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20.04.2019 | Original Research | Ausgabe 8/2019

Cellulose 8/2019

Fluorescent dye adsorption in aqueous suspension to produce tagged cellulose nanofibers for visualization on paper

Zeitschrift:
Cellulose > Ausgabe 8/2019
Autoren:
Emilia Purington, Douglas Bousfield, William M. Gramlich
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10570-019-02439-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Abstract

Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) have great potential to be a layer in packaging materials because of their good barrier properties. When paper is coated with CNFs, they are difficult to distinguish from the base sheet. This issue creates challenges when trying to determine where CNFs migrate relative to the paper fibers during coating and drying. A three-dimensional analysis is possible by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) if CNFs can be tagged with fluorescently active groups. In this study, CNFs were fluorescently tagged through adsorption of fluorescent dyes such as fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and thioflavin by mixing with CNFs in their native suspension followed by purification. The adsorbed dye remained attached during typical coating procedures, low pH values, and high ionic strengths, but not for high pH and in contact with acetone. CNFs were also covalently tagged with FITC following methods reported in the literature as a comparison to already established methods for tagging cellulose nanocrystals. Images of never dried samples indicated that covalently tagging CNFs altered the state of the fines dispersion, while dye adsorption did not. Coatings of the adsorbed dye tagged CNFs on paper were successfully imaged by CLSM since the concentration of dye in the water phase was low enough to provide a good contrast between regions of CNFs and paper. With this method, the location and potential migration of CNFs coated on paper were successfully determined for the first time to the best of our knowledge. CNF based coatings with solids larger than 2.8% were found to have a distinct layer of CNFs at the paper surface with little CNFs penetrating into the paper structure, but lower solids result in significant penetration into the paper.

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Zusatzmaterial
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 9206 kb)
10570_2019_2439_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Literatur
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