Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
The order of authors is alphabetical and not reflective of authors’ relative contributions.
While increasing globalization of the business world and rising numbers of people working in foreign language contexts are undoubted facts of modern work life, there are surprisingly few studies on individuals’ emotional reactions to working in a foreign language. Facilitating further research, we introduce a short scale for foreign language anxiety that is applicable in business and other professional contexts. Additionally, we investigate its relationship with gender and general personality traits. Our analysis of survey data from 320 adult bilinguals with Dutch as their mother tongue and English as foreign language demonstrates the reliability of the short scale. Furthermore, we find that females experience higher levels of FLA, but that this association is mediated by differences in personality. Our study contributes to the emerging literature on individuals’ (emotional) responses to using foreign languages in business contexts.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Arnaiz, Patricia, and Félix Guillén. 2012. Foreign language anxiety in a Spanish university setting: interpersonal differences. Revista de Psicodidáctica 17(1):5–26.
Ashton, Michael C., and Lee Kibeom. 2001. A theoretical basis for the major dimensions of personality. European Journal of Personality 15(5):327–353. CrossRef
Ashton, Michael C., Lee Kibeom, and Reinout E. de Vries. 2014. The HEXACO honesty-humility, agreeableness, and emotionality factors: a review of research and theory. Personality and Social Psychology Review 18(2):139–152. CrossRef
Baker, Susan C., and Peter D. MacIntyre. 2000. The role of gender and immersion in communication and second language orientations. Language Learning 50(2):311–341. CrossRef
Bönte, Werner, Vivien D. Procher, and Diemo Urbig. 2016. Biology and selection into entrepreneurship: the relevance of prenatal testosterone exposure. Entrepreneurship, Theory & Practice.. doi: 10.1111/etap.12165.
Bono, Joyce E., and Gerry McNamara. 2011. Publishing in AMJ – part 2: research designs. Academy of Management Journal 54(4):657–660. CrossRef
Brown, James D., Gordon Robson, and Patrick R. Rosenkjar. 2001. Personality, motivation, anxiety, strategies, and language proficiency of Japanese students. In Motivation and second language acquisition, ed. Zoltán Dornyei, Richard W. Schmidt, 361–398. Honolulu: University of Hawaii.
Campbell, Christine M., and Victor M. Shaw. 1994. Language anxiety and gender differences in adult second language learners: exploring the relationship. In Faces in a crowd: the individual learner in multi-section courses, ed. Carol A. Klee, 47–80. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.
Casado, Matt A., and Mary I. Dereshiwsky. 2001. Foreign language anxiety of university students. College Student Journal 35(4):539–549.
Chen, I.-J., and Chi-Cheng Chang. 2009. Cognitive load theory: an empirical study of anxiety and task performance in language learning. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology 7:729–746.
Cohen, Jacob, Patricia Cohen, Stephan G. West, and Leona S. Aiken. 2003. Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences, 3rd edn., Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Costa, Paul T. Jr., and Robert R. McCrae. 1992. Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Costa Jr., Paul T., Antonio Terracciano, and Robert R. McCrae. 2001. Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: robust and surprising findings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81(2):322–331. CrossRef
Houwer, Annick de. 1998. Taalontwikkeling bij meertalige kinderen. In Handboek Stem-, Spraak-, en Taalpathologie, ed. Herrman F.M. Peters, Roelien Bastiaanse, John van Borsel, Philippe H.O. Dejonckere, Kino Jansonius-Schultheiss, Sjoeke van der Meulen, Ben J.E. Mondelaers. Houten: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum.
Dewaele, Jean-Marc. 2002. Psychological and sociodemographic correlates of communicative anxiety in L2 and L3 production. International Journal of Bilingualism 6:23–39. CrossRef
Dewaele, Jean-Marc. 2007. The effect of multilingualism and socio-situational factors on communicative anxiety and foreign language anxiety of mature language learners. International Journal of Bilingualism 11(4):391–410. CrossRef
Dewaele, Jean-Marc. 2013. The link between foreign language classroom anxiety and psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism among adult bi- and multilinguals. Modern Language Journal 97(3):670–684. CrossRef
Dewaele, Jean-Marc, and Tsui S. Ip. 2013. The link between foreign language classroom anxiety, second language tolerance of ambiguity and self-rated english proficiency among Chinese learners. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 3(1):47–66.
Dewaele, Jean-Marie, Konstantin V. Petrides, and Adrian Furnham. 2008. The effects of trait emotional intelligence and sociobiographical variables on communicative anxiety and foreign language anxiety among adult multilinguals. Language Learning 58(4):911–960. CrossRef
DeYoung, Colin G., Lena C. Quilty, and Jordan B. Peterson. 2007. Between facets and domains: 10 aspects of the big five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 93(5):880–896. CrossRef
Digman, John M. 1990. Personality structure: emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review Psychology 41:417–440. CrossRef
Elkhafaifi, Hussein. 2005. Listening comprehension and anxiety in the Arabic language classroom. Modern Language Journal 89:206–220. CrossRef
Eysenck, Hans J., and Sybil B.G. Eysenck. 1975. Manual of the Eysenck personality questionnaire. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Feingold, Alan 1994. Gender differences in personality: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 116(3):429–456. CrossRef
Gardner, Robert C., Paul F. Tremblay, and Anne-Marie Masgoret. 1997. Towards a full model of second language learning: an empirical investigation. Modern Language Journal 81:344–362. CrossRef
Ghapanchi, Zargham, Gholam H. Khajavy, and Seyyedeh F. Asadpour. 2011. L2 motivation and personality as predictors of the second language proficiency: role of the big five traits and L2 motivational self-system. Canadian Social Science 7(6):148–155.
Gregersen, Tammy, and Elaine K. Horwitz. 2002. Language learning and perfectionism: anxious and non-anxious language learners’ reactions to their own oral performance. Modern Language Journal 86:562–570. CrossRef
Guntzviller, Lisa M., Jakob D. Jensen, Andy J. King, and La.Shara.A. Davis. 2011. The foreign language anxiety in a medical office scale: developing and validating a measurement tool for Spanish-speaking individual. Journal of Health Communication 16(8):849–869. CrossRef
Harzing, Anne-Wil. 2006. Response styles in cross-national mail survey research: a 26-country study. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 6(2):243–266. CrossRef
Hayton, James C., David G. Allen, and Vida Scarpello. 2004. Factor retention decisions in exploratory factor analysis: a tutorial on parallel analysis. Organizational Research Methods 7:191–205. CrossRef
Hernandez, Arturo E., and Ping Li. 2007. Age of acquisition: Its neural and computational mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin 133(4):638–650. CrossRef
Horwitz, Elaine K. 2001. Language anxiety and achievement. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 21:112–126. CrossRef
Horwitz, Elaine K. 2010. Foreign and second language anxiety. Language Teaching 43(2):154–167. CrossRef
Horwitz, Elaine K., Michael B. Horwitz, and Joann Cope. 1986. Foreign language classroom anxiety. Modern Language Journal 70:125–132. CrossRef
Horwitz, Elaine K., Michael B. Horwitz, and Joann Cope. 1991. Foreign language classroom anxiety. In Language anxiety: from theory and research to classroom implications, ed. Elaine K. Horwitz, Dolly J. Young, 27–39. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Inglehart, Ronald, Norris Pippa, and Christian Welzel. 2002. Gender equality and democracy. Comparative Sociology 1(3):321–345. CrossRef
Lee, Kibeom, and Michael C. Ashton. 2004. Psychometric properties of the HEXACO personality inventory. Multivariate Behavioral Research 39:329–358. CrossRef
Lee, Kibeom, and Michael C. Ashton. 2005. Psychopathy, machiavellianism, and narcissism in the five-factor model and the HEXACO model of personality structure. Personality and Individual Differences 38:1571–1582. CrossRef
Lynn, Richard, and Terence Martin. 1997. Gender differences in extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism in 37 nations. Journal of Social Psychology 137(3):369–373. CrossRef
Machida, Sayuki. 2001. Anxiety in Japanese-language class oral examinations. Sekai no Nihongo Kyoiku 11:115–138.
MacIntyre, P.D. 1995. How does anxiety affect second language learning? A reply to Sparks and Ganschow. Modern Language Journal 79:90–99. CrossRef
MacIntyre, Peter D. 1999. Language anxiety: a review of the research for language teachers. In Affect in foreign language and second language learning, ed. Dolly J. Young, 24–45. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
MacIntyre, Peter D. 2007. Willingness to communicate in the second language: understanding the decision to speak as a volitional process. Modern Language Journal 9(4):564–576. CrossRef
MacIntyre, Peter D., Susan C. Baker, Richard Clément, and Leslie A. Donovan. 2002. Sex and age effects on willingness to communicate, anxiety, perceived competence, and L2 motivation among junior high school French immersion students. Language Learning 52(3):537–564. CrossRef
MacIntyre, Peter D., and Catherine Charos. 1996. Personality, attitudes and affect as predictors of second language communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 15:3–26. CrossRef
MacIntyre, Peter D., and Robert C. Gardner. 1994. The subtle effects of language anxiety on cognitive processing in the second language. Language Learning 44:283–305. CrossRef
MacIntyre, Peter D., and Robert C. Gardner. 1991. Methods and results in the study of anxiety and language learning: a review of the literature. Language Learning 41:85–117. CrossRef
Matsuda, Sae, and Peter Gobel. 2004. Anxiety and predictors of performance in the foreign language classroom, system: an international journal of educational technology and. Applied Linguistics 32:21–36.
McCrae, R.R., and Paul T. Costa Jr. 1999. A five-factor theory of personality. In Handbook of personality: theory and research, 2nd edn., ed. Lawrence A. Pervin, Oliver P. John, 139–153. New York: Guilford Press.
McCrae, Robert R., and Oliver P. John. 1992. An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications. Journal of Personality 60(2):175–215. CrossRef
Mejías, Hugo, Ronald L. Applebaum, Susan J. Applebaum, and Robert T. Trotter. 1991. Oral communication apprehension and hispanics: an exploration of oral communication apprehension among Mexican American students in Texas. In Language anxiety: from theory and research to classroom implications, ed. Elaine K. Horwitz, Dolly J. Young, 87–97. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Mulac, Anthony, James J. Bradac, and Pamela Gibbons. 2001. Empirical support for the gender-as-culture hypothesis: an intercultural analysis of male/female language differences. Human Communication Research 27:121–152. CrossRef
Müller, Julia, and Christiane Schwieren. 2012. Can personality explain what is underlying women’s unwillingness to compete? Journal of Economic Psychology 33:448–460. CrossRef
Myers, Isabel B., and Katherine Briggs. 1976. The Myers-Briggs type indicator-form, G. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Neeley, Tsedal B. 2013. Language matters: status loss and achieved status distinctions in global organizations. Organization Science 24(2):476–497. CrossRef
Neeley, Tsedal B., Pamela J. Hinds, and Catherine D. Cramton. 2012. The (un) hidden turmoil of language in global collaboration. Organizational Dynamics 41(3):236–244. CrossRef
Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J., Phillip Bailey, and Christine E. Daley. 1999. Factors associated with foreign language anxiety. Applied Psycholinguistics 20:217–239. CrossRef
Podsakoff, Philip M., Scott B. MacKenzie, Lee Jeong-Yeon, and Nathan P. Podsakoff. 2003. Common method bias in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology 88:879–903. CrossRef
Preacher, Kristopher J., and Andrew F. Hayes. 2008. Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavioral Research Methods 40:879–891. CrossRef
Reid, Scott A., Natasha Keerie, and Nicholas A. Palomares. 2003. Language, gender salience, and social influence. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 22(2):210–233. CrossRef
Roberts, Brent W., and Wendy F. DelVecchio. 2000. The rank-order consistency of personality from childhood to old age: a quantitative review of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin 126:3–25. CrossRef
Roggeband, Conny, and Mieke Verloo. 2007. Dutch women are liberated, migrant women are a problem: the evolution of policy frames on gender and migration in the Netherlands, 1995–2005. Social Policy & Administration, 41(3):271–288. CrossRef
Scovel, Thomas. 1978. The effect of affect on foreign language learning: a review of the anxiety research. Language Learning 28(1):129–142. CrossRef
Schmitt, David P., Anu Realo, Martin Voracek, and Jüri Allik. 2008. Why can’t a man be more like a woman?, Sex differences in big five personality traits across 55 cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 94(1):168–182. CrossRef
Sparks, Richard L., Jon Patton, Leonore Ganschow, and Nancy Humbach. 2009. Long-term relationships among early first language skills, second language aptitude, second language affect, and later second language proficiency. Applied Psycholinguistics 30:725–755. CrossRef
Tenzer, Helene, and Markus Pudelko. 2015. Leading across language barriers: managing language-induced emotions in multilingual teams. The Leadership Quarterly 26(4):606–625. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2015.05.006. CrossRef
Urbig, Diemo, Siri Terjesen, Vivien Procher, Katrin Muehlfeld, and Arjen van Witteloostuijn. 2015. Come on and take a free ride: Contributing to public goods in native and foreign language settings. Academy of Management Learning & Education. doi: 10.5465/amle.2014.0338.
Vries, Reinout E. de, Kibeom Lee, and Michael C. Ashton. 2008. The Dutch HEXACO personality inventory: Psychometric properties, self–other agreement, and relations with psychopathy among low and high acquaintanceship dyads. Journal of Personality Assessment 90(2):142–151.
Wang, Tianjian. 2010. Speaking anxiety: more of a function of personality than language achievement. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics 33(5):95–109.
Foreign Language Anxiety in Professional Contexts
A Short Scale and Evidence of Personality and Gender Differences
Arjen van Witteloostuijn
- Springer International Publishing
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, digitale Transformation/© Maksym Yemelyanov | Fotolia