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Given the significant future impact of Brexit on the Union, citizens and other stakeholders have not merely relied on the established mechanisms of representative democracy, but have been seeking and actively using any available means for information and direct participation. This chapter aims to examine the available mechanisms for citizens and representative associations to scrutinise and participate in the Brexit negotiations at the European Union (EU) level. Effective citizen scrutiny and participation presuppose transparency and access to information. It is therefore first examined what means have been used to inform the public throughout the process. Subsequently, the different institutional forms of EU citizens’ direct participation in the context of the Brexit negotiations are examined. As an overall aim, this chapter assesses the standards which the Brexit negotiations have set and the shortcomings which remain with respect to openness, transparency and citizens’ involvement at the EU level.
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- Facilitating the Participation of EU Citizens in the Brexit Negotiation Process
- Chapter 12