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2022 | Buch

Fourth Generation Biofuels

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This book examines the background of fourth-generation biofuel production, use of genetically modified microalgae for production of fourth-generation biofuels; cultivation and harvesting of genetically modified microalgae; residue from biofuel extraction; health and environmental concerns of fourth-generation biofuels; regulations on cultivation and processing of the genetically modified algae; carbon dioxide sequestration; water footprint and current status and key challenges. The topic caters to academic researchers and industrial experts, who work in the field of biofuels as source of alternative fuel to achieve environmental and economic sustainability.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Introduction and General Background
Abstract
The use of liquid fossil fuel as an energy source has long been considered unsustainable and most importantly the liquid fossil fuel will be diminished by the middle of this century. In addition, fossil fuel is directly related to environmental degradation and greenhouse emission. Biofuel produced from plants, animals, or algae products can offer an alternative to reduce our dependency on fossil fuels and assist to maintain a healthy global environment. Microalgae are becoming a popular candidate for biofuel production due to their high lipid contents, ease of cultivation, and rapid growth rate. Third-generation biofuels derived from microalgae are considered to be a viable alternative energy resource devoid of the major drawbacks associated with first- and second-generation biofuels. Fourth-generation biofuels are sourced from genetically modified algae biomasses to achieve enhanced biofuel production. This chapter presents general background and introduction to fourth-generation biofuels.
Pratima Bajpai
Chapter 2. Genetically Modified (GM) Microalgae for Biofuel Production
Abstract
Microalgae are single-cell microscopic organisms that are naturally found in fresh water and marine environment. There are more than 300,000 species of microalgae, the diversity of which is much greater than plants. Microalgae are generally more efficient converters of solar energy compared to higher plants. In addition, because the cells grow in aqueous suspension, they have more efficient access to water, carbon dioxide, and other nutrients. The fourth-generation biofuel is achieved by upgrading the quality and productivity of microalgae by using genetic modification. In this chapter, selection of strain, genetic modification of microalgae, and genetic instability in genetically modified algae are discussed.
Pratima Bajpai
Chapter 3. Residue from Biofuel Extraction
Abstract
This chapter discusses the use of residue obtained after extracting the algal biomass. The residue is valuable as it is rich in nutritional components. The residues can be used for animal consumption in several industries for instance fish aquaculture, poultry, and cattle industries. Algal co-products can be used not only as a source of animal feed, but they also promote environmentally friendly technology.
Pratima Bajpai
Chapter 4. Environmental and Health Risks
Abstract
Genetically engineered algae offer the promise of producing fuel, food, and other valuable products with reduced necessities for land and freshwater. High-throughput genetic engineering methods are becoming more and more efficient and economical and several microalgal strains have been examined for biofuel production. But genetically modified microalgae ecosystems because of their minute size, fast growth, and huge number can easily attack the ecosystems. This chapter discusses environmental and health risks of genetically engineered algae.
Pratima Bajpai
Chapter 5. Regulations on Cultivation and Processing of Genetically Modified Algae
Abstract
The release of genetically modified algae into the environment is regulated due to the possible harm it causes to land water, protected species, and natural habitats. While the purposeful release of genetically modified algae into the environment is an important step for introducing new products, any release of genetically modified algae must be approved by the authorities before starting the production of genetically modified algae or their derivatives. In this chapter, regulations on cultivation and processing of the genetically modified algae are discussed.
Pratima Bajpai
Chapter 6. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration
Abstract
Burning of fossil fuel and industrial activities contribute about 79% of greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon dioxide is considered as the main contributor to its enormous emission. Techniques (physical, chemical, and biological methods) for carbon dioxide sequestration are discussed in this chapter.
Pratima Bajpai
Chapter 7. Water Footprint
Abstract
Water footprint concept is presented in this chapter. This concept is helpful in sustainable water consumption over the full supply chain and relating the production of terrestrial and aquaculture crops to water pollution and scarcity. Water footprint evaluates the water consumed by its source, the amount of polluted water, and the type of pollution.
Pratima Bajpai
Chapter 8. Future Prospects and Key Challenges
Abstract
The future of genetically modified algae biofuel depends on improving the efficiency of its cultivation, enhancing the algal strains used, and promoting the commercialization of biomass production. These advancements can be achieved by reducing the cost and increasing the output of cultivation systems and also by introducing more efficient genetic modification or allied methods for increasing the yield and quality of the products. Key challenges of fourth-generation biofuels are presented in this chapter.
Pratima Bajpai
Backmatter
Metadaten
Titel
Fourth Generation Biofuels
verfasst von
Dr. Pratima Bajpai
Copyright-Jahr
2022
Verlag
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-19-2001-1
Print ISBN
978-981-19-2000-4
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-2001-1