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Über dieses Buch

This book presents foundational robotics concepts using the ROBOTIS BIOLOID and OpenCM-904 robotic systems, and is suitable as a curriculum for a first course in robotics for undergraduate students or a self-learner. It covers wheel-based robots, as well as walking robots. Although it uses the standard “Sense, Think, Act” approach, communications (bot-to-bot and PC-to-bot) programming concepts are treated in more depth (wired and wireless ZigBee/BlueTooth). Algorithms are developed and described via ROBOTIS’ proprietary RoboPlus IDE, as well as the more open Arduino-based Embedded C environments. Additionally, web-based multimedia materials are used for illustrating robotics concepts, code implementations and videos of actual resulting robot behaviors. Advanced sensor interfacing for gyroscope, inertial measuring unit, foot pressure sensor and color camera are also demonstrated.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Motivations and Instructional Approach

Abstract
My personal robotics journey began with RoboCup 2007 hosted by Ga Tech that summer. I was so impressed by the advancement in humanoid robotics on display there and thought that this could be an important component for engineering instruction at The University of Georgia, as at that time we were seeking to expand engineering beyond biological and agricultural engineering. Also at RoboCup 2007, I met Mr. Jinwook Kim from ROBOTIS and was introduced to the Bioloid Comprehensive and Expert kits which were about the only “in-depth” but “affordable” robotic systems at the time.
Chi N. Thai

Chapter 2. ROBOTIS’ Robot Systems

Abstract
ROBOTIS Co., Ltd (Seoul, South Korea) was founded by Bill Byoung-Soo Kim in 1999 along with two other engineers. The current CEO (Byoung-Soo Kim) and Vice-President (In-Yong Ha) were from the original team. The ROBOTIS name derived from the question “What is a robot?” and their vision statement can be read at http://​www.​ROBOTIS.​com/​xe/​greeting_​en. In 2009, ROBOTIS opened their USA office in Irvine, California and currently ROBOTIS has more than 200 partners in 40 countries worldwide. In a 2014 interview with Robot Magazine, CEO Kim shared his strategy for future products (http://​www.​ROBOTIS.​com/​xe/​news_​en/​797584).
Chi N. Thai

Chapter 3. Hardware Characteristics

Abstract
In this chapter, the goal is to go over the main hardware characteristics of ROBOTIS’ controllers, actuators and sensors so that the user can evaluate their hardware options in designing a robotic system to suit their needs.
Chi N. Thai

Chapter 4. Software Tools

Abstract
In this chapter, the goal is to go over the main software tools provided by ROBOTIS using a simple demonstration system having two servo motors but swapping out different controllers (CM-5, CM-510, CM-530 and CM-9.04-B/C) as needed.
Chi N. Thai

Chapter 5. Foundational Concepts

Abstract
For this chapter, the assumptions are that the reader is a beginner to robotics but has some exposure to computer programming. This chapter’s main topics are listed below:
Chi N. Thai

Chapter 6. Actuator Position Control Basics

Abstract
In Chap. 3, the hardware characteristics for representative actuators such as the AX-12 and MX-28 were described and the key information was on the rotational encoders that were used for the AX-12/18 (a variable potentiometer, restricted to a 300° range) and for the MX-28/64 (a magnetic field detector allowing a full 360° range). In this chapter, the programming aspects for controlling such actuators via the TASK and MOTION EDITOR (V.1) tools are described. The capabilities of the newer R+MOTION (V.2.1) tool will be discussed in Chap. 11 using the DARWIN-MINI and the XL-320.
Chi N. Thai

Chapter 7. Advanced Position Control

Abstract
Chapter 6 showed the “forward-control” features of the ROBOTIS RoboPlus V.1 software suite such as “Goal Position”, “Torque Limit” and “Motion Page”. In this Chap. 7, “Torque Limit” would be revisited but in a more “dynamic” manner allowing a limited feedback control capability. Additionally new control parameters such as “Present Load” and “Joint Offset” would be described and their usage demonstrated using an AX-12 based gripper and a special Function named “CALLBACK” from inside the TASK tool.
Chi N. Thai

Chapter 8. Wireless Communications Programming

Abstract
For its popular robotics systems, ROBOTIS offered three types of wireless communication protocols, NIR, ZigBee and BlueTooth:
Chi N. Thai

Chapter 9. Advanced Sensors

Abstract
In Chap. 3, advanced sensors such as the AX-S20, GS-12, FPS and HaViMo2 were briefly described. In this chapter, more application details would be provided whereas the CallBack function was a critically needed tool.
Chi N. Thai

Chapter 10. Embedded C Options

Abstract
Chapter 9 showed that in order to get the maximum performance out of ROBOTIS systems, ones must consider the “Embedded C” routes which happened to be quite numerous. Some of the resources that I know of are listed below (and I know that I have missed many):
Chi N. Thai

Chapter 11. ROBOTIS-MINI System

Abstract
In the Spring of 2014, the DARWIN-MINI system was released internationally using a new controller (OpenCM-9.04-C), with a new communication device (BT-210) and the new RoboPlus 2.0 suite: TASK, R+ DESIGN and R+ MOTION (V.2). So far (March 2015), the RoboPlus Manager tool (V.1.0.33.2) could only serve as a firmware updater to the 9.04-C, but the RoboPlus Dynamixel Wizard tool (currently at V.1.0.19.5) had been modified to work with OpenCM-9.04-C quite well as a Firmware Update/Recovery tool for the XL-320 actuators as well as for the 9.04-C controller (see Sect.4.2.2). The OpenCM-9.04-C could also be used with the OpenCM IDE V.1.0.2, but it would need a firmware recovery (via Manager only and the micro USB port) to make it work again with the RoboPlus 2.0 suite. In November 2014, the second edition of this system with an improved XL-320 (metal pinion gear) was renamed ROBOTIS-MINI.
Chi N. Thai
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