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Über dieses Buch

This book describes the work of the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) since its launch 1992. Mapping the evolution of its agenda gives insight into the development of modern marine science in the context of competing demands of stakeholders within and outside the organization. The opening chapter consider the challenges of marine science as a large scale, and places PICES in the contexts of internationalism and science-based resource management. They also lay out the organization’s longstanding focus on the development of climate science and its applications. Subsequent chapters explore the pros and cons of national vs. international science, negotiating the nature of investigation and cooperation across scientific, political and institutional boundaries in the region; national perspectives on purpose, scope, and mandates; assessing two major initiatives undertaken to date; the challenges of incorporating social science into an organization of mainly natural scientists.



Chapter 1. Introduction

Oceans cover more than two thirds of the planet’s surface and have provided people with seafood and routes of travel for millennia. Though the ocean and its coasts provide resources and livelihoods, the systematic study of ocean currents and sea life began only in the late 19th century. Over the next century, the development of ocean science was spurred by the desire to explore and discover new environments, to harvest food, energy and minerals, and to transport goods. Governments supported ocean research to improve their national security, exploit resources, foster national pride and protect the environment.
Sara Tjossem

Chapter 2. Constructing PICES

PICES is structured to support scientists and their scientific work, and so understanding its construction, and the interactions among its components, reveals how it promotes and coordinates marine research in the North Pacific.
Sara Tjossem

Chapter 3. Integrating International, National and Regional Science into Global Science

What builds effective intergovernmental science organizations? They need to reflect the priorities of their member nations as well as the interests of their scientists, while working towards a unified vision. A fundamental requirement is to effectively communicate these ideas. The organization must encourage member countries to commit to, participate in, and benefit from its activities, and yet it does not have any authority to require them to do so. Though intergovernmental organizations require continuing support of their contracting countries, they must withstand political, economic, and social changes to fulfill their missions. If the organization fails to be responsive to its members’ interests, it risks losing government commitment and ability to achieve its goals. It may even risk its existence and the benefits that such arrangements can bring. Each organization must continually build and reassess its collaborations across countries, institutions and programs to make the most of initiatives and expertise.
Sara Tjossem

Chapter 4. Developing Unified Marine Climate Change Research

From the organization’s earliest deliberations, the governing council envisioned creating an ambitious core integrative science program for scientists to rally around. Such a program had to create a balance between being broad enough to capture the big questions of pressing importance, yet focused enough to be tractable
Sara Tjossem

Chapter 5. Marine Science in an Age of Climate Change: Navigating the Future

Climate change has been called the “ultimate threat multiplier,” as rise in sea levels, more variable weather patterns, and stresses on resources exacerbate existing challenges to human welfare.
Sara Tjossem


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