The purpose of this paper is to review the available information related to deposition and fate of particles in order to help interpret health effects data. As a part of this endeavor it is important to consider species differences in order to extrapolate from effects observed in animal toxicology studies to possible effects in humans exposed in the environment, usually at lower concentrations. A large body of information has been developed on deposition and fate of particles in humans. The vast majority of the data, however, have been obtained in normal healthy adults. There are limited data on susceptible populations or on factors that would modulate responses. The extent to which factors such as age, disease, exercise, and cigarette smoking might alter deposition and fate, and consequently health effects needs to be considered. Another issue dealt with in this review is the extent to which there are clues in the experimental data on deposition and fate of particles that might shed light on the apparently linear correlation of mortality with daily pollution levels even at relatively low ambient concentrations. It is also important to understand species difference so that toxicology studies in animals of pollutant effects can be used effectively to extrapolate to human health effects.
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- Experimental Investigation of Deposition and Fate of Particles: Animal Models and Interspecies Differences
R. K. Wolff
- Springer Netherlands
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen