Skip to main content

2022 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

Explosives and Explosive Effects

verfasst von : W. G. Proud

Erschienen in: CBRNE: Challenges in the 21st Century

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

Aktivieren Sie unsere intelligente Suche, um passende Fachinhalte oder Patente zu finden.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

Explosions are generally reported in the media with a mix of tragic content and apocalyptic detail. In many mass casualty incidents, explosive devices are often present in a primary or secondary role. The term ‘gas explosion’ generally provokes thoughts of a gas cooker or gas cylinder exploding with an image of a damaged building and reports of a limited number of deaths and injuries. Explosions from natural phenomena are the rarest, however cyclones and storms can produce explosion-like effects. It is the aim of this chapter to cover the key points and function of an explosive, the immediate effects on people and on urban structures. There is an extensive and well-developed literature in each of these areas which can be accessed via the suggested reading and the references.

Sie haben noch keine Lizenz? Dann Informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 390 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe




 

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 340 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Versicherung + Risiko




Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Literatur
2.
Zurück zum Zitat Magnus D, Khan MA, Proud WG (2018) Epidemiology of civilian blast injuries inflicted by terrorist bombings from 1970–2016. Def Technol 14(5):469–476 Magnus D, Khan MA, Proud WG (2018) Epidemiology of civilian blast injuries inflicted by terrorist bombings from 1970–2016. Def Technol 14(5):469–476
3.
Zurück zum Zitat O’Neill C, Robinson AM, Ingleton S (2012) Mitigating the effects of firebomb and blast attacks on metro systems. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 48:3518e27 O’Neill C, Robinson AM, Ingleton S (2012) Mitigating the effects of firebomb and blast attacks on metro systems. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 48:3518e27
5.
6.
Zurück zum Zitat Cooper PW (1996), Explosives Engineering, (Wiley-VCH) Cooper PW (1996), Explosives Engineering, (Wiley-VCH)
7.
Zurück zum Zitat Fordham S (1980) High explosives and propellants. Pergamon Press, New York Fordham S (1980) High explosives and propellants. Pergamon Press, New York
8.
Zurück zum Zitat Bailey A, Murray S (1989) Explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics. Brassey’s, UK Bailey A, Murray S (1989) Explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics. Brassey’s, UK
9.
Zurück zum Zitat Robert M, Pachman J (2013) Primary explosives. Springer Robert M, Pachman J (2013) Primary explosives. Springer
10.
Zurück zum Zitat Proud WG, Field JE, Milne A, Longbottom AW, Haskins PJ, Briggs RI, Cook MD (2003) The detonation of NM/Al mixtures. In: Proceedings of fifth international symposium on high dynamic pressures, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, Paris, vol 1, pp 135–141 Proud WG, Field JE, Milne A, Longbottom AW, Haskins PJ, Briggs RI, Cook MD (2003) The detonation of NM/Al mixtures. In: Proceedings of fifth international symposium on high dynamic pressures, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, Paris, vol 1, pp 135–141
11.
Zurück zum Zitat Grady D (2006) Fragmentation of rings and shells: the legacy of N.F. Mott. Springer Grady D (2006) Fragmentation of rings and shells: the legacy of N.F. Mott. Springer
12.
Zurück zum Zitat Gurney RW (1943) The initial velocities of fragments from bombs, shells and grenades. BRL Report 405 Gurney RW (1943) The initial velocities of fragments from bombs, shells and grenades. BRL Report 405
14.
Zurück zum Zitat Bowen IG, Fletcher ER, Richmond DR, Estimate of Man’s Tolerance to Direct Effects of Air Blast. Report: DASA-2113, October 1968. Bowen IG, Fletcher ER, Richmond DR, Estimate of Man’s Tolerance to Direct Effects of Air Blast. Report: DASA-2113, October 1968.
15.
Zurück zum Zitat Richmond DR, Yelverton JT, Fletcher ER, New Airblast Criteria for Man. Report: LA-UR-86, August 1986, Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA Richmond DR, Yelverton JT, Fletcher ER, New Airblast Criteria for Man. Report: LA-UR-86, August 1986, Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA
16.
Zurück zum Zitat Sadwin LD, Michael M. Swisdak (2013) Reflected and negative phase airblast energy measurements. New Trends Res Energet Mater, Czech Republic, 325–330 Sadwin LD, Michael M. Swisdak (2013) Reflected and negative phase airblast energy measurements. New Trends Res Energet Mater, Czech Republic, 325–330
17.
Zurück zum Zitat Kinney GF, Graham KJ (1985) Explosive shocks in Air. Springer-Verlag, BerlinCrossRef Kinney GF, Graham KJ (1985) Explosive shocks in Air. Springer-Verlag, BerlinCrossRef
18.
Zurück zum Zitat Needham, CE Waves B (2018) 2nd edn. Springer Needham, CE Waves B (2018) 2nd edn. Springer
20.
Zurück zum Zitat Eiband M (1959) Human tolerance to rapidly applied accelerations: a summary of the literature. Memo 5-19-59E, NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, June 1959 Eiband M (1959) Human tolerance to rapidly applied accelerations: a summary of the literature. Memo 5-19-59E, NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, June 1959
21.
Zurück zum Zitat Drapela P, Lorenzo R, Lampert S (2008) How to quantify the effects of non-lethal kinetic weapons. In: 24th international symposium on ballistics, New Orleans, LA, 23–27 September 2008, pp 1284–1290 Drapela P, Lorenzo R, Lampert S (2008) How to quantify the effects of non-lethal kinetic weapons. In: 24th international symposium on ballistics, New Orleans, LA, 23–27 September 2008, pp 1284–1290
22.
Zurück zum Zitat Field JE (1998) Private communication, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge. Images taken with a camera supported by the EPSRC Field JE (1998) Private communication, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge. Images taken with a camera supported by the EPSRC
23.
Zurück zum Zitat Williams MR, Dunne LJ, Pearce B, Lawton B (2001) Creams for protection against skin burns in explosions. In: 19th international symposium on ballistics, Interlaken, Switzerland, 7–11 May 2001, pp 1035–1042 Williams MR, Dunne LJ, Pearce B, Lawton B (2001) Creams for protection against skin burns in explosions. In: 19th international symposium on ballistics, Interlaken, Switzerland, 7–11 May 2001, pp 1035–1042
24.
Zurück zum Zitat Pirlot M, Dyckmans G, Bastin I (2001) Soap and gelatine for simulating human body tissue: an experimental and numerical evaluation. In: 19th international symposium on ballistics, Interlaken, Switzerland, 7–11 May 2001, pp 1011–1017 Pirlot M, Dyckmans G, Bastin I (2001) Soap and gelatine for simulating human body tissue: an experimental and numerical evaluation. In: 19th international symposium on ballistics, Interlaken, Switzerland, 7–11 May 2001, pp 1011–1017
25.
Zurück zum Zitat Knudson PJT (1998) Comparison of 10% and 20% ordinance gelatin using 7.65 mm full metal jacketed bullets. In: 17th international symposium on ballistics, Midrand, South Africa, 23–27 March 1998 Knudson PJT (1998) Comparison of 10% and 20% ordinance gelatin using 7.65 mm full metal jacketed bullets. In: 17th international symposium on ballistics, Midrand, South Africa, 23–27 March 1998
26.
Zurück zum Zitat Kundsen PJT, Theilade P, Vigsnaes JS, Neilsen PT (1995) Applied wound ballistics: the case of the Danish 7.62 mm NATO bullet. In: 15th international symposium on ballistics, Jerusalem, Israel, 21–24 May 1995 Kundsen PJT, Theilade P, Vigsnaes JS, Neilsen PT (1995) Applied wound ballistics: the case of the Danish 7.62 mm NATO bullet. In: 15th international symposium on ballistics, Jerusalem, Israel, 21–24 May 1995
27.
Zurück zum Zitat Gray W, Weiss CE, Walker JD, Sponsel WE (2008) Computational and experimental study of paintball impact ocular trauma. In: 24th international symposium on ballistics, New Orleans, LA, 23–27 September 2008, pp 1260–1267 Gray W, Weiss CE, Walker JD, Sponsel WE (2008) Computational and experimental study of paintball impact ocular trauma. In: 24th international symposium on ballistics, New Orleans, LA, 23–27 September 2008, pp 1260–1267
28.
Zurück zum Zitat Newell N, Neal W, Pandelani T, Reinecke D, Proud WG, Masouros SD (2016) The dynamic behaviour of the floor of a surrogate vehicle under explosive blast loading. J Mater Sci Res 5(2);59–67 Newell N, Neal W, Pandelani T, Reinecke D, Proud WG, Masouros SD (2016) The dynamic behaviour of the floor of a surrogate vehicle under explosive blast loading. J Mater Sci Res 5(2);59–67
29.
Zurück zum Zitat Ngo T, Mendis P, Gupta A et al (2007) Blast loading and blast effects on structures. EJSE 2007:76–91 Ngo T, Mendis P, Gupta A et al (2007) Blast loading and blast effects on structures. EJSE 2007:76–91
30.
Zurück zum Zitat Cormie D, Mays G, Smith P (2009) Blast effects on buildings, 2nd edn. Thomas Telford, LondonCrossRef Cormie D, Mays G, Smith P (2009) Blast effects on buildings, 2nd edn. Thomas Telford, LondonCrossRef
31.
Zurück zum Zitat Koccaz Z, Sutcu F, Torunbalci N (2008) Architectural and structural design for blast resistant buildings. In The 14th world conference on earthquake engineering, October 2008 pp. 12–17 Koccaz Z, Sutcu F, Torunbalci N (2008) Architectural and structural design for blast resistant buildings. In The 14th world conference on earthquake engineering, October 2008 pp. 12–17
32.
Zurück zum Zitat Cullis IG (2001) Blast waves and how they interact with structures. J Royal Army Med Corps 147(1):16–26 Cullis IG (2001) Blast waves and how they interact with structures. J Royal Army Med Corps 147(1):16–26
33.
Zurück zum Zitat Shi Y, Hao H, Li Z-X (2008) Numerical derivation of pressure–impulse diagrams for prediction of RC column damage to blast loads. Int J Impact Eng 35(11):1213–1227 Shi Y, Hao H, Li Z-X (2008) Numerical derivation of pressure–impulse diagrams for prediction of RC column damage to blast loads. Int J Impact Eng 35(11):1213–1227
34.
Zurück zum Zitat Jarrett DE (1968) Derivation of the British explosives safety distances. Ann New York Acad Sci 152(1):18–35 Jarrett DE (1968) Derivation of the British explosives safety distances. Ann New York Acad Sci 152(1):18–35
35.
Zurück zum Zitat Naito CJ, Wheaton KP (2006) Blast assessment of load-bearing reinforced concrete shear walls. Pract Period Struct Des Construct 11(2):112–121 Naito CJ, Wheaton KP (2006) Blast assessment of load-bearing reinforced concrete shear walls. Pract Period Struct Des Construct 11(2):112–121
37.
Zurück zum Zitat Siddam A (2014) Cascade failure analysis of electrical transmission lines using ADINA (Doctoral dissertation, Memorial University of Newfoundland) Siddam A (2014) Cascade failure analysis of electrical transmission lines using ADINA (Doctoral dissertation, Memorial University of Newfoundland)
41.
Zurück zum Zitat Adam, Parisi, Sagaseta, Lu (2018) Research and practice on progressive collapse and robustness of building structures in the 21st century. Eng Struct 173:122–149 Adam, Parisi, Sagaseta, Lu (2018) Research and practice on progressive collapse and robustness of building structures in the 21st century. Eng Struct 173:122–149
42.
Zurück zum Zitat Lin TY, Burns NH (1963) Design of pre-stressed concrete structures. Technical report, Wiley New York Lin TY, Burns NH (1963) Design of pre-stressed concrete structures. Technical report, Wiley New York
43.
Zurück zum Zitat Pearson C, Delatte N (2005) Ronan point apartment tower collapse and its effect on building codes. J Perform Constr Facil 19(2):172–177CrossRef Pearson C, Delatte N (2005) Ronan point apartment tower collapse and its effect on building codes. J Perform Constr Facil 19(2):172–177CrossRef
44.
Zurück zum Zitat Levy M, Salvadori M (2002) Why buildings fall down: How structures fail. WW Norton & Company Levy M, Salvadori M (2002) Why buildings fall down: How structures fail. WW Norton & Company
45.
Zurück zum Zitat Griths H, Pugsley A, Saunders OA (1968) Report of the inquiry into the collapse of flats at Ronan Point, Canning Town: presented to the Minister of Housing and Local Government. HMSO Griths H, Pugsley A, Saunders OA (1968) Report of the inquiry into the collapse of flats at Ronan Point, Canning Town: presented to the Minister of Housing and Local Government. HMSO
46.
Zurück zum Zitat Bob C (2004) Evaluation and rehabilitation of a building affected by a gas explosion. Progr Struct Eng Mater 6(3):137–146 Bob C (2004) Evaluation and rehabilitation of a building affected by a gas explosion. Progr Struct Eng Mater 6(3):137–146
47.
Zurück zum Zitat Li J, Hao H (2014) Numerical study of concrete spall damage to blast loads. Int J Imp Eng 68:41–55 Li J, Hao H (2014) Numerical study of concrete spall damage to blast loads. Int J Imp Eng 68:41–55
48.
Zurück zum Zitat Wang W, Zhang D, Lu F, Wang S-C, Tang F (2012) Experimental study on scaling the explosion resistance of a one- way square reinforced concrete slab under a close-in blast loading. Int J Imp Eng 49:158–164 Wang W, Zhang D, Lu F, Wang S-C, Tang F (2012) Experimental study on scaling the explosion resistance of a one- way square reinforced concrete slab under a close-in blast loading. Int J Imp Eng 49:158–164
49.
Zurück zum Zitat Smith P, Cormie D (2009) 3 Blast loading. ICE Publishing, pp 30–58 Smith P, Cormie D (2009) 3 Blast loading. ICE Publishing, pp 30–58
50.
Zurück zum Zitat Dragos J, Wu C (2014) Single-degree-of-freedom approach to incorporate axial load effects on pressure impulse curves for steel columns. J Eng Mech 141(1):04014098 Dragos J, Wu C (2014) Single-degree-of-freedom approach to incorporate axial load effects on pressure impulse curves for steel columns. J Eng Mech 141(1):04014098
51.
Zurück zum Zitat Wei X, Stewart MG (2010) Model validation and parametric study on the blast response of unreinforced brick masonry walls. Int J Imp Eng 37(11):1150–1159 Wei X, Stewart MG (2010) Model validation and parametric study on the blast response of unreinforced brick masonry walls. Int J Imp Eng 37(11):1150–1159
52.
Zurück zum Zitat Li Z, Chen L, Fang Q, Hao H, Zhang Y, Xiang H, Chen W, Yang S, Bao Q (2017) Experimental and numerical study of unreinforced clay brick masonry walls subjected to vented gas explosions. Int J Imp Eng 104:107–126 Li Z, Chen L, Fang Q, Hao H, Zhang Y, Xiang H, Chen W, Yang S, Bao Q (2017) Experimental and numerical study of unreinforced clay brick masonry walls subjected to vented gas explosions. Int J Imp Eng 104:107–126
53.
Zurück zum Zitat Li Z, Chen L, Fang Q, Hao H, Zhang Y, Chen W, Xiang H, Bao Q (2017) Study of autoclaved aerated concrete masonry walls under vented gas explosions. Eng Struct 141:444–460 Li Z, Chen L, Fang Q, Hao H, Zhang Y, Chen W, Xiang H, Bao Q (2017) Study of autoclaved aerated concrete masonry walls under vented gas explosions. Eng Struct 141:444–460
54.
Zurück zum Zitat Parisi F, Balestrieri C, Asprone D (2016) Blast resistance of tuffstone masonry walls. Eng Struct 113:233–244CrossRef Parisi F, Balestrieri C, Asprone D (2016) Blast resistance of tuffstone masonry walls. Eng Struct 113:233–244CrossRef
55.
Zurück zum Zitat Harris RJ (1983) The investigation and control of gas explosions in buildings and heating plant. E & FN Spon in association with British Gas Corporation Harris RJ (1983) The investigation and control of gas explosions in buildings and heating plant. E & FN Spon in association with British Gas Corporation
56.
Zurück zum Zitat Harris RJ, Marshall MR, Moppett DJ (1977) The response of glass windows to explosion pressures. British Gas Corporation. I. Chem. E. Symposium Serious no. 49 Harris RJ, Marshall MR, Moppett DJ (1977) The response of glass windows to explosion pressures. British Gas Corporation. I. Chem. E. Symposium Serious no. 49
57.
Zurück zum Zitat Hooper PA, Sukhram RAM, Blackman BRK, Dear JP (2012) On the blast resistance of laminated glass. Int J Solids Struct 49(6):899–918 Hooper PA, Sukhram RAM, Blackman BRK, Dear JP (2012) On the blast resistance of laminated glass. Int J Solids Struct 49(6):899–918
58.
Zurück zum Zitat Larcher M, Solomos G, Casadei F, Gebbeken N (2012) Experimental and numerical investigations of laminated glass subjected to blast loading. Int J Impact Eng 39(1):42–50CrossRef Larcher M, Solomos G, Casadei F, Gebbeken N (2012) Experimental and numerical investigations of laminated glass subjected to blast loading. Int J Impact Eng 39(1):42–50CrossRef
59.
Zurück zum Zitat Kummer PO (2004) Glass breakage and injury-yet another new model? Technical report. Bienz Kummer and Partner Ltd. Zollikerberg (Switzerland) Kummer PO (2004) Glass breakage and injury-yet another new model? Technical report. Bienz Kummer and Partner Ltd. Zollikerberg (Switzerland)
Metadaten
Titel
Explosives and Explosive Effects
verfasst von
W. G. Proud
Copyright-Jahr
2022
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-17374-5_5