At present, there are several groups of spacecraft (THEMIS, Cluster, Double Star) rotating around the Earth on orbits whose elements are located in the outer magnetosphere, magnetosheath, and in the neighborhood of the Earth’s bow shock
at distances of 10÷25 Earth’s radii
. Other spacecraft (Wind, SOHO, ACE) are located in the free solar wind in the neighborhood of the Lagrange point
from the Earth. The data on the solar wind, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and the magnetosheath parameters are continuously transferred to the Earth and actively analyzed. The measurement results are used to identify sharp changes in the solar wind associated with shock waves and other discontinuities and their manifestations in near space [1–4]. These investigations are due to the need for forecasting the cosmic weather which manifests itself on the Earth in the form of sudden storm commencements, magnetic substorms, and sudden impulses.