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2021 | Buch

Finding Solutions of the 21st Century Transportation Problems Through Research and Innovations

Proceedings of the 6th GeoChina International Conference on Civil & Transportation Infrastructures: From Engineering to Smart & Green Life Cycle Solutions -- Nanchang, China, 2021

herausgegeben von: Dr. Zahid Hossain, Prof. Dr. Musharraf Zaman, Prof. Dr. Jiupeng Zhang

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

Buchreihe : Sustainable Civil Infrastructures


Über dieses Buch

This volume presents challenges in transportation infrastructures and geotechniques, advancements in recycling, soil stabilization and reinforcement technologies, and assessments of roadway conditions using modern tools and techniques. The articles presented in this volume focus on fundamental investigations on various aspects of civil engineering materials and structures. The scope of this volume is the application of findings for solving problems in geotechnical, pavement, concrete and transportation engineering using through smart, green and emerging techniques. The primary audience of this work will be researchers, professionals, and practitioners around the world. This volume is based on contributions to the 6th GeoChina International Conference on Civil & Transportation Infrastructures: From Engineering to Smart & Green Life Cycle Solutions -- Nanchang, China, 2021.


Experimental Study on Strength Behavior of Clayey Soil Reinforced with Glass Fiber
This study demonstrates the strength characteristics of a clayey soil reinforced with randomly distributed glass fibers by means of unconfined compression (UC) and California bearing ratio (CBR) tests for its application as a subgrade material for flexible road pavement. A low plastic clayey soil (CL) was mixed with 20 mm glass fibers in different proportions up to 1% by dry weight of soil. The test results show that the UCS and soaked CBR values of the clayey soil improve markedly with glass fiber inclusion along with modulus and energy absorption capability (EAC). Inclusion of glass fiber significantly reduces brittle behavior of the clayey soil by increasing the failure axial strain and decreasing post-peak strength loss, and this can be noted from the specimen failure mode. The UCS, CBR and subgrade modulus values are noted to increase with fiber content and reach their optimum values at 0.75% fiber content. The soil ductility increases continuously with fiber content. Increasing EAC indicates that the reinforced soil needs higher energy for its deformation, and has better bearing capacity. The glass fiber is found to be a good reinforcing material with the clayey soil for its application as subgrade material of low-volume flexible road pavement.
Suchit Kumar Patel, Baleshwar Singh
Process for the Development of a Digital Twin of a Local Road – A Case Study
Virtual replicas of infrastructure can be used to run simulations and optimize the construction, management and maintenance of such assets throughout its entire lifecycle. These Digital Twins (defined as integrated multi-physics, multiscale, and probabilistic simulations of a complex product) mirror the behavior and environmental responses of its corresponding twin. Digital reconstruction techniques using optical sensor technologies and mobile sensor platforms are providing viable, low-cost alternatives to develop Digital Twins of physical infrastructure. In previous work, the digital twinning of asphalt pavement surfacings using visual Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (vSLAM) was investigated and successfully demonstrated on a small area of an asphalt surfacing. In this paper, a larger study was pursued to demonstrate the successful implementation of micro-twinning and macro-twinning of a local road. Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR), Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and traffic counting Artificial Intelligence (AI) allows for quantification of the road geometry and infrastructure utilization over large areas (macro-twinning), whereas the photogrammetric reconstruction technique based on a Neural Network (NN) and a proprietary environmental condition sensor (SNOET) were used to acquire the surface texture and environmental conditions respectively (micro-twinning). These entry-level instrumentation and techniques accurately measured the geometry, surface characteristics and utilization of the generic road section. The addition of advanced environmental monitoring sensors provide management data that can assist in the maintenance of such roads.
Wynand JvdM Steyn, André Broekman
Capturing the Moving Deflection Basin Under a Traffic Speed Deflectometer
In recent years, several different high-speed deflection testing devices have become available worldwide. One such device is the Traffic Speed Deflectometer (TSD). ARRB owns and operates two TSDs in Australia and New Zealand and they are also known as iPAVE (intelligent Pavement Assessment Vehicle). This study benchmarks iPAVE results against results obtained with an in-situ array embedded in the pavement at a site established in the state of Queensland, Australia. The embedded array allows for capturing the moving deflection basin under the iPAVe’s wheel(s). The study also focuses on signal processing techniques that can be used to work with geophone data and the integration of pavement velocities to pavement displacements which is the metric commonly used for pavement evaluations.
Dominik Duschlbauer, Jeffrey Lee
Unconfined Compressive Strength of Compacted Tropical Soil Bio-treated with Bacillus Megaterium
The environmental problem associated with the manufacturing and use of cement and other chemicals for soil stabilisation has led to an innovative and a more environmentally friendly technique called microbial induced calcite precipitation (MICP). MICP utilizes a biological process in soil improvement. Specimens of soil were bio-treated with 1/3 pore volume of stepped Bacillus megaterium (B. megaterium) suspension density 0, 1.5 × 108 cells/ml, 6 × 108 cells/ml, 12 × 108 cells/ml, 18 × 108 cells/ml and 24 × 108 cells/ml, respectively. The specimens were prepared at −2, 0, +2 and  +4% moulding water content (MWC) relative to optimum moisture content (OMC) and compacted with British Standard light, BSL (or standard Proctor) energy. 2/3 pore volume of cementation reagent was injected into the compacted specimens in 3 cycles at 6 h interval and allowed to flow by gravity until partial saturation was achieved. The results obtained indicate that the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) increased with increase in B. megaterium suspension density and with decrease in MWC relative to OMC. Typically for the specimens prepared at OMC, the UCS of specimens treated with stepped B. megaterium suspension density of 1.5 × 108 cells/ml, 6 × 108 cells/ml, 12 × 108 cells/ml, 18 × 108 cells/ml and 24 × 108 cells/ml increased by 33.83%, 40.76%, 52.24%, 58.06%, 59.06%, respectively, compared to the UCS of the untreated specimen (i.e., with 0 cells/ml). Overall, higher calcite content precipitated in specimens resulted in increased UCS and dry density values. The phase structure, composition and morphology characterized using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transformation infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, indicated that calcite print was induced within the soil matrix. Specimens treated with B. megaterium suspension densities of 6 × 108 cells/ml, 12 × 108 cells/ml, 18 × 108 cells/ml and 24 × 108 cells/ml and prepared compacted at MWC −2, 0 and  +2 OMC, respectively, satisfied the minimum 200 kN/m2 design criterion for the use of materials in municipal solid waste (MSW) containment application.
Adrian Eberemu
Properties of Tropical Black Clay Treated with Selected Admixtures
The properties of tropical black clay (also known as black cotton soil, BCS) treated with cement kiln dust (CKD) and locust bean waste ash (LBWA) was studied. Tests performed include index and compaction using British Standard light (BSL); West African Standard (WAS) (or Intermediate) and British Standard heavy (BSH) energies. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) incorporated in Microsoft excel software. Results obtained show that the specific gravity value of the natural BCS (2.4) reduced to a minimum value of 2.33 at 2% CKD/10% LBWA treatment. Peak liquid limit (LL) value of 55.6% was recorded at 3% CKD/6% LBWA treatment, minimum plastic limit (PL) value of 15.6% recorded for 3% CKD/6% LBWA treatment, while plasticity index (PI) value recorded a peak value of 40.0% at 3% CKD/6% LBWA treatment. The compaction characteristics, that is, maximum dry density (MDD and optimum moisture content (OMC) decreased and increased, respectively, with higher CKD/LBWA treatment. Generally, ANOVA results show that CKD and LBWA had significant effects on BCS. Although CKD/LBWA treatment improved the properties of BCS; however, the Nigerian General Specifications requirements of LL ≤ 35.0% and PI ≤ 12.0% for sub-base material in road construction were not met. It is recommended that BCS be minimally treated with 1% CKD/10% LBWA for use as subgrade material for the construction of low-volume roads.
K. J. Osinubi, A. O. Eberemu, P. Azige, P. Yohanna
Geothermal Pavements: An Experimental and Numerical Study on Thermal Performance
One of the greatest challenges society faces today is the provision of clean and renewable energy to both meet the over-growing energy demand and reduce our carbon footprint. Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems can efficiently heat and cool buildings using shallow geothermal energy and can therefore contribute towards the above goals. Significant attention has been given to energy geo-structures in the last few years, that is, using subsurface structures to exchange heat with the ground. Thus, these geo-structures provide structural support and thermal energy. The majority of literature relating to energy geo-structures focuses on piles, but only limited research exists on geothermal pavements. This work developed a detailed 3D finite element (FE) model to explore the thermal performance of geothermal pavement systems. This 3D FE model has been successfully validated against a full-scale experimental test undertaken in Adelaide, South Australia. The validated model is then used to evaluate the long-term performance of geothermal pavement systems under both a traditional system configuration and as a hybrid system configuration. The performance of the geothermal pavement system is analysed under three thermal loading cases including balanced, heating dominated and, cooling dominated cases, showing the potential and identifying possible limitations for geothermal pavements.
Xiaoying Gu, Nikolas Makasis, Yaser Motamedi, Arul Arulrajah, Suksun Horpibulsuk, Guillermo A. Narsilio
Mechanistic Performance Analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Asphalt Pavement Overlays
Among the various distresses in flexible pavement structures, fatigue cracking can be accounted for as one of the major distresses that need to be addressed by pavement engineers. Numerous construction practices are introduced to reduce the effect of fatigue in pavement structures. One of such methods is applying fibers to the asphalt mixture to prolong the serviceability and the performance of the pavement structures. The use of fibers is applicable to freshly constructed pavements as well as in pavement rehabilitation and maintenance work, such as overlay. This paper primarily analyzes the application of fibers in pavement overlay structures. The two major pavement cases with original asphalt overlay and the one with fibers mixed asphalt overlay are considered utilizing a developed testing program where mechanistic analysis is evaluated. It was found that the fiber mixture pavement overlay had a higher pavement life than the ordinary asphalt overlay.
Nitish R. Bastola, Mena I. Souliman, Ashish Tripathi, Alexander Pearson
Effect of Using Copper Tailings as Replacement of Fine Aggregate for Concrete Pavement
The accumulation of copper tailings in China has reached 2.4 billion tons, with much, and the comprehensive use rate was only 8.2%. Natural river sand was a non-renewable in a short time. Natural river sand distribution has strong regional limits. This study was focused on prepared C30 concrete pavement with copper tailings as fine aggregate. It could not only ease the pressure of natural sand shortage but also improve the comprehensive use rate of copper tailings and reduce environmental pollution. The range of copper tailings particles was 0.15–0.075 mm, which belongs to ultra-fine sand. There were still obvious differences between copper tailing and natural sand in compositions, shape, and particle grading. In this study, copper tailings were mixed with natural river sand as fine aggregates to mix the mixture of C30 concrete. The particle graduation and MB value of mixed sand after replacement of 30 wt.% and 100 wt.% copper tailings in river sand were conducted. The effect of 0 wt.%, 30 wt.%, and 100 wt.% replacement rate on the mechanical properties of C30 concrete, dry shrinkage performance, resistance to sulfate erosion durability were studied and evaluated. The experimental results show that: 30 wt.% and 100 wt.% mixed sand has more fine aggregate, poor grading, and the measured MB value is greater than 1.4. With the increase of the content of copper tailings, the dry shrinkage rate increased to 15.94 μm, and the compressive strength decreased by 55.7%.
Meng-Yao Gao, Sung-Ching Chen, Wei-Ting Lin
Research Progress of Fiber Reinforced Soil
Based on the research results of fiber reinforced soil in recent decades, the mechanical properties and constitutive models of fiber reinforced soil were introduced. A large number of experiments on the engineering properties of fiber reinforced soil show that fiber reinforced soil can effectively improve the shear, tensile and compressive strength of soil and enhance the toughness of soil. The fiber content, fiber type and fiber orientation are the main factors affecting the strength and deformation of fiber reinforced soil. In addition, some research results on fiber corrosion are also introduced. In terms of constitutive model, the mechanical equilibrium model, energy equalization model, statistical model, elastic-plastic model and two-phase constitutive model of fiber-reinforced soil are introduced. Finally, the research status of fiber reinforced soil is summarized, and the future research direction and emphasis are put forward. It mainly includes the constitutive model that accurately reflects the stress-strain relationship of fiber-reinforced soil, the large-scale model experiment, the microscopic study of the interaction mechanism of fiber-soil interface, the study of the dynamics characteristics, and the systematic study of the special fiber-reinforced soil.
Changgen Yan, Yinsen Tang
Empirical Study of Warm Mix Asphalt Incorporating Recycled Asphalt Pavement
The depletion of natural resources along with the progressive change of climate due to high heat and harmful gas emission into the atmosphere are the concerns engineers, scientists and politicians have been addressing and cooperating toward finding efficient solutions to palliate to this global issue. Thus, the use of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) incorporating Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) as part of a long-term solution has gained prominence in part of Europe, Asia and America and most recently in South Africa. Though the WMA–RAP possesses environmental benefits, yet it presents inconsistent mechanical performances related to many factors. Hence, this paper aims to evaluate the tensile strength, the rutting and the fatigue performance of WMA incorporating RAP, at 15% and 30%, and also to compare them against the performances of the traditional Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). Consequently, laboratory experiments such as Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS), the Four-Point Beam Bending test and the Hamburg Wheel Tracking (were) carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties of the WMA–RAP. Results of the study show that, the control hot mix asphalt (HMA-CM) exhibits lower tensile strength and rutting performance than the WMA–RAP. As far as the fatigue cracking performance is concerned, the WMA (15% RAP) performs better than the HMA-CM and the WMA (30% RAP). Overall, the incorporation of RAP in the WMA at up to 30% may possess satisfactory mechanical performance and can be applied to the construction and the rehabilitation of medium traffic volume roads.
Ronald Fabrice Pouokam Kamdem, Jacob Adedayo Adedeji, Mohamed M. H. Mostafa
A Feasibility Study Towards the Application of Municipal Waste Pyrolysis Oil in Bituminous Pavement
In the search of modified bitumen in bituminous pavement, the feasibility of mixing pyrolysis oil of municipal solid waste into bitumen was examined to find an efficient, cost-effective and environmental friendly substitute. In case of addition of pyro-oil of low-density polyethylene municipal plastic waste by 5%, 7.5% and 10% into viscosity grade 30 (VG30) bitumen, considerable deviations in basic properties of bitumen were found. The physical and chemical characteristics of pyro-oil were determined and compared with the characteristics of bitumen and fuel oil. The average gross calorific value (GCV) of pyro-oil was found to be 10745 kcal/kg, which is very close to GCV of diesel 10800 kcal/kg. The other values, too, were within the range of the properties of diesel. Hence pyro-oil is a better substitute for diesel. The chemical characteristics such as Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FTIR) of pyro-oil were found to be similar to those of bitumen, which proves that blending of pyro-oil into bitumen is feasible. The cutback bitumen is being manufactured by mixing fuel in bitumen of penetration grade 80–100 and is used as tack coat in bituminous pavement. Therefore, pyro-oil can be considered as a substitute for diesel in cutback bitumen to prepare modified cutback bitumen.
Swanand B. Kulkarni, Mahadeo S. Ranadive
Finding Solutions of the 21st Century Transportation Problems Through Research and Innovations
herausgegeben von
Dr. Zahid Hossain
Prof. Dr. Musharraf Zaman
Prof. Dr. Jiupeng Zhang
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