Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Water scarcity is a constraint to rainfed agriculture in tropical arid and semi-arid environments. This situation is likely to be exacerbated by climate change. Further, sub-Saharan Africa is expected to experience increased consumption of food, energy and water resources due to rapidly growing economies and urban populations. This calls for innovative and appropriate technologies to support production systems amid the changing climate. Collection, storage and use of rainwater for off-season irrigation, if combined with climate-smart agriculture, have the potential to improve food security and income for smallholder farmers. Replication, scaling-up and transfer of integrated rainwater harvesting (RWH) irrigation management systems require a multidimensional assessment of existing technologies and their use. This study sets out to assess and map best practices in RWH irrigation systems in dryland agro-ecosystems in Kenya. We used both primary and secondary sources in our evaluation. Primary data was based on key informant interviews of institutions and practitioners, and stakeholder workshops in RWH. Secondary sources included journals, technical reports and other relevant publications. Our study identified adoption of place-specific rainwater harvesting systems. These included in situ, micro- and macro-catchment technologies. While the in situ and micro-catchment systems included soil conservation measures, macro-catchment systems were run-off-based. Our finding shows that arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya have high potential for climate resilient food production if RWH irrigation technologies are adopted and scaled up, hence the need for policies that would promote adoption of context-specific rainwater harvesting technologies for different climatic, bio-physical, socio-economic and cultural conditions. This will enhance adaptive capacities of smallholder farmers and reduce their vulnerabilities to climate change while increasing food production to meet growing demand in the country with a view to contributing to sustainable development.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Agricultural and Consumer Economics (ACE) (2015) Research Collaborations. Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics. Available at: http://ace.illinois.edu/sierraleone/research (Accessed January 20, 2015).
Biazin B., Sterk G., Temesgen M., Abdulkedir A.‚ and Stroosnijder L (2012) Rainwater harvesting and management in rainfed agricultural systems in sub-Saharan Africa – A review. Physics and Chemistry of The Earth - PHYS CHEM EARTH, 47–48. 10.1016/j.pce.2011.08.015.
Critchley W (1999) Promoting Farmer Innovation: Harnessing Local Environmental Knowledge in East Africa. Workshop Report No. 2 RELMA and UNDP, Nairobi Kenya.
De Trincheria, J., Nissen-Petersen, E (2015) Sand Storage Dams. Performance, cost-efficiency, working principles and constraints. International Symposium on RWH in Ethiopia (ISRH), 9th June 2015.
Falkenmark M., and Rockström J (2004) Balancing water for man and nature: The new approach to ecohydrology, EarthScan, U.K.
Food Security Portal (2016) Policy Responses to Food Crisis in Kenya. Available at: http://www.foodsecurityportal.org/kenya/food-security-report-prepared-kenya-agricultural-research-institute (Accessed on 15 November 2016).
Fox, P., J. Rockström and J. Barron (2005) Risk Analysis and Economic Viability of Water Harvesting for Supplemental Irrigation in Semi-arid Burkina Faso and Kenya. Agricultural Systems, 83, 231–250.
Gichangi E.M., Njiru E.N., Itabari J.K., Wambua J.M., Maina J.N. and Karuku A (2007) Assessment of improved soil fertility and water harvesting technologies through community based on-farm trials in the ASALs of Kenya. In; A. Batiano (eds). Advances in integrated soil fertility management in Sub-Saharan African: Challenges and opportunities. pp 759–765. 2007, Springer. 10.1007/798-1-4020-5760-1-71.
Hatibu N. and Mahoo H.F (2000) Rainwater Harvesting for Natural Resources Management for Tanzania. Technical Handbook No. 22 RELMA, Nairobi.
Hoekstra, A.Y., Chapagain, A.K., Aldaya, M.M. and Mekonnen, M.M. (2011) The Water Footprint Assessment Manual: Setting the Global Standard, Earthscan, London, UK.
Index Mundi (2016) Kenya Demographics Profile. Available at: http://www.indexmundi.com/kenya/demographics_profile.html (Accessed on 15 November 2016).
IRHA (2011) Rainwater Harvesting with Rock Catchment. International Rainwater Harvesting Alliance (IRHA). Available at: http://www.irha-h2o.org/?p=642.
Kathuli P., Itabari P. K., Nguluu S. N., and Gichangi E. M (2010) Farmers perception on subsoiling/ripping technology for rain- water harvesting in mixed dryland farming areas in Eastern Kenya, Proceedings of the 12th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference, pp. 1235–1240, Nairobi, Kenya, 2010.
Kihara F.I (2002) Evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems in Laikipia District, Kenya. GHARP case study report. Greater Horn of Africa Rainwater Partnership (GHARP), Kenya Rainwater Association, Nairobi, Kenya.
Malesu M., Sang J.K., Oduor A.R., Odhiambo O.J. and Nyabenge M (2006) Rainwater harvesting innovations in response to water scarcity: The Lare experience. Technical Manual No. 5, World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya.
Malesu M., Black J., Oduor A., Cheregony K. and Nyabenge M (2012) Rain Water Harvesting Inventory of Kenya. The World Agroforestry Centre.
Mati B.M (2006) Overview of Water and Soil Nutrient Management Under Smallholder Rain-fed Agriculture in East Africa. Working Paper No. 105. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water management Institute (IWMI).
Mati B.M (2007) 100 ways to manage water for small holder agriculture in East and Southern Africa. SWMnet Working Paper 13. Improved Management in Eastern and Southern Africa (IMAWESA).
Mekdaschi Studer, R. and Liniger, H (2013) Water Harvesting: Guidelines to Good Practice. Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), Bern; Rainwater Harvesting Implementation Network (RAIN), Amsterdam; MetaMeta, Wageningen; The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Rome.
Mutabazi K., Hatibu N., Senkondo E., Mbilinyi B. and Tumbo, D (2005) Economics of Rainwater Harvesting for Crop Enterprises in Semi-Arid Areas: The Case of Makanya Watershed in Pangani River Basin, Tanzania. Soil-Water Management Research Group.
Ngigi S.N (2006) Hydrological impacts of land use changes on water resources management and socio-economic development of upper Ewaso Ng’iro river basin in Kenya. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, UNESCO-IHE/TUDelft, Netherlands. A.A. Balkema Publishers, The Hague.
Ngigi, S.N., Warui, P. G. and Korir, C.C (2014) Rainwater Harvesting and Utilization: Final Project Report. USAID-funded Kenya Horticulture Competitiveness Project, Partner Fund Award (May 2011–June 2014). Kenya Rainwater Association, KRA Secretariat, Nairobi.
National Water Master Plan (1992) National Water Master Plan. Ministry of Water Development, Nairobi, Kenya.
Onchoke, W. (2014) Keynote Address: Role of RWH in agricultural development in Kenya. Proceedings of the National Stakeholders’ Policy Advocacy Workshop held at KCB Training and Leadership Centre, Karen, Nairobi. December 17–19, 2014. Kenya Rainwater Association Secretariat.
Petersen E.N (2006a) Technical Handbooks: Water from small dams. ASAL Consultant Ltd, Nairobi, Kenya.
Petersen E.N (2006b) Technical Handbooks: A handbook for technicians and farmers on rainwater harvesting from roads. ASAL Consultant Ltd, Nairobi, Kenya.
Petersen E.N (2006c) Technical Handbooks: Water from rock outcrops. ASAL Consultant Ltd, Nairobi, Kenya.
Petersen E.N (2013) Technical Handbooks: Subsurface dams for water storage in dry riverbeds. ASAL Consultant Ltd, Nairobi, Kenya.
Reij C (1990) Indigenous Soil and Water Conservation in Africa. GATEKEEPER SERIES NO. SA 27. International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK. pp. 35.
Republic of Kenya (2013) National Climate Change Action Plan 2013-2017. Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources. Available at: http://cdkn.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Kenya-National-Climate-Change-Action-Plan.pdf (Accessed on 15 November 2016).
Republic of Kenya (2015) Kenya National Adaptation Plan 2015-2030. Ministry for Environment, Natural Resources and Regional Bodies. Nairobi, Government Press Pp 40.
Salami, A., Kamara, A.B. & Brixiova, Z. (2010) Smallholder Agriculture in East Africa: Trends, Constraints and Opportunities. African Development Bank Group. Working Paper No. 105.
Temesgen, B.B. (2012) Rainwater harvesting for dryland agriculture in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, NL (2012). 162 pp ISBN 978-94-6173-215-6.
UNFCCC (2016) Paris Agreement. Available at: https://unfccc.int/files/meetings/paris_nov_2015/application/pdf/paris_agreement_english_.pdf (Accessed on 15 November 2016).
- Fostering the Use of Rainwater for Off-Season Small-Scale Irrigation in Arid and Semi-arid Areas of Kenya