Biological resources are the renewable resources that human beings can use directly or indirectly, and the material manifestation of biological diversity. Biological resources are the most important primary source of material basis for human living and sustainable development. They are the most significant treasure reserve of Mother Nature to whole human beings as well as strategic resources for a country. With an increasing shortage of non-renewable resources of fossil energy and serious degradation of the ecological environment, the strategic significance of biological resources has become even more prominent. Biological resources embody natural resources of plants, animals, and microorganisms. One of the major challenges facing humanity in the 21
century is how to resolve the paradox of the increasing demand on biological resources vs. our sustainability in future. The confluence of our knowledge intending to solve this paradox is managed hopefully to quickly develop revolutionary biotechnologies, i.e. exploration of useful genes widely existed in wild biological resources (genes of cold-hardy, drought-tolerance, disease-resistance, fast-growing, and high-yield and high quality) in order to develop new supper varieties to pace up with the fast and continual economic and social development. From the beginning of 21
century, the bio-science & technology and industrial revolution driven by market demand and international competition have been emerged around the world, which have been aiming at the development of bio-industry, retaining a leading position in bioeconomy and safeguarding national security.