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01.11.2011 | Ausgabe 14/2011

Water Resources Management 14/2011

Flood Inundation Modeling Using Nakagami-m Distribution Based GIUH for a Partially Gauged Catchment

Zeitschrift:
Water Resources Management > Ausgabe 14/2011
Autoren:
S. Sarkar, R. K. Rai

Abstract

Flood inundation extent is highly dependent on intensive rainfall and topography of floodplain. This paper presents a study to develop a flood inundation model for partially gauged upper Ganga catchment. For design flood computations, 100-year return period of 1 h duration rainfall is adopted. This is obtained by intensity duration frequency (IDF) relationship based on Self Recording Rain Gauge (SRRG) data of the study area. The SCS-CN method is used for rainfall excess computations. The Nakagami-m distribution has been used to compute Geomorphological Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (GIUH) of different sub-catchments of upper Ganga river system because of non-availability of observed hydrograph. Routing of the hydrograph has been done by the Kinematic Wave (KW) approach. KW equations have been solved through Preissmann implicit method. The most sensitive KW parameters (i.e. overland roughness and channel roughness) have been estimated for a stretch on river Bhagirathi, a tributary of river Ganga. Nakagami-m distribution based GIUHs have been fed at the upper (i.e. input to the proposed model) as well as at downstream point (i.e. output to the proposed model) of that river stretch. Consequently, KW parameters have been calibrated by comparing the computed hydrograph with output hydrograph. Validation of estimated KW parameters has been carried out in the catchment of river Alaknanda which is another significant tributary of river Ganga. Thereafter, adopted KW parameters have been applied to calculate the design flood peak at the outlet of study area i.e. downstream of Haridwar city. Computations of overtopping water above the natural levees downstream of Haridwar city have been carried out considering the levee as broad crested weir. Topographic features of the floodplain have been obtained from freely available Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data. Finally, extents of submerged areas in different flood hours corresponding to design rainfall have been developed by ArcGIS 9.2 software.

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