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Über dieses Buch

This book will broaden readers’ understanding of the links between the music and fashion industries. It highlights the challenges currently facing the fashion industry in terms of hyper-competition, definition of ever-faster trends, changing consumer demands etc. In fact, the fashion industry is heavily influenced by the digital revolution in the music industry, which has changed the face of individual music consumption and social reference, and therefore, also has impacts on fashion consumption and social reference. This understanding is crucial in order to realign any fashion company’s strategies to the demands of modern fashion consumers. In terms of content, the book first discusses the social perspective of fashion and music. This includes an analysis of music as a key influencer of fashion trends, both theoretically and on the basis of a case study on grunge music. Then the role of music in the fashion business is addressed, and covers in-store music and the role of music in fashion communication. Following up, the role of fashion in the music business is analyzed. This includes the trend of co-design of fashion collections, music artists’ role of differentiation by style, and the market for music fashion merchandise articles (both theoretically and drawing on a case study). In closing, potential lessons learned from the music industry are developed for the fashion industry. This includes an analysis of the digital revolution and the advent of the crowdfunding idea (both theoretically and in a case study).



Chapter 1. An Introductory Viewpoint to Fashion and Music

The purpose of this paper is to give an overview about the links between the fashion and music industry. It focuses on the idea that digitalization has broken the rules of the traditional music industry value chain. This touches both the production and the consumption side of music. This change finally also has an intense impact on the fashion industry, as the music industry has been big supplier of fashion trends itself. The absence of this supplier plus the changes within the fashion industry itself by the fast-fashion development are considered as a reason for more competition and therefore price pressure. An in-depth future research about the fashion and music system is therefore required to develop answers for the current situation. This article should be interpreted more as a personal viewpoint of the author to this topic rather than a research paper based on the usual methodological criteria.
Jochen Strähle

Chapter 2. Fashion and Music: A Literature Review

Purpose of the present research paper is to examine the current state of research, define dimensions of research and reveal gaps in research on the topic of ‘Fashion and Music’. To do so, the methodology of a scientific literature review was applied. The literature review revealed that music and its business mainly serve the fashion industry as influencer on trends, image building marketing tool, support of fashion processes and contributor to the development of innovative fashion products. Both industries provide identify-forming features, unify their mutual target groups in a certain lifestyle and thus enlarge their own target market. This results in increased brand awareness, image and credibility, emotionalized brand experience, differentiation and sophisticated brand identity. The present paper can serve as the basis for further research. It is limited by the time, depth and availability of data collection, the predominance of grey literature and its focus on the modern relationship of fashion and music.
Jochen Strähle, Anna-Christina Kriegel

Chapter 3. Music as Key-Influencer of Fashion Trends

Aim of this paper is to provide an understanding to which extent music and fashion interdepend and interact referring to the music and fashion trend development, focusing the period from 1950 till today. It further helps the reader to gain an insight if the technology provided influences the development and the access of music and fashion in future. The research for this paper required the use of secondary sources including library and online research. The goal was to gather information about the former and current development of music and fashion. These methods were the best alternatives of secondary sources as they provided trusted results thus enhancing the accuracy of the data being collected. But however they were also limited since mainly data for the fashion and music development of the noughties were limited. This is explainable by the key finding that the development of this time is not as distinct as the one of the former times, when a fashion trend came along with a new music genre or hit, which implies that fashion and music correlate to a certain extent, but characterized by a reactivation of the music and fashion trends of previous times without any new inventions.
Jochen Strähle, Jennifer Rödel

Chapter 4. Case Study: Grunge Music and Grunge Style

This paper is purposed to examine the impact of grunge music on fashion and to explain how grunge music is reflected in grunge style. The research methodology applied is a case study on grunge music and grunge style. Key findings suggest that different elements of grunge music had a great impact on the evolution of grunge style: Mentality and philosophy of the movement, musical style and sound as well as lyrical concerns are incorporated by grunge style. Commercial exploitation of grunge partly led to its downfall. Moreover, the original spirit of the movement is not commonly shared by all sub-genres’ respective contemporary styles. Musicians had great impact on the evolution of grunge style and unintentional rose to style icons. The research is limited by the amount of academic literature concerning the connection between grunge music and grunge style. Therefore, journal entries and blogs are used as reference as well.
Jochen Strähle, Noemi Jahne-Warrior

Chapter 5. In-Store Music in Fashion Stores

The purpose of this paper is to identify the role of in-store music in the fashion retail environment and to describe music as an atmospheric building tool in order to influence customer behaviour with emotions created by musical compositions. As offline retailer try to differentiate their stores through shopping experiences, atmospherics like visuals, scent and sound are appropriate tools to reinforce brand image and therefore customers’ willingness to enter, explore and purchase. Music can be a powerful primary element in creating or enhancing sensory experiences of shoppers and serves as a powerful connection to emotions. Focus of the literature review lies on the emotions which are triggered though different musical characteristics and then affect the customer behaviour. The paper offers a concisely presented review and highlights crucial aspects on what role in-store music has on customers’ perception of atmosphere, emotions and behaviour.
Jochen Strähle, Ronja Hohls

Chapter 6. Music in Fashion Communication

Music is omnipresent and an important factor for cultural and social development. Thus, the connection between music and fashion has rarely been contemplated yet. In particular, this research paper is concerned with the connection between music and fashion communication, with special interest to its emotional background in the context of neuromarketing. The research question of how music affects the perception of a fashion brand, when regarded as emotional stimulus in the context of neuromarketing, has been investigated by researching existing literature. Without attempting to explain neurological processes to their core, this paper tries to give an overview of how music generates emotion and how this can be used for branding activities. This led to the result that music causes positive emotional response of the consumer, when used in marketing actions. Through emotional response, the perception, identity, and recall of a brand are strongly influenced.
Jochen Strähle, Mara Keibel

Chapter 7. Co-design and Endorsement

The purpose of this paper is to determine the success factors regarding celebrities of the music business involved in fashion advertising. That famous people have the power to help brands and products to stand out among others is proven and popular. This paper is concentrating on successful musicians and their endorsements of fashion brands and examines the benefits for both, the brand and the artist. It investigates how consumer perceives brand and artist collaboration and what factors enhance the purchase intention and increase sales. This paper is structured in the following manner: The introduction presents the research question and sets the aim for the paper, followed by the analysis of the existing literature. The paper ends with conclusions, limitations and suggestions for further research.
Jochen Strähle, Gabriele Strobl

Chapter 8. Creating Differentiation by Style

The purpose of this paper is to find out how musicians are able to differentiate themselves from their competitors by using their style. Casting shows and the evolution of the contestants’ style during and after the show serve as a paradigm for creating differentiation by style. The method of research was diverse but largely drawn from research papers as well as online magazines and newspapers. Within the scope of the research, it was feasible to draw on a varied range of sources to answer the research question. In the course of this research paper, it was possible to define key factors for a musician to create differentiation by style in modern times. By examining the style of casting show contestants, it was explored to which extent they transform from rather normal people to pop stars. In reducing the detailed analysis of casting shows to three shows and contestants, only a broad overview was provided. The paper is of interest to those working for casting shows in order to develop those.
Jochen Strähle, Patricia Dürr

Chapter 9. Merchandising in the Music Business

The purpose of this research paper is to find out to which extent rap music merchandise is influencing the fashion world of today. The research design is mainly created through analysing Internet sources. The key findings of this paper describe the way rap merchandise is created and distributed nowadays. Furthermore, is explained how an idea becomes trend and how rap artists influence trend creation, especially through social media channels. The topic around rap merchandising products and strategies is a very new one, thus there is barely any literature to find. Nevertheless, trend leading online music platforms and blogs offer a lot of grey literature about the research topic. In this paper, the analysis of rap merchandise and fashion is focused on clothing items to create a better understanding in which dimension the influence of rap merchandise on the fashion world is given.
Jochen Strähle, Charline Susan Jackson

Chapter 10. Case Study: EMP

The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the business model of the retailer EMP. The in-depth literature review develops the relevance of merchandising for the rock and heavy metal scene and the relevance of EMP within that market. Literature about existing approaches of multi-channelling has been reviewed. Based on this theoretical framework, a case study of EMP has been drafted. Findings are discussed, focusing on the performance of EMP as a multi-channel and lifestyle retailer and additionally provide valuable managerial implications for fashion retailers. Implications for further research address lifestyle retailers to contribute to the findings or validate them with different examples. The research is clearly limited by the amount of scholar literature concerning EMP in particular. Hence, magazines, journals and information provided by the company serve as reference. Even though EMP provided some information, gathering any information about how EMP manages multi-channelling operationally was not possible.
Jochen Strähle, Myriam Töpfer

Chapter 11. How Digital Changed the Music Industry

This article aims to point out main changes of the music industry since the advent of the Internet and how the fashion industry can learn from it. Different factors are researched with a birds-eye perspective by conducting a literature review. The results are limited by the availability of sources and the implications are based on a theoretical foundation. For further research the conclusions drawn for the fashion industry have to be proven empirically. After reading the paper, the reader has rather an overview of the changed circumstances and how the music industry reacted than deep knowledge in each field. More specifically, this paper gives an overview of the changed circumstances due to digitalisation and how the music industry reacted within. As both the fashion and music industry have their similarities, they are limited in their comparability, since fashion products cannot be fully digitalized like a music record. The fact that the music industry had to reinvent itself rapidly to adopt new possibilities and chances results from the article. To make use of the sustainability trend and to build communities in order to include them in the creation process are the major suggestions for the fashion industry.
Jochen Strähle, Lukas Köhneke

Chapter 12. Crowdfunding: Learnings from the Music Business

The purpose of this paper is to identify key success factors of Crowdfunding in the Music Business in order to discuss their applicability to the Fashion Industry. The research methodology applied is a literature review examining academic and non-academic references. Key research findings include four main success factors. First explains the innovative and adaptive nature of the music industry caused by historical evolution. Second strong commitment and connection to the fan base is identified as success factor. Third manageable effort for the realisation on a large scale reduces the risk of a failure. And, last success factor describes the successful implementation of campaign-specific aspects. The discussion finally shows that three of four success factors can be adapted to the Fashion Business. Due to little scientific research in the field of Crowdfunding in the Music Business, the success factors are worked out independently, based on general literature. Accordingly, quantitative testing and further analysis is recommended.
Jochen Strähle, Franziska Lang

Chapter 13. Case Study: Marillion

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the use of crowdfunding, demonstrated by a case study about the rock band Marillion. The research methodology applied is a literature review examining academic references. On this basis, a case study by exemplary illustrating the rock band Marillion and how they invented crowdfunding has been drafted. Findings suggest that the crowdfunding concept is no new phenomenon, since the rock band Marillion has investigated the business model. Recently, the funding method is applied to the fashion industry; hence it is efficient and engaging to finance projects by that specific business model. A limitation of this paper is that the topic of crowdfunding is new to the fashion business and needs further research and tests until they are practicable to interpret. Results show that there is a high potential for using crowdfunding in fashion by reaching a long-term change in this industry.
Jochen Strähle, Lena Bulling
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