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This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.This book presents results relevant in the manufacturing research field, that are mainly aimed at closing the gap between the academic investigation and the industrial application, in collaboration with manufacturing companies. Several hardware and software prototypes represent the key outcome of the scientific contributions that can be grouped into five main areas, representing different perspectives of the factory domain:1) Evolutionary and reconfigurable factories to cope with dynamic production contexts characterized by evolving demand and technologies, products and processes.2) Factories for sustainable production, asking for energy efficiency, low environmental impact products and processes, new de-production logics, sustainable logistics.3) Factories for the People who need new kinds of interactions between production processes, machines, and human beings to offer a more comfortable and stimulating working environment.4) Factories for customized products that will be more and more tailored to the final user’s needs and sold at cost-effective prices.5) High performance factories to yield the due production while minimizing the inefficiencies caused by failures, management problems, maintenance.This books is primarily targeted to academic researchers and industrial practitioners in the manufacturing domain.

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Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 1. The Italian Flagship Project: Factories of the Future

Abstract
This chapter deals with the central role of manufacturing in developed and developing countries, assessing how relevant it is from economic and social perspectives. The current international and Italian manufacturing contexts are analysed by highlighting the main criticalities and the impact of relevant global megatrends. Then, the main ongoing industrial research initiatives are presented both at international and Italian level. Based on the elaboration of current context and research initiatives, the Italian Flagship Project Factories of the Future defined five research priorities for the future of the manufacturing industry. Based on these priorities, the flagship project funded a total of 18 small-sized research projects after a competition based on calls for proposals. The results of the funded research projects are analysed in terms of scientific and industrial results, while providing references for more detailed descriptions in the specific chapters.
Walter Terkaj, Tullio Tolio

Evolutionary and Reconfigurable Factory

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 2. Model Predictive Control Tools for Evolutionary Plants

Abstract
The analysis and design of control system configurations for automated production systems is generally a challenging problem, in particular given the increasing number of automation devices and the amount of information to be managed. This problem becomes even more complex when the production system is characterized by a fast evolutionary behaviour in terms of tasks to be executed, production volumes, changing priorities, and available resources. Thus, the control solution needs to be optimized on the basis of key performance indicators like flow production, service level, job tardiness, peak of the absorbed electrical power and the total energy consumed by the plant. This paper proposes a prototype control platform based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) that is able to impress to the production system the desired functional behaviour. The platform is structured according to a two-level control architecture. At the lower layer, distributed MPC algorithms control the pieces of equipment in the production system. At the higher layer an MPC coordinator manages the lower level controllers, by taking full advantage of the most recent advances in hybrid control theory, dynamic programming, mixed‐integer optimization, and game theory. The MPC-based control platform will be presented and then applied to the case of a pilot production plant.
Andrea Cataldo, Ivan Cibrario Bertolotti, Riccardo Scattolini

Open Access

Chapter 3. Exploiting Modular Pallet Flexibility for Product and Process Co-evolution Through Zero-Point Clamping Systems

Abstract
Flexibility and reconfigurability of production systems are typically exploited to cope with the changing production demand in terms of volume and variety. This work addresses the problem of enhancing the current flexibility of Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMSs) by designing pallet configurations with zero-point modular fixtures. This class of equipment provides the ability of rapidly reconfiguring the pallets to match the production requirements, thus providing a strategic option to quickly manage the joint evolution of products and processes. An approach consisting of methods and tools is presented to overcome the main obstacles related to the use of zero-point clamping technologies in modern FMSs. The proposed approach ranges from the design of the pallet configuration to the pallet verification during the manufacturing executing phase. The feasibility of the overall approach has been demonstrated through the development of a prototype.
Marcello Urgo, Walter Terkaj, Franca Giannini, Stefania Pellegrinelli, Stefano Borgo

Open Access

Chapter 4. Knowledge Based Modules for Adaptive Distributed Control Systems

Abstract
Modern automation systems are asked to provide a step change toward flexibility and reconfigurability to cope with increasing demand for fast changing and highly fragmented production—which is more and more characterising the manufacturing sector. This reflects in the transition from traditional hierarchical and centralised control architecture to adaptive distributed control systems, being the latter capable of exploiting also knowledge-based strategies toward collaborating behaviours. The chapter intends to investigate such topics, by outlining major challenges and proposing a possible approach toward their solution, founded on autonomous, self-declaring, knowledge-based and heterarchically collaborating control modules. The benefits of the proposed approach are discussed and demonstrated in the field of re-manufacturing of electronic components, with specific reference to a pilot plant for the integrated End-Of-Life management of mechatronic products.
Andrea Ballarino, Alessandro Brusaferri, Amedeo Cesta, Guido Chizzoli, Ivan Cibrario Bertolotti, Luca Durante, Andrea Orlandini, Riccardo Rasconi, Stefano Spinelli, Adriano Valenzano

Open Access

Chapter 5. Highly Evolvable E-waste Recycling Technologies and Systems

Abstract
Materials recycling is a key process to close the loop of materials in the direction of circular economy. However, the variability of waste and the high volatility of the price of recovered materials are posing serious challenges to the current rigid design of mechanical recycling systems. This is particularly true for Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), whose volume is growing more than other waste streams in Europe due to the diffusion of electronic products and to their short technology cycles. This study is aimed at the development of new flexible recycling systems through the implementation of a Hyper Spectral Imaging system and a simulation model enabling the real-time characterisation of shredded particles and the dynamic optimisation of process parameters for efficient sorting. A hardware and software prototype was realised and tested at the De- and Re-manufacturing pilot plant of CNR-STIIMA. The positive economic impact of flexible recycling systems enabled by new technologies was assessed through scenario analysis.
Giacomo Copani, Nicoletta Picone, Marcello Colledani, Monica Pepe, Alessandro Tasora

Sustainable Factory

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 6. Innovative and Sustainable Production of Biopolymers

Abstract
This work aims to develop methodologies and tools to support the design and management of sustainable processes for the production of biodegradable polyhydroxyalcanoates (PHAs) biopolymers. PHAs are linear polyesters produced in nature by bacteria through aerobic fermentation of many carbon sources, completely biodegradable and biocompatible. We carried out a study inherent to the advancement of an innovative, cost-effective and environmentally sustainable technology for isolating PHAs from bacteria mixed cultures by combining: (a) innovative cells’ pre-treatments and polymer purification’s strategy by means of TiO2/UV or Ag0 nanostructured materials; (b) polymer extraction through a green and safe system directly applicable to bacterial cultures, which combines the advantages of solvent extraction and these of dissolution of the non-PHAs cellular matrix through surfactants; (c) monitoring and control tools for process energy and efficiency management. The outcomes put the basis for the design and subsequent building of a working pilot system for the production of completely biodegradable and biocompatible PHAs. The efficiency can be improved and the investments and operating costs can be decreased thanks to the optimization of the production process with the introduction of safe and cheap PHAs extraction route without use of toxic and harmful chemicals and the integration of monitoring and automation tools. The engineering and integration of nano-TiO2 phase within textile fibres and their use as photocatalytic active media for bacteria pre- and post-treatment of waste water added a new opportunity for improving process efficiency and sustainability.
Simona Ortelli, Anna Luisa Costa, Cristian Torri, Chiara Samorì, Paola Galletti, Claudia Vineis, Alessio Varesano, Luca Bonura, Giacomo Bianchi

Open Access

Chapter 7. Integrated Technological Solutions for Zero Waste Recycling of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)

Abstract
The demand for key metals for the production of high-tech products is constantly growing in Europe, leading to relevant problems both in terms of supply risks and costs. Waste from Electric and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is growing very fast in Europe, with an annual increase rate between 3 and 5%. Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs), which are embedded in electric and electronics products, are very valuable waste products, since they are composed also of precious metals and key metals (about 25–30%). Recycling of PCBs is a very challenging task that has not been solved yet: recycling rates for traditional metals are around 30–35% and many critical key metals, as well as the non metal fraction, are not recycled. This work proposes a set of solutions to be adopted towards the automated zero-waste treatment of PCBs. They address selective disassembly of PCBs components, mechanical pre-treatments, chemical processes for the characterisation of metals material content of PCBs, as well as for the recycling of their non-metal fraction. New business models are finally proposed for the uptake of such solutions in a framework of integrated recycling chain.
Giacomo Copani, Marcello Colledani, Alessandro Brusaferri, Antonio Pievatolo, Eugenio Amendola, Maurizio Avella, Monica Fabrizio

Factory for the People

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 8. Systemic Approach for the Definition of a Safer Human-Robot Interaction

Abstract
Smart factories must speed up their processes to face new manufacturing challenges and, at the same time, demonstrate an extremely high degree of flexibility to reduce production costs and time. This kind of issues can be addressed by the cooperation between humans and robots in a mixed human-robot working environment. Robots have the compelling advantage of spatial precision and repeatability as well as the capability of applying defined forces. Humans, on the other hand, are especially skilled at complex manipulations and adapting to changing task requirements. In this complicate scenario of co-shared workplace and continuous human-robot interaction, safety strategies are a key requirement to avoid possible injuries to humans or fatal accidents. This chapter proposes a systemic approach to respond to these requirements. The approach merges and manages multiple sensing sources, redundant transmission protocols and software decision mechanisms, aiming to guarantee a continuous and reconfigurable co-share scenario that enables an operative interaction between human workers and robots in a controlled and safe environment. Furthermore, new technological solutions and innovative methodologies are presented for the definition of a safer workplace in human-robot interaction scenarios.
Alessandro Pecora, Luca Maiolo, Antonio Minotti, Massimiliano Ruggeri, Luca Dariz, Matteo Giussani, Niccolò Iannacci, Loris Roveda, Nicola Pedrocchi, Federico Vicentini

Open Access

Chapter 9. Haptic Teleoperation of UAV Equipped with Gamma-Ray Spectrometer for Detection and Identification of Radio-Active Materials in Industrial Plants

Abstract
Large scale factories such as steel, wood, construction, recycling plants and landfills involve the procurement of raw material which may include radiating parts, that must be monitored, because potentially dangerous for workers. Manufacturing operations are carried out in unstructured environments, where fully autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) inspection is hardly applicable. In this work we report on the development of a haptic teleoperated UAV for localization of radiation sources in industrial plants. Radiation sources can be localized and identified thanks to a novel CZT-based custom gamma-ray detector integrated on the UAV, providing light, compact, spectroscopic, and low power operation. UAV operation with a human in the loop allows an expert operator to focus on selected candidate areas, thereby optimizing short flight mission in face of the constrained acquisition times required by nuclear inspection. To cope with the reduced situational awareness of the remote operator, force feedback is exploited as an additional sensory channel. The developed prototype has been demonstrated both in relevant and operational environments.
Jacopo Aleotti, Giorgio Micconi, Stefano Caselli, Giacomo Benassi, Nicola Zambelli, Manuele Bettelli, Davide Calestani, Andrea Zappettini

Factory for Customised and Personalised Products

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 10. Proposing a Tool for Supply Chain Configuration: An Application to Customised Production

Abstract
The full implementation of collaborative production networks is crucial for companies willing to respond to consumer demand strongly focused on product customisation. This chapter proposes an approach to evaluate the performance of different Supply Chain (SC) configurations in a customised production context. The model is based on discrete-event simulation and is applied to the case of supply chain in the fashion sector to support the comparison between mass and customised production. A prototype web-based interface is also developed and proposed to facilitate the use of the model not only for experts in simulation but for any user in the SC management field.
Laura Macchion, Irene Marchiori, Andrea Vinelli, Rosanna Fornasiero

Open Access

Chapter 11. Hospital Factory for Manufacturing Customised, Patient-Specific 3D Anatomo-Functional Models and Prostheses

Abstract
The fabrication of personalised prostheses tailored on each patient is one of the major needs and key issues for the future of several surgical specialties. Moreover, the production of patient-specific anatomo-functional models for preoperative planning is an important requirement in the presence of tailored prostheses, as also the surgical treatment must be optimised for each patient. The presence of a prototyping service inside the hospital would be a benefit for the clinical activity, as its location would allow a closer interaction with clinicians, leading to significant time and cost reductions. However, at present, these services are extremely rare worldwide. Based on these considerations, we investigate enhanced methods and technologies for implementing such a service. Moreover, we analyse the sustainability of the service and, thanks to the development of two prototypes, we show the feasibility of the production inside the hospital.
Ettore Lanzarone, Stefania Marconi, Michele Conti, Ferdinando Auricchio, Irene Fassi, Francesco Modica, Claudia Pagano, Golboo Pourabdollahian

Open Access

Chapter 12. Polymer Nanostructuring by Two-Photon Absorption

Abstract
Two-photon polymerization (2PP) is an innovative technology that in recent years showed a tremendous potential for three-dimensional structuring of photopolymers at the submicron scale. It is based on the nonlinear absorption of ultrashort laser pulses in transparent photosensitive materials. 2PP has been so far exploited in various fields, including photonics, microfluidics, regenerative medicine and MEMS prototyping. The versatility of this technology relies also on the photomaterials; indeed, polymers are easy to process, low cost and they allow the tailoring of their chemical and mechanical properties. 2PP nanotechnology is here exploited to produce micro and nanostructures that can be easily customized both in the geometry and in polymer functionalization. In particular, atomic force microscopy tips are fabricated on top of commercial cantilevers to demonstrate the technology feasibility and customizability. Moreover nanoporous membranes that can be fabricated by 2PP as a single custom product or as a mould for mass production through replica moulding are realized to evaluate the scalability of the fabrication process.
Tommaso Zandrini, Raffaella Suriano, Carmela De Marco, Roberto Osellame, Stefano Turri, Francesca Bragheri

Open Access

Chapter 13. Use of Nanostructured Coating to Improve Heat Exchanger Efficiency

Abstract
This work investigates the potential of surface nano-coatings on the heat transfer surface of heat exchangers, in order to improve their overall efficiency in terms of pressure drop and heat power exchanged. The work started from the consideration that, due to the increasingly strict international standards, the machines will be provided with optimized engines with new and improved devices to reduce the exhaust emissions (liquid cooled EGR valves, new catalytic converters and DPF systems) which reduce inevitably the space in the engine compartment. In this paper it is studied the feasibility of the coating processes and the adaptability of deposition techniques to the industrial production process of cross flow heat exchanger fins. The innovative exchanger performance, investigated using dedicated test rigs, shows that the results are influenced by the coating technology.
Antonino Bonanno, Mariarosa Raimondo, Michele Pinelli

Advanced-Performance Factory

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 14. Surface Nano-structured Coating for Improved Performance of Axial Piston Pumps

Abstract
The work starts from the consideration that most of the power losses in a hydraulic pump is due to frictional losses made by the relative motion between moving parts. This fact is particularly true at low operating velocities, when the hydraulic lift effect must be able to maintain a minimum clearance in meatus to limit the volumetric losses. The potential of structured coatings at nanoscale, with super-hydrophobic and oleophobic characteristics, has never been exploited before in an industrial application. The work studies the potential application of nano-coating on piston slippers surface in a real industrial case. The aim is to develop a new industrial solution to increase the energetic efficiency of hydraulic pump used in earthmoving machines. The proposed solution is investigated using a dedicated test bench, designed to reproduce real working conditions of the pump. The results show a reduction of friction coefficient while changing working pressure and rotation velocity.
Antonino Bonanno, Mariarosa Raimondo, Stefano Zapperi

Open Access

Chapter 15. Monitoring Systems of an Electrospinning Plant for the Production of Composite Nanofibers

Abstract
Electrospinning is a versatile and promising technology for the production of polymer-based nanofibres. Composite nanofibres suitable for filtration of air and water have been developed by merging biopolymer processing and sol-gel techniques using electrospinning technology. A fine control of large-scale nanofibre formation is required to achieve reliable transfer of electrospinning-based processes into relevant industrial environments. The main goals of this work were the production of innovative multifunctional filter media (high-efficiency filtration, biocidal, self-cleaning, photo-catalytic, reactive, adsorbent properties) by integrating nanofibre membranes with inorganic nanoparticles and developing an electrospinning plant integrating sensors able to detect electrospinning fault and electrostatic alteration during the process.
Luca Bonura, Giacomo Bianchi, Diego Omar Sanchez Ramirez, Riccardo Andrea Carletto, Alessio Varesano, Claudia Vineis, Cinzia Tonetti, Giorgio Mazzuchetti, Ettore Lanzarone, Simona Ortelli, Anna Luisa Costa, Magda Blosi

Open Access

Chapter 16. Plastic Lab-on-Chip for the Optical Manipulation of Single Cells

Abstract
Lab-on-chips (LoCs) are microsystems capable of manipulating small amounts of fluids in microfluidic channels. They have a huge application potential, from basic science to chemical synthesis and point-of-care medical analysis. Polymers are rapidly emerging as the substrate of choice for LoC production, thanks to a low material cost and ease of processing. Two breakthroughs that could promote LoC diffusion are a microfabrication technology with cost-effective and rapid prototyping capabilities and also an integrated on-chip optical detection system. This chapter proposes the use of femtosecond laser micromachining combined with microinjection moulding as a novel highly-flexible microfabrication platform for polymeric LoCs with integrated optical detection, for the realization of low-cost and truly portable biophotonic microsystems. We demonstrate a LoC for the relevant application of non-invasive and contactless mechanical phenotyping of single cancer cells.
Rebeca Martínez Vázquez, Gianluca Trotta, Annalisa Volpe, Melania Paturzo, Francesco Modica, Vittorio Bianco, Sara Coppola, Antonio Ancona, Pietro Ferraro, Irene Fassi, Roberto Osellame

Open Access

Chapter 17. CIGS-Based Flexible Solar Cells

Abstract
This chapter reports the progress on the fabrication of thin film CIGS-based solar cells by means of the low temperature pulsed electron deposition technique. The innovative and multidisciplinary approach aims to solve the main issues preventing a possible industrial scale up of the process, i.e. the need of a fast, reliable and automated process, suitable for both static and dynamic deposition of CIGS solar cells on flexible substrates. The final goal is to open new opportunities, particularly in the emerging field of the building-integrated photovoltaic.
Edmondo Gilioli, Cristiano Albonetti, Francesco Bissoli, Matteo Bronzoni, Pasquale Ciccarelli, Stefano Rampino, Roberto Verucchi

Open Access

Chapter 18. Mechano-Chemistry of Rock Materials for the Industrial Production of New Geopolymeric Cements

Abstract
The reduction of CO2 emission from cement industry represents a priority task in the roadmap defined for the year 2020 by the European Union (EU) Commission for a resource efficient Europe. Several research projects have been undertaken aimed at developing non-hazardous materials as partial substitute of clinker in cement formulations, but also new, low-carbon, cements fully replacing clinker. Among the new cementing materials, Si–Al geopolymers seem the most promising, in terms of CO2 emission and mechanical and thermal properties. In this chapter, mechano-chemical processing of kaolin clays to produce metakaolin (MKA) for the synthesis of Si–Al geopolymers is proposed as an alternative process to replace thermal treatments performed at 650–850 °C. Results obtained show that the mechano-chemical process is also suitable to make low cost blended Si–Al geopolymers where 40% of MKA is replaced by mechano-chemically activated volcanic tuffs. The compatibility of mechano-chemistry with industrial production was investigated by building a prototype milling system that was tested in a small industrial facility producing zeolites from industrial wastes. The degree of automation allowed the prototype to work unattended for 10 months. Based on the results obtained from these tests, a milling system for a full scale production of mechano-chemically activated rock materials was designed, and its performances analysed.
Piero Ciccioli, Donatella Capitani, Sabrina Gualtieri, Elena Soragni, Girolamo Belardi, Paolo Plescia, Giorgio Contini

Open Access

Chapter 19. Silk Fibroin Based Technology for Industrial Biomanufacturing

Abstract
Natural biomaterials are more and more used for the development of high technology solutions, setting the scene for a bio-based material economy that responds to the increasing demand of environmentally friendly products. Among natural biomaterials, silk fibre protein called silk fibroin (SF) produced by the Bombyx mori L. insect, recently found a broad range of applications in biomedical field. SF substrates display remarkable properties like controlled biodegradability, flexibility, mechanical resistance and optical transparency, solution processability. These properties combined with the water-based extraction and purification process make SF a promising material for sustainable manufacturing enabling to partially replace synthetic, plastic-based and non-biodegradable material use. The use of SF interfaces in biocompatible electronic or photonic devices for advanced biomedical applications has been recently highlighted. However, the use of a natural biomaterial is challenging due to the complex nature of the biological molecule, and it requires to tightly control biomaterial properties during all the manufacturing steps. In this work, we show the results obtained by in loco production of raw-material, defining the best condition for silkworm selection and growth. The assessment and standardization of extraction/purification methodology are reported with reference to the high purity and remarkable performance in terms of chemo-physical property and biocompatibility of the obtained SF products. Finally, we demonstrate the fabrication, characterization and validation of microfluidic and photonic components of a lab-on-a-chip device for biodiagnostic based on biomanufactured SF.
Valentina Benfenati, Stefano Toffanin, Camilla Chieco, Anna Sagnella, Nicola Di Virgilio, Tamara Posati, Greta Varchi, Marco Natali, Giampiero Ruani, Michele Muccini, Federica Rossi, Roberto Zamboni

Conclusions

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 20. Key Research Priorities for Factories of the Future—Part I: Missions

Abstract
This chapter investigates research priorities for factories of the future by adopting an approach based on mission-oriented policies to support manufacturing innovation. Missions are challenging from a scientific and technological point of view and, at the same time, are addressing problems and providing results that are understandable by common people. Missions are based on clear targets that can help mitigating grand challenges. Based on the results of the Italian Flagship Project Factories of the Future, this chapter proposes seven missions while identifying the societal impact, the technological and industrial challenges, and the barriers to be overcome. These missions cover topics such as circular economy, rapid and sustainable industrialisation, robotic assistant, factories for personalised medicine, internet of actions, factories close to the people, and turning ideas into products. The accomplishment of missions asks for the support of a proper research environment in terms of infrastructures to test and demonstrate the results to a wide public. Research infrastructures together with funding mechanisms will be better addressed in the next chapter of this book.
Tullio Tolio, Giacomo Copani, Walter Terkaj

Open Access

Chapter 21. Key Research Priorities for Factories of the Future—Part II: Pilot Plants and Funding Mechanisms

Abstract
Mission-oriented policies have been proposed for research and innovation in the European manufacturing industry to address grand challenges while fostering economic growth and employment. A mission is required to have clear goals that can be demonstrated also to a wide public, therefore research and innovation infrastructures play a key role to create the necessary conditions. Given the fundamental importance of public investment to promote innovation, possible funding mechanisms for industrial research and innovation are discussed. Furthermore, taking advantage of the experience gained during the Italian Flagship Project Factories of the Future, this chapter identifies three types of industrial research and innovation infrastructure that can support mission-oriented policies: lab-scale pilot plants, industrial-scale pilot plants, and lighthouse plants.
Tullio Tolio, Giacomo Copani, Walter Terkaj
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