The International Cooperative Programme on Integrated Monitoring (ICP IM) is part of the effects monitoring strategy of the UN/ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. We calculated input-output budgets and trends of N and S compounds, base cations and hydrogen ions for 22 forested ICP IM catchments/plots across Europe. The site-specific trends were calculated for deposition and runoff water fluxes and concentrations using monthly data and non-parametric methods. The reduction in deposition of S and N compounds, caused by the new Gothenburg Protocol of the Convention, was estimated for the year 2010 using atmospheric transfer matrices and official emissions. Statistically significant downward trends of SO4, NO3 and NH4 bulk deposition (fluxes or concentrations) were observed at 50% of the ICP IM sites. Implementation of the new UN/ECE emission reduction protocol will further decrease the deposition of S and N at the ICP IM sites in western and northwestern parts of Europe. Sites with higher N deposition and lower C/N-ratios clearly showed an increased risk of elevated N leaching. Decreasing SO4 and base cation trends in output fluxes and/or concentrations of surface/soil water were commonly observed at the ICP IM sites. At several sites in Nordic countries decreasing NO3 and H+ trends (increasing pH) were also observed. These results partly confirm the effective implementation of emission reduction policy in Europe. However, clear responses were not observed at all sites, showing that recovery at many sensitive sites can be slow and that the response at individual sites may vary greatly.
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- Fluxes and Trends of Nitrogen and Sulphur Compounds at Integrated Monitoring Sites in Europe
- Springer Netherlands