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Floods occur not only because of the rainfall but also the surface features, which collects, converges, and diverges of the after rain runoff flows through natural or artificial channels. The significance of topographic maps, satellite images, and digital elevation model (DEM) data, if available. The treatment of these data sources for the purpose of flood evaluation and prediction of various softwares are used, which take into consideration a set of morphological (physiographic) features. The basic definitions of various surface features are presented in a conceptual and rational manner so that the reader can appreciate the significance and the partial effect of each feature to overall flood discharge. The significance of cross sections with their hydraulic properties so as to calculate the surface water flow speed is described in detail with the cooperation of the rating curve concepts and their practical importance in any flood and early flood system setups. The most important part of the flood modeling is to reach flood maps in terms of inundation maps, which are missing in many parts of the world. Standard hypsographic curves and their relationship to the flood discharge calculation and classification are explained. Finally, early flood discharge formulations that are related simply to the drainage area are presented in the forms of equations and graphical representations with comparisons and restrictive limitations.
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- Floods and Drainage Basin Features
- Chapter 3