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Despite the growing recognition that many entrepreneurs conduct some or all of their trade off-the-books, few have evaluated whether there are variations in the rationales of men and women engaging in this shadow enterprise culture. Reporting face-to-face interviews with 331 entrepreneurs in Ukraine during 2005–06, of whom 90 per cent operated partially or wholly off-the-books, the finding is that women are largely ‘reluctant’ entrepreneurs and men more commonly chiefly ‘willing’ entrepreneurs, although both motives are normally co-present to differing degrees in entrepreneurs’ explanations and their relative importance changes over time. The paper concludes by discussing the implications for both further research and public policy.
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- Explaining participation in off-the-books entrepreneurship in Ukraine: a gendered evaluation
Colin C. Williams
- Springer US
International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal
Print ISSN: 1554-7191
Elektronische ISSN: 1555-1938
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