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This book is devoted to embedded systems (ESs), which can now be found in practically all fields of human activity. Embedded systems are essentially a special class of computing systems designed for monitoring and controlling objects of the physical world. The book begins by discussing the distinctive features of ESs, above all their cybernetic-physical character, and how they can be designed to deliver the required performance with a minimum amount of hardware. In turn, it presents a range of design methodologies. Considerable attention is paid to the hardware implementation of computational algorithms. It is shown that different parts of complex ESs could be implemented using models of finite state machines (FSMs). Also, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are very often used to implement different hardware accelerators in ESs. The book pays considerable attention to design methods for FPGA-based FSMs, before the closing section turns to programmable logic controllers widely used in industry. This book will be interesting and useful for students and postgraduates in the area of Computer Science, as well as for designers of embedded systems. In addition, it offers a good point of departure for creating embedded systems for various spheres of human activity.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction into Embedded Systems

Abstract
This chapter provides some basic issues connected with embedded systems. Two types of computer systems are discussed (visible and invisible to a user). Next some example is shown allowing understanding the basic features of embedded systems. The common features of embedded systems and their characteristics are discussed. The final section is devoted to basic requirements to embedded systems.
Alexander Barkalov, Larysa Titarenko, Małgorzata Mazurkiewicz

Chapter 2. Design of Embedded Systems

Abstract
The chapter is devoted to different design methodologies targeting complex embedded systems. The hierarchy of levels is introduced, as well as Y-Chart proposed by Prof. Daniel Gajski. Using the Y-Chart, some basic methodologies are discussed such as bottom-up, top-down and meet-in-the middle. The third section is devoted to platform-based design of embedded systems. Next, the peculiarities of ASIC-based design are discussed. The last section is devoted to very important problem of increasing the energy efficiency of embedded systems.
Alexander Barkalov, Larysa Titarenko, Małgorzata Mazurkiewicz

Chapter 3. Implementation of Computational Algorithms in Embedded Systems

Abstract
The chapter presents some methods using for implementing computational algorithms in embedded systems. All methods are illustrated using the same end-to-end example. We start from the hardware implementation when some operational units (adders, multipliers, and other) are used to implement an algorithm during a single cycle of operation. Next, we discuss how to minimize hardware due to introducing an internal control unit. The third section is devoted to software implementation of computational algorithms based on microcontrollers. Some families of microcontrollers are analysed. Next, we show how to choose blocks for implementing the embedded system for our example. We choose the microcontrollers ATmega32 to illustrate this implementation of the embedded system. At last, the heterogeneous implementation of computational algorithms is discussed. It is based on well-know conception of hardware-software co-design. We introduce the conception of hardware-software interface and show how to create an algorithm of its operation.
Alexander Barkalov, Larysa Titarenko, Małgorzata Mazurkiewicz

Chapter 4. Field Programmable Gate Arrays

Abstract
The chapter deals with field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA). The basic stages are shown concerning evolution of programmable logic (from PROMs and PLAs to FPGAs). Next, the evolution of FPGAs is analysed. Three ages of FPGAs are shown. Next, the modern FPGAs produced by Xilinx and Intel (Altera) The last section is devoted to design methods targeting FPGAs. Basing on this information, we show how to execute calculations using digital signal processors, embedded memory blocks, and some components of Zynq 7000 by Xilinx.
Alexander Barkalov, Larysa Titarenko, Małgorzata Mazurkiewicz

Chapter 5. Implementing Control Algorithms with FPGAs

Abstract
The chapter is devoted with FPGA-based implementing control algorithms represented using the language of graph-schemes of algorithms. We use models of Mealy and Moore finite state machines (FSM) to design the circuits of control units. We start from single-level FSM circuits implemented using look-up table (LUT) elements and/or embedded memory blocks (EMB). These methods are illustrated using standard benchmark FSMs. Next, the methods of structural decomposition are discussed. We discuss how to reduce hardware using the replacement of logical conditions, encoding the collections of microoperations, encoding the terms, and transformation of objects. We show how to use the pseudoequivalent states for optimization of logic circuits of Moore FSMs. The third section is devoted to hardware reduction of Moore FSMs targeting the replacement of logical conditions. At last, we discuss how to optimize hardware replacing state registers by state counters. The discussed methods target control units based on models of Moore FSMs.
Alexander Barkalov, Larysa Titarenko, Małgorzata Mazurkiewicz

Chapter 6. Programmable Logic Controllers

Abstract
The chapter is devoted to programmable logic controllers (PLC). We start from the classification of PLC, their architecture and cycle of operation. Next, the main laws of Boolean algebra are shown. We show the connection between the Boolean algebra and basic logic functions used in programming of PLC. Next, different programming languages used for PLC are shown. The last part is devoted to examples of programming for different Boolean functions and simple control algorithms. All programs are written using the Ladder Diagram language.
Alexander Barkalov, Larysa Titarenko, Małgorzata Mazurkiewicz

Backmatter

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