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Über dieses Buch

This book presents the latest advances in manufacturing from both the experimental and simulation point of view. It covers most aspects of manufacturing engineering, i.e. theoretical, analytical, computational and experimental studies. Experimental studies on manufacturing processes require funds, time and expensive facilities, while numerical simulations and mathematical models can improve the efficiency of using the research results. It also provides high level of prediction accuracy and the basis for novel research directions.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Energy Efficient Machining Through Evolutionary Real-Time Optimization of Cutting Conditions on CNC-Milling Controllers

Abstract
Optimizing the use of manufacturing resources is vital for any engineering enterprise. Modern responsible industry is also taking increasingly the environmental impact into account. In milling the correct selection of cutting conditions can help minimizing the energy consumption, thus achieving a more sustainable operation. This paper presents a novel approach of applying on-line on-board multi-objective optimization techniques for adaptive improvement of CNC milling processes through IEC 61499 standardized Function Blocks running on an industrial CNC machine controller. The results show that it is possible to run even complex advanced evolutionary optimization algorithms on modern CNC machines in real-time. The case study also demonstrates that this approach can reduce up to 25% of the peak energy demand and 12% of cutting time when compared to conventional non optimized solutions.
Nikolaos Tapoglou, Jörn Mehnen, Jevgenijs Butans

Modeling and Experimental Work on Electrical Discharge Machining

Abstract
Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is a non-conventional machining process, widely utilized in the modern industrial environment, especially in applications that involve the manufacturing of complex shapes and geometries, along with high dimensional accuracy. Conceptually EDM is a simple process, which is based on the erosion that accompanies the spark occurrence between two electrically conductive materials, one that acts as working electrode and one as the workpiece. Nevertheless, in practice, and due to the technological advances in the relevant field, EDM has become a multi-parameter machining process. The current chapter aims to familiarize the reader with the process of EDM, while at the same time, to provide useful and practical information concerning more advanced topics. The chapter's first sections are an introduction to the EDM, where a brief historical review, and the basic working principles are presented. The basic physical mechanisms that take place during machining are analyzed, along with the major machining parameters and performance indexes. Moreover, a brief literature review concerning the machining of steel and aluminum alloys with EDM is quoted. Thereafter, the basic principles for modeling and simulation of the process are introduced, aiming to become a helpful reference in model development. Finally, in the last section, a comparative study regarding the machining of two different aluminum alloys (i.e., Al5052 and Al6063) with EDM is presented, indicating how different alloys of the same base may have different behavior during their machining with EDM.
Panagiotis Karmiris-Obratański, Emmanouil L. Papazoglou, Angelos P. Markopoulos

Simulations and Experiments in Single Point Incremental Forming Process

Abstract
In this chapter is presented the entire flow of a single point incremental forming process starting from simulations to experiments for frustum of a cone parts manufactured from DC05 deep drawing steel. To perform the FEM simulations for the considered parts in different dimensional configurations could be used the following software components: ANSYS APDL for the pre-processing stage, LS-DYNA Explicit to solve the analysis, LS-PrePost for results post-processing and an additional software tool developed by the authors for tool path points generating, in a short time. In order to obtain true results, the real mechanical properties of the DC05 material deep drawing steel were experimentally determined and then used as input data in the simulation software. The results obtained in the numerical simulation are validated in practice, for all the parts simulated used FEM analysis were manufactured in good conditions, using a rounded forming tool, a blank fixing device and a three axis CNC machine-tool. Finally, the parts manufactured through single point incremental forming process are digitised using a 3D scanner and dimensional accuracy is obtained
D. Nasulea, G. Oancea

Designing Novel Synthetic Grafts for Large Bone Defects: Experimental and Numerical Studies

Abstract
Large bone defects, usually associated to victims of natural disasters, wars and severe accidents, represent a major clinical problem. The search for an effective and efficient treatment is a key area of research. Our group is exploring a novel and fully automatic approach to produce synthetic grafts anatomically designed to fit on the defect site and able to promote tissue regeneration.
Evangelos Daskalakis, Zhanyan Xu, Abdalla M. Omar, Fengyuan Liu, Anil A. Acar, Ali Fallah, Glen Cooper, Andrew Weightman, Gordon Blunn, Bahattin Koç, Paulo Bartolo

CAD Software Integration with Programming Tools for Modelling, Measurement and Verification of Surfaces

Abstract
In modern industry, surface verification is usually performed with the aid of manual instruments or machines such as Coordinates Measuring Machines (CMM) along with the appropriate software. The goal is comparing the manufactured product with a pattern in order to detect deviations from the desired dimensions.
Rafael Gella-Marín, Anastasios Tzotzis, César García-Hernández, José-Luis Huertas-Talón, Panagiotis Kyratsis

Experimental Investigation of Process Parameters Effect on Laser Engraving Process Quality

Abstract
In this chapter it is presented an experimental investigation of stainless steel SAE304, aluminium 7075, pressure vessel steel P355GH and yellow brass C26000 nanosecond pulsed Q-switched Nd:YAG 1064nm laser engraving process. Laser engraving experiments were performed using a LASERTEC 40 laser machining center made by DMG MORI for various sets of process parameters (average power, repetition rate, scanning speed) and engraving geometry characteristics. The effect of process parameters on removed material layer thickness, material removal rate, average surface roughness and kerf taper angle formation was examined.
Evangelos Nikolidakis, Aristomenis Antoniadis

The Effects of 3D Printing Structural Modelling on Compression Properties for Material Jetting and FDM Process

Abstract
3D printing is a well-known technique in producing parts in safe and efficient way. One of the famous techniques in producing high quality product is by using MultiJet printing (MJP) technique and the fastest process is Fused deposition modelling (FDM) technique.
Marek Płaczek, M. K. A. Ariffin, B. T. H. T. Baharudin, Mohammadreza Lalegani Dezaki

Atomistic Modelling of Nanocutting Processes

Abstract
This chapter presents some of the state-of-the art investigations on Molecular Dynamics simulations of Nanocutting processes. The basic theory of Molecular Dynamics simulations has been presented to facilitate the understanding of the fundamental principles of this numerical modelling method and the techniques employed to extract meaningful macroscopic properties out of atomistic simulations. The advances of Molecular Dynamics simulations with respect to modelling nanocutting processes are at core of this chapter. More specifically, fundamental and pioneering MD studies of nanocutting processes are thoroughly discussed with special emphasis laid on phenomena taking place during material removal, such as thermal softening, dislocation generation and stress evolution. The nature of the Molecular Dynamics simulation method allows for capturing and monitoring the aforementioned phenomena; this cannot be easily achieved via experimental and other modelling techniques such as Finite Element Analysis and Discrete Element Modelling. It is expected that, over the years to come, Molecular Dynamics simulations will be increasingly employed for investigating material removal processes due to the rapid development of computational power.
Francisco Rodriguez-Hernandez, Michail Papanikolaou, Konstantinos Salonitis

Advanced Manufacturing of the Holes by Controlled Texture

Abstract
The chapter aims to establish the optimal texture area, which is why four areas were analyzed depending on the stroke of the lubrication segment, as follows: total texture, between upper and lower dead center; in the area of the upper dead center; in the middle area, between the upper dead center and the lower dead center; lower dead center area.
Daniel Chiriţa, Dumitru Nedelcu

Parametric Study of Electro Discharge Boring of Inconel 718 with Radial Tool Movement Using Taguchi Method

Abstract
Electro discharge machining is an unconventional machining process in which material is removed by spark erosion. In the present research work, EDM process has been used for carrying out boring operation of Ni based superalloy (Inconel 718). Boring operation has been performed by guiding and controlling the movement of tool electrode on radial orbital tool path. Experiments have been conducted using Taguchi’s method to obtain the influence of orbital and non-orbital parameters on material removal rate (MRR), tool wear rate (TWR) and surface roughness (Ra). ANOVA has been performed to identify the statistically significant parameters. It has been observed that all selected parameters are statistically significant in which peak current contributes 52.26% followed by flushing time i.e. 17.27% in determining the MRR. The peak current, pulse on time and orbital speed has been identified as significant parameters for TWR. The percentage contribution of peak current has been obtained maximum as 42.80% followed by pulse on time (38.48%) for TWR. The variation of surface roughness has been significantly affected by peak current, pulse on time, pulse off time and orbital speed. The peak current contributed about 80.21% followed by pulse on time about 15.03% for determining surface roughness. Estimation and confirmation experiments have been performed to verify the optimal combination of parameters.
Sudhanshu Kumar, Harshit K. Dave, Keyur P. Desai

Backmatter

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