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Über dieses Buch

This book explores the social history of training and development and describes how ordinary training systems were linked to extraordinary events. Using instrumental case studies, the author explores the direct and indirect motives behind famous and infamous training systems of history such as the methods used by John Lennon and Paul McCartney in the Beatles, those used by the Third Reich in training forced labor, and in the social guidance films of the 1950’s, among others. This book links modern-day themes of corporate and community social responsibility and social justice to historical cases of workplace and community training; in addition, it offers a unique view of business history that students and scholars can relate to, and contributes to a more thorough and robust inquiry into critical human resource development, ethics in the workplace, and the nature of training adults, in general.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction: On the Axiology of Training and Development—Is Training Value Neutral?

Abstract
What will organizational leaders in the year 2085 think of today’s Hooters™ training manual which includes such directives as “look wholesome, yet sexy … and, white bras only with make-up to be worn at all times”? This introductory chapter challenges the reader to view workplace and community training from an axiological as well as a social justice lens. Specifically, while the act of training itself—teaching or developing oneself or others in knowledge, skills, or attitudes (KSAs) needed to improve one’s capability—may be value neutral, training programs have historically been the means to sustain stereotypes, racism, and sexism, yet they also have been a party to progressive societal efforts and cultural movements. An overarching premise presented is that organizational and community leaders must be vigilant in ensuring that not only are training outcomes ethical, but so too are the interventions.
David M. Kopp

Chapter 2. What Is Training?

Abstract
In the introductory chapter of this book, the construct of training is defined and the concept of training is explored in more depth, including a brief chronology. While the term “training” is utilized throughout the book, this chapter underscores that a unified definition for “training” remains elusive—that is, meanings tend to vary depending upon the given goals and objectives, and, as it relates to this book, the nature of the training will be a function of the context and purpose of the training itself. Some in the field contend that—semantics aside—training means “training and development.” Others in the field not only refuse to define training, but also claim that it defies definition entirely. Thus, in the spirit of a social science, when it comes to training people, training’s definition does vary depending on who you ask.
David M. Kopp

Chapter 3. Physiognomy: Training’s Woeful Countenance

Abstract
Light heavyweight boxing champion Louis “Battling Siki” Fall from Senegal, Africa, was once one of the four or five most recognizable black men in the world. Therefore, it was not surprising when Battling Siki’s likeness was used in Gordon J. A. Hargrave’s popular 1920s sales training manual, Secrets of Selling. However, Hargrave used Louis Fall’s picture not to lionize the boxing legend but rather to train would-be salesmen on the differences between the emotional and the logical buyer. In this essay, the folk science of physiognomy—the notion that a person’s outer appearance, especially the face, could provide insight into his or her true character or personality—is explored and discussed in the context of how it shaped the training given to salesmen in the early twentieth century.
David M. Kopp

Chapter 4. Rosie the Riveter

Abstract
With the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the United States entered World War II; as a result, the country had to move quickly into a wartime production mode. The subsequent mass of men enlisting in the armed services left vacancies in crucial war industries such as airplane, ship, and munitions production. Many employers who had been indifferent or opposed to employment of women suddenly reconsidered their positions, and the federal government began to encourage women, especially housewives, to join the work force, emphasizing their patriotic duty. The wartime training program that targeted female workers was propagandized by the government’s Rosie the Riveter campaign, a fictional female icon created by the US government to draw women to working for the war industries.
David M. Kopp

Chapter 5. Nazi Germany: Training Forced Labor

Abstract
This essay explores training surrounding the forced foreign labor during World War II including the Jewish councils in Eastern Europe under Nazi occupation. Jews, Russians, and Roma were involved in mandatory training courses to enhance the labor skills. Such training courses were run so that workers could qualify for labor certificates in German industry. Many Jews (erroneously) believed that if they could demonstrate their usefulness to German industry, this would reduce their chances of being exterminated.
David M. Kopp

Chapter 6. Self-Directed Training: John Lennon and Paul McCartney

Abstract
It is widely held that the cornerstone of the Beatles’ success was the synergy between John Lennon and Paul McCartney; many music critics and scholars agree that their dyad was the most successful and influential that popular music had seen. Indeed, much has been written regarding the Lennon–McCartney partnership and the ostensive reasons for its break-up. By 1969, the individual conditions of Lennon and McCartney were different. McCartney, on the one hand, was flourishing from his self-education as a musician, songwriter, and producer and by this time had become the de facto group leader, while Lennon was fundamentally withdrawn and apathetic regarding his partnership with McCartney, as well as the Beatles as a band. This essay discusses how, beyond “sex, drugs, and rock and roll,” Lennon’s and McCartney’s self-training and self-directed learning styles, particularly, may have impacted the dyad and affected the longevity of the group, in general.
David M. Kopp

Chapter 7. “Pregnant Mothers Should Avoid Thinking of Ugly People”: Parenting Education and Child-Rearing Advice of the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

Abstract
This essay explores the dubious parenting and child-rearing advice and education given to parents in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Books, manuals, magazines, pamphlets, and other ephemera are reviewed and discussed. Additionally, scientific management and behaviorism are discussed as a context for the questionable parenting and child-rearing practices given to parents during this time period.
David M. Kopp

Chapter 8. When Job Aids Attack

Abstract
In this essay the reader is introduced to instructions that aided and abetted the performance—the job aid, not only as a training or learning tool, but also as a cultural artifact in specific historical social contexts. For example, Hitler Youth training manuals used for ideological indoctrination included not only dispassionate job aids that could be used to recall the working parts of a rifle or the correct way to perform flag-based semaphore, but also there were job aids that supported the narrative propaganda of social Darwinism and eugenics, study of improving the qualities of the (Aryan) population by discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or undesirable traits (e.g., Jews). Also discussed are dubious job aids including so-called patent medicines with their dosage instructions, including the author’s research on Kopp’s Baby’s Friend elixir and other so-called patent medicines.
David M. Kopp

Chapter 9. Mental Hygiene Guidance Films and Duck and Cover

Abstract
Mental hygiene films, also known as social guidance or social engineering films, were training films that were specifically used to shape the social behavior of their audiences. This essay explores the social guidance film industry and how these training films were part of instruction in elementary and high school classrooms in the United States from the late 1940s to the early 1970s (with their heyday in the 1950s and 1960s). Social guidance films covered topics including social etiquette and dating, personal hygiene, drug use, and driver safety. Discussed in this chapter, too, are the motivations for government civil defense training considered by experts today as feckless or, at best, profoundly lacking. The idea that the government provided such training to minimize civilian panic is explored, as well.
David M. Kopp

Chapter 10. Social Responsibility and Final Thoughts

Abstract
This final chapter concludes with the overarching critical reflections that fall under the ethical perspective of training and development such as who gets access to training and development, an employer’s duty to train and develop its employees, as well as such ruminations as:
  • the consequences of training and development to society, organizations, and individuals;
  • the moral base and ethical dilemmas raised by training practice;
  • considering power differences and repressive practices; and
  • the overall social responsibility of training and development practice.
David M. Kopp

Backmatter

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