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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Exploring Services Science, IESS 2018, held in Karlsruhe, Germany, in September 2018.

The 30 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 67 submissions. The book is structured in six parts, each featuring contributions describing current research in a particular domain of service science: Service Design and Innovation; Smart Service Processes; Big Data in Services; Service Topics Open Exploration; Design Science Research in Services. The book offers an extended, ICT-focused vision on services and addresses multiple relevant aspects, including underlying business models, the necessary processes and technological capabilities like big data and machine learning. The academic work showcased at the conference should help to advance service science and its application in practice.



Service Design and Innovation


The Effect of Service Modularity on Flexibility in the Digital Age – An Investigation in the B2B Context

The goal of this study is to investigate the moderating role of digitalization on the well-known positive effect of service modularity on service flexibility. This is important since research findings on the role of service digitalization in this context are scarce and still equivocal. Following research on digital business strategy, we propose and provide empirical evidence that service digitalization positively moderates the effect of service modularization on service flexibility. By doing this, we furthermore enhance this research by considering service digitalization as a continuum ranging from low (i.e., services mainly provided by personnel) to high (i.e., services mainly provided by IT). In addition, we show that service flexibility has a positive effect on service value which is an important factor for firms’ market success. Hereby we aim to contribute to research on service modularization and technology management. Our research is based on survey-data of 147 companies offering IT services in the B2B context and is analyzed using the partial least square method.
Torben Stoffer, Thomas Widjaja, Nicolas Zacharias

Modular Sales – Using Concepts of Modularity to Improve the Quotation Process for B2B Service Providers

The current trend of individualization forces industrial service providers to search for new ways of standardizing their internal processes without diminishing the flexibility of satisfying customer demands. This conflict of interests reaches its peak in the quotation process, where suppliers are spending a considerable amount of time and effort, often preparing their quotes from the scratch. The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of service modularity to improve the efficiency of the quotation process on both operational and strategic levels. Using methods of qualitative research, I analyze the corresponding challenges of 19 German service providers and identify possible areas of improvement with the help of the service modularity. The result of the paper are 15 requirements for the appropriate IT-support to cover these identified challenges and enable the realization of the concept in practice. I hereby contribute to the ongoing discussion on service modularity by delivering empirical insights from the new area of the quotation process.
Aleksander Lubarski

Omni-Channel Service Architectures in a Technology-Based Business Network: An Empirical Insight

This article investigates the existing omni-channel service architectures in the front-office of technology-based business networks. It discusses the implications from the existing alignment between the network-preferred channel with other channels and clients. The methodological approach is qualitative, exploratory in nature, and employs case study research in a large private retail bank in Portugal. It includes multiple sources of data collection for corroboration purposes, including semi-structured interviews, direct observation and institutional documents. Although we have identified four types of omni-channel architectures in a business network context, the case analysis revealed that only two of them meet all the requirements, namely: the mixed services and pure virtual services. For academics this is the first attempt to discuss a growing topic in the operations management literature. Thus, this study may also help practitioners to understand the challenges they may have to deal with an omni-channel strategy in a business network context.
João Reis, Marlene Amorim, Nuno Melão

An Approach for Customer-Centered Smart Service Innovation Based on Customer Data Management

The purpose of this paper is the development of a customer-centered understanding of smart services by utilizing customer-dominant logic as a theoretical view. It extends current perspectives on smart services and proposes a definition highlighting the relevance of customer centricity and customer data management for service engineering. For this purpose, smart service dimensions will be deduced from current literature. These dimensions represent the foundation for a procedure model that will be developed and tested within a research initiative focusing on the restaurant industry. This procedure model is intended to support the discovery of new ideas based on data as well as the management of data requirements to successfully design smart services. The restaurant sector serves in this context as an innovative application field for smart service prototyping. The paper represents current research in progress, outlines the objective of the research initiative and demonstrates first empirical research results.
Katharina Blöcher, Rainer Alt

Closing the Gap Between Research and Practice – A Study on the Usage of Service Engineering Development Methods in German Enterprises

Service Engineering (SE) evolved in the mid-1990s and has become a popular and interdisciplinary field of research in service science since then. However, the diffusion of SE research results into practice is still rare. This is especially crucial, since structured SE methodologies are required to support businesses with the ongoing digitalization of their services. To help closing the gap between research and practice, we conducted 13 semi-structured interviews with experts from eight enterprises in Lower Saxony, Germany, that are involved in (technical) services. The results reveal several requirements and barriers, which hinder companies from implementing and using structured SE methodologies. The findings can be used to help researchers developing industry-friendly approaches and practitioners to set up their enterprises for future-oriented (smart) service engineering.
Simon Hagen, Sven Jannaber, Oliver Thomas

Customers Input via Social Media for New Service Development

The objective of this research is to investigate the use of social media for customer interaction for developing new services. To collect data we adopted a multi-phase research approach used in several recent ethnographic studies. The findings suggest that a firm must use social media to interact with the customers while developing new services. Other traditional methods of customer interaction also play a key role in developing a successful new service. The article has implications for the financial service firms interested in marketing new services in the United States and other developed countries.
Intekhab (Ian) Alam

Employee-Centric Service Innovation: A Viable Proxy for Customer-Intimacy for Product-Focused Enterprises

Servitization has received significant attention from scholars and practitioners over the last decade. However, despite substantial research contributions in the fields of new service development and service innovation, product-focused small and medium-sized enterprises struggle to develop sophisticated service offerings. This paper attempts to better understand this discrepancy and suggests ways to overcome it. We have conducted a case study with a medium-sized manufacturing company that currently undertakes first steps in the development of advanced services. In terms of a theoretical contribution, our study indicates a limited understanding of the perceived value of services during the fuzzy front end of service innovation. Therefore, companies need to adopt new ways to understand their customers (i.e. increase customer intimacy). However, they often struggle to directly involve customers in the co-development of advanced services. In terms of a practical contribution, our research suggests that employee-centric service innovation—the idea of utilizing front line employees as proxies of customers—is a viable strategy to mitigate the identified challenges.
Michael Vössing, Jörg Siegel, Niels Feldmann, Thorsten Wuest, Carina Benz

Towards Managing Smart Service Innovation: A Literature Review

Smart services are increasingly gaining in popularity amongst diverse industries. Their special character–combining physical components, smart components, and connectivity components supported by embedded ICT and big data analytics–allows for an entirely new approach of service offering. Adopting smart services within their solution portfolio, confronts companies with challenges related to servitization and digital transformation that are not only impacting their operation, but also their innovation. Based on a literature review, this study investigates the current state of research on innovation management for smart services. Findings are conceptualized within six categories: Topics, Resources, Knowledge & Information, Processes, Principles, and Methods & Tools.
Consequently, this study consolidates existing knowledge on challenges, changes and approaches for smart service innovation in a structured manner and identifies the need as well as potential for further research in this field.
Caroline Götz, Sophie Hohler, Carina Benz

Open Innovation in Ecosystems – A Service Science Perspective on Open Innovation

Fostered by technological developments, a growing tendency towards interconnectedness of people, solutions, and organizations can be observed. In close alignment to this trend, the notion of ‘ecosystems’ is becoming popular to describe a system of complex relationships between diverse actors in analogy to natural ecosystems. With growing prominence of ecosystems, a stronger need for collaboration and co-creation beyond traditional supply chain networks is arising—including co-innovation amongst a diverse set of loosely coupled partners. Research in service science and on open innovation capture the topics of collaboration in systems and joint innovation, but still, open innovation research uses to focus on mainly firm-centric aspects of distributed innovation. The service ecosystems view, adopted by service science research, provides a means for studying how the co-creation of value is performed in systems of weakly tied actors.
The purpose of this paper is to broaden the perspective of research in open innovation and to advance the understanding of open innovation in ecosystems by combining insights from service science research with the concept of open innovation. Consequently, this paper stems from four propositions that address gaps in knowledge related to the understanding of co-innovation in dynamic ecosystems of multiple actors and, thus, proposes directions for future research.
Carina Benz, Stefan Seebacher

Smart Service Processes


Crowdsensing-Based Road Condition Monitoring Service: An Assessment of Its Managerial Implications to Road Authorities

The ubiquity of smart devices in vehicles, such as smartphones allows for a crowdsensing-based information gathering of the vehicle’s environment. For example, accelerometers can reveal insights into road condition. From a road authorities’ perspective, knowing the road condition is essential for scheduling maintenance actions in an efficient and sustainable manner. In Germany, expensive laser-based road inspections are scheduled every four years. In future, they could be extended or completely replaced with a crowd-based monitoring service. This paper determines whether the lower accuracy of crowdsensing-based measurements is redeemed by its potential of near-real time data updates. Partially observable Markov decision processes are applied for determining maintenance policies that minimize roads’ life-cycle costs. Our results show that substituting laser-based road condition inspections by a crowdsensing-based monitoring service can decrease total costs by 5.9 % while an approach, which combines both monitoring approaches, reduces the costs by 6.98 %.
Kevin Laubis, Florian Knöll, Verena Zeidler, Viliam Simko

Digitalization of Field Service Planning: The Role of Organizational Knowledge and Decision Support Systems

Increasing competition and decreasing margins force manufacturers of industrial machinery to augment their products with complementary services—several dependent on field service planning. Hence, the efficient delivery of field services has become a main competitive differentiator and is driving companies to digitalize their processes and utilize decision support systems. Based on a qualitative interview study of maintenance providers, the paper provides empirical insight on the role of organizational knowledge and decision support systems in this digital transformation. The study shows that while maintenance providers have digitized their field service processes, many are only beginning the process of digitalization. Today, employees heavily rely on tacit and embedded knowledge in their decision-making. Therefore, knowledge-driven decision support systems—which have not yet been adopted in the industry—have been identified as an important cornerstone of the coming digitalization of field service planning.
Michael Vössing, Clemens Wolff, Volkmar Reinerth

Co-creation in Action: An Acid Test of Smart Service Systems Viability

Purpose - The topic of this paper is about Smart Service Systems (SSS), as recent evolution of service systems. The aim is to focus on the connection between structural/system traits of SSS and the value co-creation therein, and how the achievement of a co-creative experience is effectively supportive of the SSS viability.
Design/methodology/approach - This conceptual paper deepens two scientific propositions: (i) Are we able to distinguish between ‘structural’ and ‘system’ features of SSS as drivers for value co-creation processes? (ii) Are we able to define effective value co-creation processes the blue-print for SSS viability? The lens used is, in particular, the Viable Systems Approach (VSA).
Findings - Findings confirm a link among traits of SSS and value co-creation processes, regarding (i) multi-part specialized contribution, (ii) unopportunistic behaviours and (iii) co-working and enjoying for results (win-win logic). The smartness of SSS is considered as the basis of their viability.
Research limitations/implications - Limits of this work depends on the theoretical nature of reflections introduced up-to-know. This framework will stimulate future studies by deepening case studies or empirical surveys.
Practical implications - Applying a smart context to modern service ‘events’, we can enjoy important changes in our life. These assumptions find practical evidence on stage of studies on Service worldwide.
Originality/value - Advances in Literature on Service Science (SS) lead us to better understand the essence, organization and design of SSS. Studies and reflections on System Thinking support observers to highlight static pre-conditions and dynamic determinants featuring with value co-creation processes.
Francesco Polese, Luca Carrubbo, Francesco Caputo, Antonietta Megaro

Towards Enabling Cyber-Physical Systems in Brownfield Environments

Leveraging Environmental Information to Derive Virtual Representations of Unconnected Assets
The digital transformation based on internet technologies comprises huge potentials but also challenges for the production industry. Even though some design characteristics are generally accepted for the digitized integration of machines, applications and surrounding components the inherent complexity and variety of interaction protocols, data formats and interdependencies of existing deployments in so called brownfield environments hampers the data-driven manufacturing of the future.
We propose an iterative approach where existing context data is used to encapsulate the specific complexity of each resource in order to create a flexible integration layer. Nearly all relevant resources are modeled as self-descriptive cyber-physical systems or Virtual Representations according to the setting of the physical production environment, therefore drastically reducing the required access barriers. We present a reference implementation and discuss its business implications by the example of industrial maintenance.
Sebastian R. Bader, Clemens Wolff, Michael Vössing, Jan-Peter Schmidt

Market Launch Process of Data-Driven Services for Manufacturers: A Qualitative Guideline

Traditional manufacturing companies increasingly launch data-driven services (DDS) to enhance their digital service portfolio. Nonetheless, data-driven services fail more often than traditional industrial services or products within the first year on the market. In terms of market launch, their digital characteristics differ from traditional industrial services and thus need specific structures and actions, which companies currently lack. Therefore, a process guideline for a six-month market launch phase of DDS is developed. The guideline relies on analogies from product, service and software launches based on the latest literature from service marketing and successful practices from various industries. Finally, the guideline is evaluated within five industrial case studies. Thus, the guideline provides scientific research insights regarding the market launch process of DDS and adds to the research of service marketing. It provides practical guidance for manufacturing companies by serving as a reference process for the market launch and offering a collection of successful practices within this area.
Achim Kampker, Marco Husmann, Philipp Jussen, Laura Schwerdt

Service Business Models


Success Factors of SaaS Providers’ Business Models – An Exploratory Multiple-Case Study

Market studies have revealed major differences in the level of performance among providers of Software as a Service (SaaS). The literature’s understanding of the underlying success factors and thus, the reasons for this performance discrepancy is, however, still limited. The goal of this research paper is therefore to investigate the success factors of SaaS providers’ business models by conducting an exploratory multiple-case study. 21 expert interviews with representatives from 17 cloud providers serve as central method of data collection. The study’s result is a catalogue of 27 success factors. In particular, a SaaS service should be developed as a system comprising modular microservices in order to meet the desired requirements in terms of cost advantages, performance and scalability. Overall, established SaaS providers obtain a reference framework to compare, rethink and innovate their present business models. Companies that are planning to offer SaaS in future gain valuable insights which should directly feed into their business model design process.
Sebastian Floerecke

End-to-End Methodological Approach for the Data-Driven Design of Customer-Centered Digital Services

The collection, analysis, and interpretation of digital data has become an important factor for the provision of services. However, there is a lack of methodologies for using data analytics systematically in an end-to-end process for designing services. Therefore, in this paper, we develop a conceptual approach covering the innovation funnel from idea generation to market deployment. In particular, we describe how qualitative approaches alternate with quantitative approaches along the innovation process. We pay special attention to the design of data-driven value propositions including the analysis and modeling of the customer needs, a phase in which the concept of hidden needs and pains is applied. To conclude, we propose the development of a tool to support and industrialize the approach discussed in this paper.
Jürg Meierhofer, Anne Herrmann

Utilizing Data and Analytics to Advance Service

Towards Enabling Organizations to Successfully Ride the Next Wave of Servitization
For decades, servitization served as a strategy to gain a competitive advantage over competitors. However, due to its ubiquitous adoption, it is no longer a viable source for differentiation. In this context, data and analytics bear the potential to create new value and, thus, is believed to drive the next frontier of servitization. Yet, the majority of organizations fail to create new innovative services utilizing data and analytics, while research on this topic is also still very limited. Based on a structured literature review, we derive the following contributions to this research field: First, we provide a general overview over the topic, linking single discussions to a larger discourse. Second, we contribute to the fundamental understanding of the research field by pointing out the gaps in the existing literature. Third, we lay the foundation for future research by opening a research agenda to address the highlighted gaps.
Fabian Hunke, Christian Engel

Big Data in Services


Forecast Correction Using Organizational Debiasing in Corporate Cash Flow Revisioning

Corporations that employ information systems, such as decision support systems for judgmental forecasts, have business objectives that require accurate forecasts. But the accuracy of these forecasts is most likely biased by organizational and individual structures within the corporation. These biases, such as revenue targets or personal objectives, may alter the forecasters’ prediction due to financial incentives in a predefined way. This paper argues that model-driven correction of forecasts – which typically utilizes only statistical methods – should incorporate organizational debiasing methods. In a case of an international corporation, local experts forecast cash flows for corporate risk management. The forecasts are later aggregated on a corporate level with subsequent debiasing techniques for decision support. Empirical results show that considering organizational objectives for debiasing techniques can strongly improve forecast accuracy. The total correctable expert error is reduced by up to 60 % for all forecasts of a month, providing better decision support for managers.
Florian Knöll, Katerina Shapoval

A Framework for the Simulation-Based Estimation of Downtime Costs

Currently, industrial maintenance experiences a shift from traditional on-call business towards long-term maintenance contracts, as, for example, availability-based maintenance contracts. Recently, researchers presented Service Level Engineering (SLE) as an approach for customers to determine their cost-optimal long-term availability levels for their production equipment within one production system. However—in order to apply SLE—customers must know their costs of downtime, i.e. costs associated to the unavailability of production assets.
This work presents a generic approach for customers to determine their costs of downtime function, a function reflecting the costs arising for a manufacturer due to unavailable production equipment. The approach uses simulation studies to incorporate different downtime patterns that result in the same overall availability. Consequently, this work contributes to the successful application of availability-based maintenance contract in practice. In detail, this work addresses the question of determining the industrial costs of downtime, a necessary prerequisite for the successful application of SLE in industrial maintenance.
Clemens Wolff, Michael Voessing

Combining Machine Learning and Domain Experience: A Hybrid-Learning Monitor Approach for Industrial Machines

To ensure availability of industrial machines and reducing breakdown times, a machine monitoring can be an essential help. Unexpected machine downtimes are typically accompanied by high costs. Machine builders as well as component suppliers can use their detailed knowledge about their products to counteract this. One possibility to face the challenge is to offer a product-service system with machine monitoring services to their customers. An implementation approach for such a machine monitoring service is presented in this article. In contrast to previous research, we focus on the integration and interaction of machine learning tools and human domain experts, e.g. for an early anomaly detection and fault classification. First, Long Short-Term Memory Neural Networks are trained and applied to identify unusual behavior in operation time series data of a machine. We describe first results of the implementation of this anomaly detection. Second, domain experts are confronted with related monitoring data, e.g. temperature, vibration, video, audio etc., from different sources to assess and classify anomaly types. With an increasing knowledge base, a classifier module automatically suggests possible causes for an anomaly automatically in advance to support machine operators in the anomaly identification process. Feedback loops ensure continuous learning of the anomaly detector and classifier modules. Hence, we combine the knowledge of machine builders/component suppliers with application specific experience of the customers in the business value stream network.
Daniel Olivotti, Jens Passlick, Alexander Axjonow, Dennis Eilers, Michael H. Breitner

Exploring the Value of Data – A Research Agenda

Big data has been a technological quantum leap in recent years. Organizations are provided the opportunity to leverage this data by applying analytics to derive competitive advantages and increase operational efficiencies. However, the amount of value that is hidden within a set of data can often only be determined when used in a particular context. Being able to determine the value of their data assets as such is an even greater challenge for organizations. We conducted a structured literature review and identified three clusters of discussion in IS literature that address the value of data form different perspectives. Based on this review and the literature gap identified, we propose a research agenda to (1) identify the factors that influence the value of data, (2) cluster data according to value, (3) develop value-based data governance guidelines, and (4) quantify the value contribution of a single data source.
Tobias Enders

Service Topics Open Exploration


Investigating the Alignment Between Web and Social Media Efforts and Effectiveness: The Case of Science Centres

The adoption of Internet technologies has led to important transformations in the way in which organizations reach and interact with their audiences. The context of museums and exhibitions is also witnessing a consolidation of the usage of Web 2.0 for disseminating information and for supporting the interactions to complement, improve and augment visitors’ experiences. Despite the proliferation of online evidence about the efforts that these organizations are making to build a strong Web presence and a vibrant existence in Social Media, there is far less knowledge about the effectives of such investments from the perspective of the users. The purpose of this study is to propose a framework that allows the assessment and the discussion about the alignment between online presence of an organization and its effectiveness towards its target audience and service promise. The study builds on the analysis of Web and Social Media presence of Science Centers and addresses the whole network of Centers in Portugal. It offers an overview of different types of online efforts and resource allocation, while discussing it towards recent results about its importance for users’ awareness about the Centers.
Marlene Amorim, Fatemeh Bashashi Saghezchi, Maria João Rosa, Pedro Pombo

Exploring Customers’ Internal Response to the Service Experience: An Empirical Study in Healthcare

Service organizations increasingly understand the importance of managing the customer experience to enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty. This study aims to develop a better understanding of the customer experience by investigating how the customer’s internal mechanisms influence it. That is, how it is perceived and processed at three different levels (visceral, behavioral and reflective), which determines a person’s cognitive and emotional state. To this purpose an exploratory multi-method ethnographic study was undertaken in a healthcare service. The results showed the emotions provoked by the service experience at each level. These levels are interconnected and impact each other working together to influence a person’s cognitive and emotional state, and thus playing a critical role in the overall evaluation of a service. Results show that elements such as servicescape aesthetics, face-to-face and non-human interactions influence emotions and service evaluations. The service should be designed in a way that induces positive emotions, and a feeling of being in control. Especially in healthcare services there is a need to balance the conflicting responses of the emotional stages that may be triggered at the visceral and behavioral levels, while providing reassurance and calm at the reflective level that the health problem is going to be taken care. Using service design approaches this understanding of the customers’ brain can be translated into improving the customer experience.
Gabriela Beirão, Humberto Costa

Health Information Technology and Caregiver Interaction: Building Healthy Ecosystems

This qualitative study explores the widely recognized role of the informal caregivers (ICGs) as key co-producers in the delivery of effective and sustainable healthcare systems. The central argument is that to enhance the quality of care in non-clinical settings and the healthcare ecosystem as a whole, developers of Health Information Technology (HIT) need to harness the knowledge and experiences of the ICGs to better align their products to practice. The paper has two aims: to improve the understandability of informal caregivers’ role in non-traditional healthcare settings, and to identify and formulate valuable guidelines for the development of “fit-for-use” HIT solutions that acknowledge the needs of the ICGs.
Nabil Georges Badr, Maddalena Sorrentino, Marco De Marco

Service Science Research and Service Standards Development

Recent increases in interest in the development of service standards among standards organizations follow the trend of growth in the service sector. This research in progress reviews the relationship between service science research and service standardization to determine whether there are areas of convergence and mutual influence and opportunities to increase exchanges between these two sides for mutual benefit. Service standards published by ISO and current service standards projects were categorized into Types (1) back stage, and (2) front stage of service activities. The definitions of “service” were also extracted from ISO standards to determine their commonality with service science concepts. It was found that ISO service standards were mostly related to back stage of service activities but some increase in projects with front stage orientation was seen. There was scant evidence that the definition of service used in standards had some commonality with service science concepts. Limitations to the research together with recommendations for further work that would foster mutual benefits for both service science research and standards development were discussed.
Reinhard Weissinger, Stephen K. Kwan

From Data to Service Intelligence: Exploring Public Safety as a Service

This paper describes an exploration process aligned with the core domain of Service Science inside a critical sector of Society, aiming at developing City in a sustainable, responsible, inclusive way. The paper focuses on defining the Public Safety as a Service concept in an inclusive and responsible value co-creation urban design vision for liveable cities. It explains how service intelligence can act on immaterial artefacts to transform data into information to generate value co-creation processes whose outcomes are applied to the evolution of knowledge in public safety services. Public safety is approached within a service ecosystem perspective, following the global targets of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction as an application perspective. Managerial implication are approached from two perspectives: establishment of governance principles with the help of Elinor Ostrom’s works, and a Viable Systems Approach on the response to disasters operating rules.
Monica Drăgoicea, Nabil Georges Badr, João Falcão e Cunha, Virginia Ecaterina Oltean

Managing Patient Observation Sheets in Hospitals Using Cloud Services

In many hospitals all over the world there is an acute lack of physicians; in addition, doctors who are working in hospitals are overwhelmed by the number of patients and other administrative duties which they must do. Due to the specific of the work many operations/procedures/activities must be done manually and there are no automated systems which could improve the quality of the medical service and the efficient usage of the physician’s time. In this paper we propose a service system designed to help physicians to automate the work of registering patient clinical observations into the patient clinical observation sheet. The procedure of registering observations can be time consuming in some situations due to the numerous parameters which must be registered. The proposed system uses voice to text conversion engine to register the observations; thus, doctors spend much less time to review the clinical observations and eventually make corrections if necessary.
Florin Anton, Theodor Borangiu, Silviu Raileanu, Iulia Iacob, Silvia Anton

Design Science Research in Services


Bringing Design Science Research to Service Design

Service design is a multidisciplinary field dedicated to create new and innovative services. To accomplish this goal, service design resorts to contributions from other disciplines such as service management, marketing, information systems and interaction design. However, service design lacks dedicated methods and models that integrate the contributions from these disciplines. Design science research (DSR) offers a solid methodology to develop such artifacts and is already starting to be used in service research. To show how DSR can support service design, this article presents two new service design methods that have been developed using DSR and examines the process followed for developing them. Building on these methods, the article discusses how DSR can leverage service design characteristics of multidisciplinarity, human-centeredness and creativity, to develop further knowledge contributions for service design. Finally, the challenges posed by using DSR in service design and service research are also discussed, as well as ways to address those challenges.
Jorge Grenha Teixeira, Lia Patrício, Tuure Tuunanen

Scaling Consultative Selling with Virtual Reality: Design and Evaluation of Digitally Enhanced Services

Virtual, augmented, and mixed reality technologies allow creation of powerful customer experiences and illustrative demonstrations especially in use cases that benefit from spatial visualizations. Our study focuses on the natural resource management sector and digitalizing of consultative selling process. More specifically, we look at how to improve customer engagement with the use of virtual reality (VR) and thus digitally scale consultative selling. In this process, a VR application is used to demonstrate various management operations and their economic results. Design research methodology is applied to a pre-development phase and three application development iterations between 2016 and 2018. Data consists of user interviews and video observations (N = 129) during various development iterations and three application development plans. The results show that VR offers an emotionally engaging and illustrative tool in consultative selling. Further, it opens a novel way for interaction between the salesperson and customer and possibilities to scale consultative selling digitally, emphasizing the role of trust.
Osmo Mattila, Tuure Tuunanen, Jani Holopainen, Petri Parvinen

Designing Value Co-creation with the Value Management Platform

The Value Delivery Modeling Language (VDML) is an Object Management Group (OMG) standard for the analysis and design of value creation and value capture in enterprise operations. Although the VDML 1.0 specification was published in October 2015, little is known about the application of value modeling with VDML. We report in this paper (an earlier, unpublished version of this paper was presented at the 12th International Workshop on Value Modeling and Business Ontologies, which was held in Amsterdam on 26–27 February 2018) on the practice of applying VDML for value co-creation design using the Value Management Platform (VMP) tool of the Dutch company VDMbee. Neither the VMP user guide nor the VDML specification prescribe how to perform value modeling. Therefore, we analyze value co-creation design with the VMP in a case-study of a low-cost carrier. By identifying, extracting, and making explicit the applied method of value co-creating design, we contribute to a better understanding of the practice of value modeling with VDML.
Geert Poels, Ben Roelens, Henk de Man, Theodoor van Donge


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