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Über dieses Buch

This book provides a comprehensive analysis of fundamental topics related to blockchain. Throughout, the authors explore different vital issues and specific areas of blockchain. For convenience, the authors present the elementary description, visualize the working procedure of blockchain paradigm, and highlight the areas it can be applied in real life. They explain the blockchain process from a diverse perspective i.e. distributed Internet of Things (IoT), interdependent networks, intelligent mining, etc. They also analyze the interconnection of a blockchain network and such novel research areas to show a pathway towards a new research direction. This book also holds the core challenges and open research issues of blockchain technology, considering existing applications. Chapters include consensus mechanisms of blockchain, blockchain applicability in centralized and decentralized internet of things, blockchain interoperability from the perspective of interdependent networks, and blockchain for resource-constrained devices.Specifies the importance of theoretical methods in dealing with problems in the context of blockchain for interdependent decision making;Provides a comprehensive investigation of blockchain algorithms and the recently developed methods based on this algorithm;Provides basics and mathematical foundations needed to learn and deploy blockchain.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Blockchain Theory

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction to Blockchain Technology

Abstract
This chapter introduces blockchain with its fundamental topics. We thoroughly explain the blockchain components including cryptographic hash functions, blockchain transactions, asymmetric-key cryptography, block (explaining Merkle tree root, nonce), and constructing a chain of blocks. We present a visual representation of how blockchain works and explain the key characteristics of blockchain, e.g., decentralization, immutability, anonymity, auditability, and non-repudiation. We also describe the blockchain taxonomy and present a clear comparison among the public, private, and consortium blockchain. To the end, we present some examples of blockchain applications and listed the major advantages, and limitations of blockchain technology.
Ahmed Imteaj, M. Hadi Amini, Panos M. Pardalos

Chapter 2. Toward Smart Contract and Consensus Mechanisms of Blockchain

Abstract
This chapter presents a detailed description of smart contracts and proof-based consensus mechanisms used in blockchain technology. Smart contracts are used in blockchain technology while making the transaction between two parties, and it enables only the validated transaction to be included in the blockchain. However, to validate a transaction Satoshi Nakamoto, who is the inventor of blockchain, introduced a Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus algorithm while performing transactions among blockchain nodes (i.e., users). Later on, various proof-based consensus mechanisms (e.g., Proof-of-Stake (PoS), Proof-of-Location (PoL), PBFT (Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance)) are proposed. The main concept of applying proof-based algorithms is that the nodes within the blockchain network that performs and exhibits sufficient proof will get the privilege to append a new block to the main chain and collect the reward. In this chapter, we present a clear explanation of smart contracts and discuss some of the most important consensus algorithms of blockchain that are widely used.
Ahmed Imteaj, M. Hadi Amini, Panos M. Pardalos

Chapter 3. Blockchain Interoperability from the Perspective of Interdependent Networks

Abstract
In this chapter, we discuss blockchain interoperability from the perspective of interdependent networks. At first, we define blockchain interoperability, describe the design philosophy of interoperability explaining its entire life-cycle (including data generation, cross-chain mechanism, verification, smart contract, and API), and present a high-level representation of blockchain interoperability. After that, we describe how the blockchain interoperability concept can be beneficial for interdependent networks. We analyze the possible challenges we may face while enabling interoperability amongst multiple blockchains and show a comparison of existing blockchain interoperability schemes. To the end, we present open issues with challenges and highlight some research directions on the blockchain interoperability domain.
Ahmed Imteaj, M. Hadi Amini, Panos M. Pardalos

Blockchain Applications

Frontmatter

Chapter 4. Blockchain Applicability in Internet-of-Things (IoT) Environment

Abstract
This chapter introduces the importance of designing Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications that deploy blockchain technology. We discuss when we should choose to apply blockchain technology for an IoT and highlight some existing blockchain-based IoT (BIoT) applications. As the IoT devices may have resource-limitations issues, and also prone to attack, we discuss when and how to integrate blockchain in the IoT applications. To this end, we analyze some current challenges of BIoT applications and present some further challenges and recommendations.
Ahmed Imteaj, M. Hadi Amini, Panos M. Pardalos

Chapter 5. Leveraging Blockchain Technology for Artificial Intelligence

Abstract
Artificial Intelligence (AI) and blockchain are among the most promising and widely deployed technologies in recent times. On the one hand, blockchain can enable interactions among clients without the presence of any trusted third party and provide access to a blockchain ledger that holds transactions, logs, and data in a decentralized, trusted, and secure manner. On the other hand, AI facilitates making intelligent decisions by observing the environment. This chapter presents an overview of integrating blockchain with AI technology, covering the importance, applications, challenges, and potential open research issues.
Ahmed Imteaj, M. Hadi Amini, Panos M. Pardalos

Chapter 6. Coupling Blockchain with Emerging Real-Life Applications

Abstract
This chapter discusses some real-life blockchain-based applications and describes the applicability and necessity of integrating blockchain with the existing centralized systems. Particularly, we describe some widely popular domains where blockchain can be applied, i.e., healthcare, energy, finance, agriculture, smart city, smart manufacturing, e-voting, and personal identity management. To clearly understand the applications, we present visual representations of deploying blockchain’s conceptual understanding within those real-life applications. This chapter presents in detail how blockchain can be blended with those areas to provide a secure service highlighting the potential areas or domains for blockchain technology
Ahmed Imteaj, M. Hadi Amini, Panos M. Pardalos

Backmatter

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