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A thorough industry analysis is of utmost importance for a study on the impact of technological changes on industry structure. This book evaluates the consequences of a vaguely chosen level of an industry analysis. Too broad a definition of the industry may disaggregate sub-industries, processing industries and international aspects. This is illustrated by revisiting an industry study upon which the dominant design model was based. Readers will see and understand the consequences of too broadly defined industries together with quantitative research approach can have. The book argues that the nature of the industry should define the level of the analysis. This is done by revisiting the flat glass industry study, on which Anderson and Tushman’s (1990) dominant design model is partly based. In their study Anderson and Tushman defined the flat glass industry based on four-digit SIC codes. It is argued that this definition was too broad and it disaggregated important sub-industries, processing industries and international aspects. This study uses more accurate analysis in five-digit SIC codes. The empirical findings of this study and Anderson and Tushman’s study are different. Their broader industry definition revealed only the flat glass industry not two sub-industries: plate glass and sheet glass. According to this study the nature of the industry should define the level of the analysis and performance parameter should defined be based on effectiveness instead of efficiency of the innovation. As a consequence of these clarifications this study regards contrary to Anderson and Tushman float glass as the dominant design.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
This chapter discusses the literature on technological change and industrial change culminating in the introduction of cyclical model of technological change. It also brings up some weaknesses in the operationalisation of the model. The chapter also illustrates the float glass innovation, one of the most brilliant innovation in the last century and how it converged two independent sub industries to one industry. At the end of the chapter the construction of the analysis is shown.
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Chapter 2. Technological Change: Dominant Design Approach

Abstract
The cyclical model of technological change or dominant design model is based on the earlier dynamic models of technological change. These models such as product and process innovations, the transilience map, technological guideposts and creative symbiosis, technology s-curves plus evolutionary models are discussed first. Then the dominant design model and its elements, era of incremental change, era of ferment, technological change and dominant design are illustrated.
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Chapter 3. Research Methodology

Abstract
This chapter gives arguments for the methodological choices of the empirical study. Because this study re-test based on the empirical material from the flat glass industry the cyclical model of technological change it crucial that empirical study is well conducted. The research method is a comprehensive qualitative longitudinal and contextual case study. The study period of the particular technological change, float glass, starts almost four decades before the introduction of float glass and lasts two decades after it. This selection guarantees that the context is understood. The study uses rich case material collected from interviews of industrial participant, business histories, management journals etc. The quantitative statistics are also used. The validity of data analysis has been increased by pattern matching, pattern recognition, seeing evidence through multiple lenses and data triangulation.
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Chapter 4. Flat Glass Industry in 1920−1980

Abstract
This chapter illustrates the flat glass in industry in 1930–1990. Since the end of the 19th century the flat glass industry had two separate industries: the sheet glass and the plate glass sub-industries with different manufacturing technologies. Sheet glass was cheap and had optical distortions while plate glass was expensive having perfect optical quality. Sheet glass was used in ordinary construction and plate glass in mirrors, in architectural use and in cars as raw material for safety glass. The manufacturing technologies of both flat glass and safety glass are also described. This section culminates to float glass technology, a brilliant innovation introduced in 1959. Then the evolution of both sub industries in two markets, the United States and Europe, before the introduction of float glass is illustrated. Finally the diffusion of float glass on both industries and markets is described. Float glass entered first into the plate glass industry and after six to eight years into the sheet glass market converging two separate industries into one industry.
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Chapter 5. Findings in Anderson’s (1988) Study

Abstract
This chapter has five sections. In the first section, the empirical findings from the U.S. flat glass industry in 1920–1980 of the original study of cyclical model of technological change are revealed and discussed. In the original study used four-digit SIC codes for the definition of the industry. The focus in this research is to find out the impacts of this definition on the depth of the analysis. The second, third and fourth sections redefine the performance parameter, technological discontinuity and dominant design concepts of the cyclical model of technology, respectively. In the fifth section the flat glass industry is tested by means of a modified version of the cyclical model of technological change. For the test the U.S. plate glass and sheet glass industries are defined with more accurate five-digit SIC codes. Contrary to the original study of the cyclical model of technological change float glass emerged as the dominant design in both the plate glass industry and plate glass industry both in the United States and Europe. Finally there are critical comments on the entirely quantitative research method and the use of four digit SIC codes. These misinterpretations of the industry are discussed at the beginning of the chapter.
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Chapter 6. Conclusions

Abstract
This chapter has four sections. First, the main findings of the research are summarized. The very broad definition of the industry with four-digit SIC (very broadly) seems to have two consequences: a) the omission of two pertinent aspects from the flat glass industry, entirely separate subindustries and the international nature of the subindustries, and b) the confusion of effectiveness and efficiency. Float glass was first effective in the plate glass industry requiring high quality (expensive) and thick flat glass. Not until float glass was thin and cheap enough it was capable of entering the sheet glass industry. In order to track these fundamental aspects three pertinent concepts, performance parameter, technological discontinuity and dominant design of the original model had to be redefined. Second, theoretical implications mainly discuss the challenges and the risks of entirely quantitative methods with very shallow data. Third, managerial implications deal the convergence of two industries. The dramatic change was hard to recognize since so many industry actors gave confusing signs. The U.S. based PPG was still 13 years after the introduction of float glass advocating sheet glass. Fourth, further research suggests studies of the further elaborations of the cyclical model of technological change such as the organizational determinants of technological change typology as well as the complexities involved in the innovation and diffusion processes of simple nonassembled products.
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Backmatter

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