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The flavour industry has become a vital element in the growth and success of food and beverage industries worldwide. The development of many new products is now directly related to the use of the appropriate flavouring which, among other benefits, has allowed the use of many novel raw materials. The phenomenal growth of specialised consumer products offering special tastes, nutritional benefits or 'convenience' almost always directly involves the use of a bespoke flavouring. With recent growth in worldwide concern for environmental issues has come a corresponding concern for the use of 'natural' ingredients in foods. The flavour industry has been closely involved, by offering many of its products as natural alternatives, although the vexed issue of what 'natural' means has promoted discussion and debate in many quarters. The European Flavouring Directive has attempted to incorporate a definition. This is discussed further in chapter 1. The work of the flavourist remains akin to that of the perfumer, despite inroads made by sophisticated analytical technology. For example, use of linked gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instrumentation enables the skilled analyst to identify most components of a competitor's flavouring or the minor ingredients of a natural extract. Despite this, the industry remains a unique blend of art, science and technology in which the experience and knowledge of the flavourist is vital.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. Introduction

Abstract
In broad historical and traditional terms, the Flavour Industry has consisted of the blending houses who have created, manufactured and sold flavourings to the final user in end-products. In the context of the major forces shaping the present and the future of the industry, consideration must be given to:
  • (a) industry competition
  • (b) new entrants
  • (c) substitute products
  • (d) bargaining power of suppliers
  • (e) bargaining power of purchasers
E. Cowley, J. Knights

2. Essential oils

Abstract
Most foods derive their characteristic flavour from chemicals which are present at levels ranging from parts per billion to parts per million. On the broad canvas of nature, some species evolved with far higher levels of flavour chemicals. Dried clove buds, for example, contain 12% eugenol. Such herbs and spices have been used from very early times to flavour other foods. With the discovery of distillation, it became possible to separate the flavour chemical mixture from the botanical material, and essential oils were born.
J. Wright

3. Oleoresins, tinctures and extracts

Abstract
When preparing or choosing a natural ingredient for incorporation into a food or beverage product, some initial thought about its form or the isolation method used to obtain the flavour principles can save considerable time at later stages of the development of consumer products. This simple principle applies whether preparing vegetables in the kitchen before making a sauce or choosing one of a spectrum of ginger extracts for making a flavouring suitable for ginger ale. This chapter illustrates the principles of extraction in the food industry from a practical not a theoretical view point. Illustrative examples of actual problems are explained.
D. A. Moyler

4. Fruit juices

Abstract
There has been a long association between fruit juices and flavourings. Traditionally, fruit flavourings were some of the earliest types available and because of their relative simplicity, they have often been used to enhance or substitute for fruit juices in beverages.
P. R. Ashurst

5. Synthetic ingredients of food flavourings

Abstract
The need for synthetically prepared flavour compounds arises from the fact that during the storage of foodstuffs a certain loss of flavour is inevitable. These losses can be compensated for by adding synthetically produced flavour compounds. Besides this, synthetic flavour compounds have the great advantage of being available in the required quantity and quality irrespective of crop variation and season.
H. Kuentzel, D. Bahri

6. Beverage flavourings and their applications

Abstract
Our requirement for liquid refreshment is as longstanding as the origins of the species homo sapiens. An examination of Figure 6.1 shows that at relatively low levels of fluid loss, e.g. 3%, impaired performance results. A 20–30% reduction in capacity for hard muscular work occurs with a moisture/fluid loss of 4%, heat exhaustion at 5%, hallucinations at 7% and circulatory collapse and/or heat stroke at 10% fluid loss. The required fluid intake for the average person in the arid areas surrounding the Red Sea is a staggering 8 litres per day.
A. C. Matthews

7. The flavouring of confectionery

Abstract
The principal ingredient in all confectionery is sugar (sucrose), which in its refined form has little flavour apart from its inherent sweetness. Raw (unrefined) sugar has its own particular flavour, which will be dealt with later in the chapter (see Section 7.3). Other important carbohydrates used in confectionery are corn syrup, invert sugar and dextrose, which are added mainly to control or prevent crystallisation. The texture of the confection may be altered by their use, and this property is used by confectioners to manufacture many varied products.
D. V. Lawrence

8. Flavourings for bakery and general use

Abstract
Bakery products are, in general, based on three major ingredients and a number of minor, but nevertheless extremely important, components.
D. Ashwood

9. Dairy flavourings

Abstract
“I hear that you are experts in dairy flavourings. Well, I need a cheese flavouring of general Cheddar type, with a hint of Blue, a sort of buttery, creamy background, and perhaps a slight Swiss fruitiness. I want to use it in a low fat cheese sauce for a low calorie fish and pasta frozen ready meal, designed for both microwave and conventional oven preparation. The flavouring must be a powder with no added flavour enhancers like monosodium glutamate, and it cannot be artificial—in fact the Marketing Department would prefer it to be totally natural. And, by the way, the finished product is to be sold throughout Europe and Scandinavia.”
S. White, G. White

10. Process flavourings

Abstract
‘Reaction’ or ‘Thermal process’ flavouring is a comparatively recent term given to a food flavouring which is produced by heating together two or more ‘precursors’ under carefully controlled conditions. If desired, other flavouring materials may be added after the reaction to make a composite blended flavour. The precursors may have little flavour in themselves, this being developed or produced by a process analogous to that used for the cooking of everyday foods. Since their introduction to the food industry, they have been widely known as ‘reaction’ flavourings. More recently, various legislative bodies have adopted the name ‘thermal process’ or ‘process’ flavouring.
C. G. May

Backmatter

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