Under conditions of excessive dose, that is, atypically high atmospheric concentrations of one or more contaminants for extended (or continuous) time periods, the impact on forest ecosystems may be very severe and dramatic. This response is designated a Class III interaction. The reaction of vegetation in this case is characterized by severe morbidity and mortality caused directly by air pollutants.
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- Forest Ecosystem Destruction: A Localized Response to Excessive Air Pollution
William H. Smith
- Springer US