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This book presents the outcome of the Towards Sustainable Land Use in Asia (SLUAS) project, which was the pilot undertaking for development in a series of projects on land use. Monsoon Asia, with its huge and still increasing population and rapid socioeconomic changes, is regarded as a major hot spot of global change in general and of land use change in particular. The major issues include urbanization, rural development, land-related problems such as food problems, and disasters in the context of global change and sustainability.

Future Earth, the new international research framework established by International Council for Science (ICSU), the International Social Science Council (ISSC), and other international academic or funding organizations for a sustainable world, has chosen the Global Land Project (GLP) as one of the first such international projects it has endorsed that originated from International Geosphere/Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and/or International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP). This endorsement is a clear indication of the importance of the issues related to land use and its changes. Land use change is an essential driving force of environmental change, a result of socioeconomic and environmental changes, and is a major environmental change itself. Because of this complex and multifaceted nature and the difficulties in obtaining relevant data with historical depth, this phenomenon has not been studied fully in the context of global change or sustainability. It is hoped that this book is of use to those who are concerned about the present and future land use in the world.





Chapter 1. Towards Sustainable Land Use in Asia

Land use and its change have been a great concern of humanity for decades, and they have been studied widely mainly by geographers. An international project on land use change in Monsoon Asia called SLUAS (Towards Sustainable Land Use in Asia) was conducted by a team of geographers in Asia during 2009.5–2014.3 with focus on sustainability. The project had its background in the traditional geographic land use studies, but at the same time it was closely associated with more recent global change research programs, namely LUCC, GLP, and Future Earth. Historical and recent developments of the studies on land use change are reviewed, and SLUAS project is introduced. It is argued that both traditional and modern approaches are necessary, and that with the joint effort of them can land use studies make substantial contribution to global sustainability programs such as Future Earth, as partly demonstrated by SLUAS.
Yukio Himiyama

Land Use Change in China


Chapter 2. Urbanization in Jiangsu Province and Zhejiang Province in China Since ca. 1930

This chapter reports on the compilation and preliminary analyses of the land use datasets of the fourteen cities in Jiangsu Province and Zhejiang Province conducted as part of the series of study, and on the comparison of urbanization and its background. 1:50,000 topographic maps of China produced by Japan ca. 1930, Atlas of Cities of China which shows land use at ca. 1990 and Landsat ETM+ satellite images of ca. 2000 have been used as basic information sources. The study has shown that the urban expansion in the 1990s was about fourfold in 10 years, i.e., at the speed twice as fast as that during the rapid economic growth in Japan in the 1960s, that expansion was faster in medium to smaller cities than in big cities, and that the agricultural land around cities gave way to urban expansion rapidly. The datasets have been proved to be extremely useful in showing the urban area of each city in ca. 1930, ca. 1990, and ca. 2000 and the trend of change in a graph, and in comparing the fourteen cities to find out their general tendencies and the specific characteristics of each city far more accurately and easily than before. The study also revealed that the statistical areal units in China, namely built-up area, city, and urban district, do not represent “urban area” as accurately as DID, or Densely Inhabited District, used in Japan.
Yukio Himiyama, Miho Ikeshita, Tetsuya Shinde

Chapter 3. Reorganization of Suburban Areas in Terms of Real Estate Utilization and Transformation of Evicted Farmers

In the suburban regions of the metropolitan cities in emerging countries of Asia, there has been a drastic large-scale change arising for a short period of time with economic growth, the establishment of development zones, and population inflow since the end of the twentieth century. Suburban regions, where the mixture of land utilization and the blending of residents are defined as their characteristics, are not only academic research targets as mere urban studies but also the real focusing point of social and regional issues on a global scale. This thesis attempted to link the social research method, the elucidation of the process, and the life history of life recovery of indigenous farmers and the geographical method focusing on the fluctuation of housing space where its trajectory and results are projected, that is, a collaboration method of social research and geography.
Zengmin JI

Chapter 4. Economic Development and Land Use Changes in an Inland Area of China: A Case Study of Gansu Province

The purpose of this report is to clarify land use changes and driving factors in Gansu Province, which is located in an inland area of modern China. The study is based primarily on field observations. Gansu Province has lagged behind the coastal area of China in economic development due to numerous constraints, such as severe natural conditions and a remote location. Moreover, the scarce water resources of the province are being utilized near capacity, with the amount of water consumed at 50–60% of the total water resources available in the province. However, economic development is now progressing more rapidly from urbanization, industrialization, and new economic activities such as renewable energy production. This rapid development, driven by the National Western Development policy, is affecting land use in the region. Cropping patterns have become more diversified, and croplands are advancing into the limited area of arable land. Higher productivity land use expanded following cultivation of fruit trees in the Loess Plateau. Thus, the province has a varied land use for economic gain based on local conditions.
Haruhiro Doi, Yanwei Chai

Chapter 5. The Change of the Traditional Urbanization and Its Future Development Focus in China

The modernization of China has lasted more than 170 years since 1840. As the important component of modernization, urbanization of China had expressed different styles in the past but unsuccessful before the reform and open policies in 1978. After Mao’s era, China restarted its modernization movement, and therefore its urbanization has been accelerated. The national urbanization rate has been quickly increased from about 17% in 1978 to 52.7% in 2012 (right now, it might be around 56%). But, the accelerated urbanization has led to many problems, such as the high population density in big cities, the unexpected high price of house compared to the very low-income families, the very heavy traffic jam of the cities, the larger social disparities between the rich and the poor and between urban and rural, the most serious air pollution and the tense relation between demand and supply in various resources and so on. After the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China held in Beijing from Oct. 15 to 18, 2012, the modernization and the related affairs were re-emphasized as usual. A so called ‘new type urbanization’ became a popular word to describe the current and coming urbanization. The author thinks it may be incorrectly used by Chinese. Why people say it a new type urbanization. It is just because we had new leaders and a new premier for the party and the government in power. But, urbanization is urbanization in its nature. It is only expressed in different features and in development ways in different periods. Is there something new for the coming urbanization? This paper plans to answer the question through the following discussions: 1. the understanding of urbanization; 2. a brief recall of the historical urbanization process in China; 3. the lessons of the past urbanization and the present situation of the urbanization in China; 4. the problems resulting from the acceleration urbanization; 5. The development of middle- or small-scaled cities in the coming urbanization in China.
Qi Lu

Land Use Change in India


Chapter 6. Landuse Sustainability of Agricultural Zones

Karnataka state is the second most drought-prone region in India next only to Rajasthan. Even then, the traditional cropping land use pattern in the state has kept the people and the agriculture alive. But the recent onslaught of the high-yield variety seeds and western crops are posing a serious threat to the sustainability of the region. Located on the southeastern part of the peninsular India, Karnataka state enjoys the both wet and dry conditions from west to east. The climatic condition of the state has manifested different agriculture regions, which has paved the way to grow more than 200 varieties of crops. The mixed- and multi-cropping land use pattern is the tactful crop selection game played by the farmers to overcome the failure of monsoons. The entire cropping system of Karnataka depends on rain. Physiologically Karnataka has been classified into four divisions, such as, Coastal, Hilly, Northern, and Southern Plains. The coastal and hilly region experiences high rainfall and temperature, which are apt for agriculture, followed by the southern region. The northern plains are situated amidst of the land-locked condition, which experiences high temperature with scanty rainfall along with an overall dry condition. Despite these conditions, the northern region is the most sustainable compared to other regions. The gist of this article is to explain the sustainable factor existing in the land use pattern of northern dry region in comparison to the other three physiographic divisions.
Arun Das, Koichi Kimoto, M. Ravi Kumar, R. Umakanth, Dhritiraj Sengupta, H. R. Vishwanth

Chapter 7. Low Carbon Resilient Delhi Megacity for Sustainable Future Earth

The low carbon economy has a minimal output of greenhouse gas emissions into the biosphere, specially refers to carbon dioxide. Urbanization is one of the significant drivers for rising CO2 emissions. In India, Delhi appears to be a good geographical location for a study of low carbon society because it represents a large urban area where emissions have reached significant levels and are continuing to grow rapidly. This paper aims to prepare a CO2 emission inventory for Delhi and identifying major sources and sectoral contributions. The primary and secondary survey was carried out to fulfill the objectives of the study. Based on the certain factors, emissions from transport, residential, industrial, and transport sector were calculated. The solar use feasibility index for Delhi was been prepared based on index overlay method. Simulation of proposed solar water heating systems has been done using RET screen International Computer Software. The problem of CO2 emission is even seen prominently within Indian mega cities. Among various mega cities, Delhi is the most affluent city as it supports a population of 16.75 million. Transport is the leading producer of CO2 in Delhi, followed by residential, commercial and industrial sector. Being a national capital, Delhi continues to attract the population and to cope with that the residential and industrial development has to take place. So, it is important that the prime attention should be given to make the city environmentally sustainable (use of renewable sources of energy).
R. B. Singh, Subhash Anand, Vidhi Saluja

Chapter 8. Dynamics of Land Use and Climate Change in Subhumid Region of Rajasthan, India

The impact of land use land cover on climate variability and water resources has been studied at the subhumid region (Kalisindh–Parwan subbasin of Hadoti Region) of Rajasthan in India. This subbasin in Rajasthan has undergone a tremendous change in land use land cover over the last two decades from 1988 to 2008 thereby bringing changes in energy flux. Along with land use land cover, water through hydrological cycle also helps in circulation of energy in the earth’s atmosphere. To establish these relationships we have investigated the importance of climate, rainfall, streamflow, and land surface temperature interactions in the study region. The lithosphere–hydrosphere–atmosphere interaction determines the level of carbon in atmosphere and also the availability of surface and ground water energy resources. In the context of climate variability, management of land use land cover and water balance play a vital role in mitigating the adverse phenomena. Therefore, land use planning in the Kalisindh–Parwan subbasin of Hadoti Region of Rajasthan is a key factor in reducing present and future vulnerability to climate variability.
R. B. Singh, Ajay Kumar

Chapter 9. Urban Land Use Land Cover Change

A Geomorphological Synoptic View of Mysore City, India
Indian cities are on the cross roads of rapid urban growth, which calls for meticulous and everlasting urban spatial planning. Cities live for longer and it should be compatible for the future growth. The previous mistakes committed in the land use planning have lead to many serious issues like floods (e.g., Chennai 2015 and Mumbai 2005 Floods) fire mishaps, traffic congestion, etc. Planning a city over a plain land is easier compared with the undulating terrain. Mysore is one such city located on an undulating terrain. This city has been declared as the cleanest city of India in 2015. Despite this, there are a few planning flaws exposed at certain point of time in the city. While planning for undulating terrain, two issues are confronted. First the need to classify the land into geomorphological regions is essential and second, if an old city is existing, the planner needs to be much more careful in choosing land use. Linking the old plan with the new plan certainly comprises seriousness of land use. The land classified on the geomorphological grounds can only give a better utilization of land suitable with the urban activities. This study provides an overview of the existing geomorphological land use land cover planning at micro-level water basins.
Arun Das, Koichi Kimoto, K. Jabir, Dhritiraj Sengupta, B. S. Shriharsha, M. Ravikumar

Chapter 10. Population and Land Use in Semiarid Area—A Case of Karnataka, India

Changes in land use due to population pressure will be certain at the statistical and macro level. However, in the event of undesirable changes, we must direct the situation to improve by social activities of human beings. The era of simply entrusting the way to improvement with technology and policies is over. Since the 1980s, the emergence of Community-Based Natural Resource Management that has become active in various parts of the world will be an appearance. However, substantial results of CBNRM have not been seen. In this chapter, we will look back over the history of deforestation in India in a case of Western Ghats, which is the area caused by the deforestation and is an area with newly generated and unique characteristics.
Koichi Kimoto

Land Use Change in Japan


Chapter 11. Land Use Change in Tokyo Prefecture Viewed from the Medium Scale Topographic Maps

Grid-type raster data files of land use in Tokyo Prefecture ca. 2005 have been compiled based on 56 sheets of 1:25,000 topographic maps of Japan, and compared with those of the earlier periods and those of the other prefectures, both of which produced by the present authors’ team at Hokkaido University of Education, and were analysed spatially and numerically. The study has shown a detailed pattern of land use in Tokyo Prefecture ca. 2005. It indicates that further urban expansion is unlikely in Tokyo Prefecture because of the scarcity of flat land and that the production of specialty vegetables is becoming an important part of agriculture there. The Japanese Government is said to stop printing the 1:50,000 topographic maps, which started in 1897, and may do the same with the 1:25,000 topographic maps due to the harsh situation of the national budget and because of the advancement of “digitalization.” It is therefore important to make use of the high-quality land use information on these maps in order to assist reevaluation of their value. It is hoped that this study contributes to such evaluation, and the survival of these maps, as well as to the study of land use/cover change.
Yukio Himiyama, Tetsuya Fukase

Chapter 12. Flood Risk and Mitigation Under Changing Land Use

Lessons from the Kumozu Fluvial Plain in Japan
In this study, we describe how flood hazard maps of the Kumozu fluvial plain were developed based on geomorphologic land classification maps and discuss the status of comprehensive disaster management with respect to flood mitigation in the lower reaches of the Kumozu River Basin in Mie Prefecture, Japan. Open levee-retarding basin systems are one of the traditional flood-mitigation strategies employed along the lower and middle reaches of river basins in Japan. Rapid changes in land cover and land use in the Kumozu River Basin have increased flood risk, and rapid urban expansion in the river basin has led to broad-scale encroachment of residential areas into agriculture land, reducing the area of flood buffer zones available for use as retarding basins. By assessing flood damage along the lower reaches of the Kumozu River Basin while taking into the consideration the role of traditional open levee-retarding basin systems, we clarify the utility of such systems in terms of flood mitigation and the importance of land use planning based on geomorphological land classification maps. Taken together, these results demonstrate the importance of incorporating nonstructural measures into river basin management.
Shigeko Haruyama, Atsuko Suzuki

Land Use Change in Other Countries/Regions in Asia


Chapter 13. Human Impacts on the Landcover Change of the Inle Watershed in Myanmar

The land cover of this basin showed the changes clearly. In 1990, closed forests were found in northern edge, eastern and southwestern part of the watershed area, near Pinlaung range, Kyauktalone range and Pindaya-Ywangan area, however, in 2000, these closed forests were changed to open forest, scrub grassland, and agriculture. In some part of the watershed area, near Taunggyi, scrub land was changed into open forest because of the reforestation program. Agriculture extension occurred in the lake watershed area especially in western and northwestern part of the lake, near Kalaw-Aung Ban, Heho Valley, and Thamakhan Plain. One of the unique characteristic of Inle Lake is hydroponic cultivation. Besides, tomato cultivation is an important economy of Inle Lake. This type of cultivation is practiced on the naturally floating island and it is effected the water surface area of the Inle Lake in the following ways such as after using the old floating garden islands, they are decomposed to the lake bottom and the lake will be shallower, and the extension of floating garden cultivation causes more shrinkage to the water surface area in the study area. The floating garden area was increased from 1990 to 2010 years. On the other side, water surface area is decreased from 1990 to 2010 year because it is influenced by climatic condition, extension of floating garden, and population growth of the study area.
Kay Thwe Hlaing, Shigeko Haruyama, Saw Yu May

Chapter 14. The Ecological Footprint and Carrying Capacity in Northeast Asia

Under the goal of sustainable development, optimum population rests on the comprehensive carrying capacity of many factors, such as ecology, economy, and land, etc. Recently, the ecological environment of the Northeast Asia has been deteriorating seriously, because of the fall of its ecological carrying capacity resulted from human activities. The ecological carrying capacity of the Northeast Asia is directly related to its ecological environment and socioeconomic sustainability. The ecological carrying capacity is based on the net primary productivity (NPP) of natural vegetation which can reflect the productive and recovery capacity, and thus is the index of the ecological integrity of natural system. Based on the above purposes and the assessment method, this paper studies the distribution and the change of the ecological footprint (EF) and the ecological carrying capacity in the Northeast Asia. The change of per capita EF shows a trend of decline in the Far East of Russia, Japan, and Mongolia, but the original value is still higher in the front row. It is more than 3 hm2 and showed an upward trend in the Northeast China and South Korea. North Korea is the most stable and the lowest EF is about 2 hm2. As a whole situation of the Northeast Asia, we can see in addition to a small part where its ecological carrying capacity is near 0, in the northern areas and the most regions of Northeast Asia, the ecological carrying capacity is between 0 and 30 hm2/km2. In the most central region of the Northeast Asian the ecological carrying capacity is between 30 and 50 hm2/km2. In the southeastern and midwestern areas, the ecological carrying capacity is between 80 and 100 hm2/km2. The ecological carrying capacity even exceeded 150 hm2/km2 in southern areas. In the southwest region there is a large bareland area, the ecological carrying capacity is near 0.
Zhang Bai, Liu Weijie

Chapter 15. Land Use and Spatial Policy Conflicts in a Rich-Biodiversity Rain Forest Region: The Case of Jambi Province, Indonesia

Jambi is one of the provinces in Indonesia with rainforests that support a rich biodiversity of flora and fauna. However, in the last two decades, Jambi Province has been experiencing rapid deforestation, expansion of monoculture plantation crops (especially palm oil and rubber), mining activities, and other types of natural resource exploitation. Various forms of anthropogenic disasters such as floods, peat subsidence, and forest fires have become more frequent in this region. Another serious problem is the conflict between different land use policies, especially governmental policies, land grabbing, and encroachment of forest and conservation areas. The objectives of this study are: (1) to overlay the existing land use maps over maps of the regional spatial plan, mining concession areas, and forest status, and (2) to analyze the land use and policy conflicts as well as their consequences. More than 2.2 million hectares (ha), or approximately 44.6% of land in Jambi province, which is located outside the forest area, is abandoned or is unproductive. Approximately 96% or more of the protected area (834,800 ha) is still maintained in accordance with its function. The space use conflicts mainly occur in the form of policy disagreements between the government institutions, namely between central government institutions of spatial planning, forestry, agriculture, as well as energy and mining. Furthermore, conflicts have also occurred because of the disagreement of local communities with the policies of the central government, local governments, and corporations (mostly mining and agricultural companies).
Ernan Rustiadi, Baba Barus, Laode Syamsul Iman, Setyardi Pratika Mulya, Andrea Emma Pravitasari, Dedy Antony
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