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Über dieses Buch

The first volume in this new text book series covers comprehensively relevant aspects related to the appearance and characterisation of fossil matter in the geosphere such as kerogen, oil, shales and coals. As organic geochemistry is a modern scientific subject characterized by a high transdisciplinarity and located at the edge of chemistry, environmental sciences, geology and biology, there clearly is a need for a flexible offer of appropriate academic teaching material on an undergraduat level addressed to the variety of students coming originally from different study disciplines. For such a flexible usage this textbook series' consists of different volumes with clear defined aspects and with manageable length.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. Origin and Transformations of Organic Matter in Geosphere

Abstract
To speak about the organic matter in the geosphere means, in fact, to speak about the organic matter in the Earth’s crust. This, together with the so-called upper mantle, builds up the lithosphere (Fig. 1.1). It has been estimated that the amount of organic carbon in the biosphere, which has accumulated so far and further transformed in the geosphere, is around 6.4 × 1018 kg. The average annual accumulation of organic carbon in the geosphere since the beginning of life on Earth to date has been estimated to 3.2 × 108 kg, which accounts for only about 0.01 % compared to the average annual organic carbon production only in marine environment. Nevertheless, as the organic matter in the geosphere has been accumulating since the appearance of photosynthesis, and then continued during a long geological time (about 2 billion years), its total amount in the geosphere is now about 2000 times larger than the amount of organic matter in the biosphere.
Jan Schwarzbauer, Branimir Jovančićević

2. Main Types of Organic Matter in Geosphere

Abstract
Most of organic matter forms are either very complex mixtures, or are of the macromolecular nature and complex structure, and in most of them it is possible to distinguish, according to various criteria, between two or more types. The most important types of organic matter in geosphere, bitumen, kerogen, oil and gas, will be discussed in separate chapters.
Jan Schwarzbauer, Branimir Jovančićević

3. Minerals in Sediments and Their Impact on the Changes of Organic Substances in Geosphere

Abstract
Almost all of minerals in the geosphere can be identified in sedimentary rocks. However, at this point there will be more discussion only about silicate, carbonate and sulphide minerals, as they are the most common and most important in studies of the interactions of inorganic and organic matter in sedimentary rocks.
Jan Schwarzbauer, Branimir Jovančićević

4. Coals

Abstract
According to some estimates, coal reserves in the Earth’s crust represent several tens of times greater accumulation of organic carbon than all the oil and gas deposits together. Hence, the coals are still considered energy and raw material source of immense importance in spite of today’s understandably favoured extensive use of oil and gas. Definitions and coal terminology, organic geochemistry of coals, certain major types of humic coals, chemical nature and composition and properties of coals will be discussed here in more detail.
Jan Schwarzbauer, Branimir Jovančićević

5. Oil Shales

Abstract
Oil shales have always attracted attention as a source of energy and industrial raw materials and in recent time as a very interesting substrate in fundamental organic-geochemical studies. Definition and oil shale terminology, organic geochemistry of oil shales, composition (inorganic and organic parts) and usage of oil shales will be discussed here in more detail.
Jan Schwarzbauer, Branimir Jovančićević

Backmatter

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