodes of service delight were identified in a UK premium casual dining restaurant chain using 408 mystery diner reports. Skills required in various jobs in the premium casual dining restaurants that promoted service delight were identified. In a second research phase, a yearlong study in a newly opened bar/grill in Liverpool used an experiential learning set that met weekly and implemented business improvements. Phase two showed how the new business continually improved as a result of applying specific skills identified in phase one and implementing improvements following weekly reflections by the learning set on real business encounters. The city bar/grill financial reports and position on TripAdvisor were analysed and showed the business continually improved as a result of putting the learning into action.
David Bamber, Clay Gransden

10. Do Intrapreneurs Learn by Doing?

Intrapreneurs are employees who proactively engage in actions outside their usual job description with the intention to innovate. The term ‘intrapreneur’ suggests that the major activities of these individuals are similar to those of an independent entrepreneur and learning is crucial in the entrepreneurial process (Kirzner, Competition and entrepreneurship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973). Independent entrepreneurs acquire knowledge primarily through learning by doing (Levinthal, Learning and Schumpeterian dynamics. London: Macmillan, 1996) (Smilor, J Bus Ventur 12:341–346, 1997). Intrapreneurs—like independent entrepreneurs—might tend to use a similar form of learning. However, since intrapreneurship occurs in an intraorganizational setting, these intrapreneurial initiatives are to some extent dependent on the organizational context that might or might not be favourable to experiential learning. Using a multidisciplinary approach to explore the relevance of learning for the intrapreneurial process, this chapter arrives at useful takeaways for practitioners.
Maria de Lurdes Calisto

11. Understanding Organizational Values Through Experiential Learning

The Organizational Values Matrix (OVM) can be used in experiential workshops to align the process of leaders and employees and reveal how alignment supports organizational values initiatives. The OVM was developed from research that was carried out in two voluntary and community sector (VCS) organizations in the north-west of the United Kingdom. The OVM incorporates values-based themes and organizational areas which underpin values ideas within an organizational context. The OVM is a framework which enables leaders to take a planned approach to experiential learning, appreciating the internal capacity of understanding values, linking components within the organization whilst recognizing the impact on actions and experiences. The matrix consists of connectors, altruistic, controllers and auxiliary quadrants. The quadrants form the basis of four experiential developmental workshops.
David Bamber, Steve Harding

12. Experiential Learning Through the Transformational Incubation Programme: A Case Study from Accra, Ghana

This chapter explores experiential learning theory (ELT) from a case study describing the Transformational Incubation Programme for Coventry University alumni in Ghana. The incubator represents a collaboration between Coventry University and British Council Ghana. The aim of the programme is to embed a blended, experiential learning approach to practice-based entrepreneurship education via an incubator designed to support scalable business start-up and growth.
The incubator offers an opportunity to engage with practice-oriented and experience-based learning applied to real-world venture creation, business development, and acceleration. The chapter offers a generic framework for transformational entrepreneurship experiential learning in this context.
Stephen Dobson, Gideon Maas, Paul Jones, Joan Lockyer

13. When Pedagogic Worlds Collide: Reflections on a Pan-European Entrepreneurship Education Project

Through the Entrepreneurship 2020 Action Plan launched in 2013, the European Commission set out its agenda for how entrepreneurship could help tackle the problems associated with the 2008 financial crisis. In this chapter we present how STARTIFY7, a project funded by the Commission’s Horizon 2020 initiative, sought to respond to the Entrepreneurship 2020 Action Plan. The STARTIFY7 project was created as a thematically focused and lean-training summer academy system with the aim of creating pan-European teams of young entrepreneurs in the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. The project and its underlying pedagogic approach, derived from Neck and Greene’s (2011) work on ‘worlds’ of entrepreneurship education, is discussed along with the outcomes achieved.
Kate Penney, Dimitris Bibikas, Tim Vorley, Robert Wapshott


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