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Naturally Occurring Isocyano/Isothiocyanato and Related Compounds

The first review on the origin and chemistry of naturally-occurring isocyanides by Edenborough and Herbert (1) appeared in 1988. In this review the isocyanides, more commonly named as isonitriles (RNC), were divided into non-marine and marine groups. The non-marine isocyanides were divided into xanthocillin-type or cyclopentyltype isocyanides. A few others which did not fit into either category were placed in a miscellaneous section. All isocyanides of marine origin, which had been isolated from sponges and their predators, were sesquiterpenes and diterpenes.
C. W. J. Chang

Sulfur-Containing Amides from Glycosmis Species (Rutaceae)

Glycosmis is a clearly defined genus within the tribe Clauseneae of the Aurantioideae subfamily of the family Rutaceae comprising about 40 species (1). Its range of distribution is centered in south and southeast Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia) and extends to south China and Taiwan as well as to New Guinea and north Australia. Exceptions are only cultivated species like the Chinese G. parviflora (Sims) Little, formerly called G. citrifolia (Willd.) Lindley, which became naturalized in tropical America and Africa (Angola) (1). The shrubs or small trees are unarmed and possess pinnate or simple leaves with translucent punctate glands emitting an aromatic odor when crushed. The axillary inflorescences are usually dispersed closed panicles with small white flowers. The fruits are mostly pink, reddish or white berries of about 1 cm in diameter with only one or two seeds. The genus name Glycosmis originates from the sweet smell of the flowers and the sweet taste of the fleshy pericarp of the fruits. A good field and herbarium character of the genus is that the buds of new leaves are usually covered with short rusty-red hairs. In spite of the good delimitation of Glycosmis from the other closely related Clauseneae genera Clausena, Micromelum, Murraya and Merrillia and the already existing subrevisionary treatment by Stone (7), there are still many unresolved taxonomic problems at the species level. Due to the pronounced variability in foliage, usually the ovular locule numbers and/or the flower characters are required for proper species delimitation of Glycosmis. Consequently, phytochemical analyses have often been based on improperly identified plant material.
O. Hofer, H. Greger


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