Skip to main content

Tipp

Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen

2018 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

5. Free Trade Agreements as BRI’s Stepping-Stone to Multilateralism: Is the Sino–Swiss FTA the Gold Standard?

verfasst von : Tomas Casas i Klett, Omar Ramon Serrano Oswald

Erschienen in: China's Belt and Road Initiative

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

share
TEILEN

Abstract

In Chap. 5, Casas and Serrano propose that China’s Free Trade Agreements (FTA) are part of a long-term multilateral approach with the potential to be included in the institutional infrastructure of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). By developing a BRI Initiatives Dynamic Evaluation Framework, they emphasize that initiatives under the BRI will be subject to decision and evaluation mechanisms that transcend China proper. This means that FTAs are dynamic rather than static. The key element in this iteration is the FTA upgrade, which includes trade impact analyses, business agent surveys, utilization rates, and signaling effects. The Sino–Swiss FTA is evaluated as part of this long-term strategy of upgrading bilateral relationships into a comprehensive system that relies on institutional outsourcing of the upward kind from nations with deep institution-building experience.
Fußnoten
1
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China. Accessed August 16, 2017. http://​www.​fmprc.​gov.​cn/​mfa_​eng/​topics_​665678/​xjpfwzysiesgjtfh​shzzfh_​665686/​t1076334.​shtml
 
2
Sino–Swiss relations have a long history, dating back to the establishment of diplomatic relations on 17 January 1950. Switzerland was one of the first Western countries to recognize the PRC. The Schindler Group (a Swiss multinational producing escalators and elevators) was the first firm to establish an industrial joint venture in China in 1980, heeding Deng Xiaoping’s call for reform and opening. Apart from the FTA, which entered into force in 2014, a currency swap agreement was signed that same year, cementing the close economic relationship.
 
3
“The Swiss federal government does not follow any systematic monitoring of the real implications of its free trade agreements (FTA). It has been found that only customs duty-income reductions and country of origin specifications have been systematically controlled. Other customs aspects evaluated by the PVK (Parliamentary Commission) have been found to be failing in fulfilling its aims […]. Additionally, the aspect of FTA utilization (rates) is not systematically evaluated. The procedures and competences in the implementation and future development of FTAs also show deficiencies” (author’s translation of the Parliamentary Report from German).
 
4
Moser, Peter. 2017. Presentation at the “Enhancement of the Switzerland–China Free Trade Agreement” first meeting May 18, 2017, Bern, Switzerland.
 
5
The principles are: mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity; mutual non-aggression; non-interference in each other’s internal affairs; equality and mutual benefit; and peaceful coexistence.
 
Literatur
Zurück zum Zitat Akerlof, George A. 1970. The Market for ‘Lemons’: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 84 (3): 488–500. CrossRef Akerlof, George A. 1970. The Market for ‘Lemons’: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 84 (3): 488–500. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Aris, Stephen. 2016. One Belt, One Road: China’s Vision of ‘Connectivity’. In CSS Analyses in Security Policy, No. 195, ed. Christian Nünlist. Zurich: CSS. Aris, Stephen. 2016. One Belt, One Road: China’s Vision of ‘Connectivity’. In CSS Analyses in Security Policy, No. 195, ed. Christian Nünlist. Zurich: CSS.
Zurück zum Zitat Baier, Scott L., and Jeffrey H. Bergstrand. 2007. Do Free Trade Agreements Increase Members’ International Trade? Journal of International Economics 71: 72–95. CrossRef Baier, Scott L., and Jeffrey H. Bergstrand. 2007. Do Free Trade Agreements Increase Members’ International Trade? Journal of International Economics 71: 72–95. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 2009. Estimating the Effects of Free Trade Agreements on International Trade Flows Using Matching Econometrics. Journal of International Economics 77: 63–76. CrossRef ———. 2009. Estimating the Effects of Free Trade Agreements on International Trade Flows Using Matching Econometrics. Journal of International Economics 77: 63–76. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Berden, Koen G., Joseph Francois, Martin Thelle, Paul Wymenga, and Saara Tamminen, 2009. Non-Tariff Measures in EU-US Trade and Investment—An Economic Analysis. Report for the European Commission. Directorate-General for Trade. ECORYS Nederland BV. Berden, Koen G., Joseph Francois, Martin Thelle, Paul Wymenga, and Saara Tamminen, 2009. Non-Tariff Measures in EU-US Trade and Investment—An Economic Analysis. Report for the European Commission. Directorate-General for Trade. ECORYS Nederland BV.
Zurück zum Zitat Blanchard, Jean-Marc F., and Colin Flint. 2017. The Geopolitics of China’s Maritime Silk Road Initiative. Geopolitics 22 (2): 223–245. CrossRef Blanchard, Jean-Marc F., and Colin Flint. 2017. The Geopolitics of China’s Maritime Silk Road Initiative. Geopolitics 22 (2): 223–245. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat BRI Leading Group. 2017. Building the Belt and Road: Concept, Practice and China’s Contribution. Office of the Leading Group for the Belt and Road Initiative. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press. BRI Leading Group. 2017. Building the Belt and Road: Concept, Practice and China’s Contribution. Office of the Leading Group for the Belt and Road Initiative. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Callaghan, Mike, and Paul Hubbard. 2016. The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank: Multilateralism on the Silk Road. China Economic Journal 9 (2): 116–139. CrossRef Callaghan, Mike, and Paul Hubbard. 2016. The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank: Multilateralism on the Silk Road. China Economic Journal 9 (2): 116–139. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Cohen, Paul A. 1984. Discovering History in China: American Historical Writing on the Recent Chinese Past. New York: Columbia University Press. Cohen, Paul A. 1984. Discovering History in China: American Historical Writing on the Recent Chinese Past. New York: Columbia University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Eckhardt, Jappe, and Omar Serrano. 2014. Economic Integration and Rivalry in Asia: Comparing Regional Trade Strategies of China and India. NCCR Working paper 2014/10. Bern: World Trade Institute. Eckhardt, Jappe, and Omar Serrano. 2014. Economic Integration and Rivalry in Asia: Comparing Regional Trade Strategies of China and India. NCCR Working paper 2014/10. Bern: World Trade Institute.
Zurück zum Zitat Egger, Peter, and Georg Wamser. 2011. Der Nutzen unterschiedlicher Arten von internationalen Wirtschaftsabkommen. KOF Analysen, Summer 2011, 63–72. Zürich: KOF. Egger, Peter, and Georg Wamser. 2011. Der Nutzen unterschiedlicher Arten von internationalen Wirtschaftsabkommen. KOF Analysen, Summer 2011, 63–72. Zürich: KOF.
Zurück zum Zitat Fairbank, John K. 1954. China’s Response to the West: A Documentary Survey, 1839–1923. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Fairbank, John K. 1954. China’s Response to the West: A Documentary Survey, 1839–1923. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Head, Keith, and Thierry Mayer. 2014. Gravity Equations: Workhorse, Toolkit, and Codebook. Handbook of International Economics 4: 131–195. CrossRef Head, Keith, and Thierry Mayer. 2014. Gravity Equations: Workhorse, Toolkit, and Codebook. Handbook of International Economics 4: 131–195. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Kepaptsoglou, Konstantinos, Matthew G. Karlaftis, and Dimitrios Tsamboulas. 2010. The Gravity Model Specification for Modeling International Trade Flows and Free Trade Agreement Effects: A 10-Year Review of Empirical Studies. The Open Economics Journal 3: 1–13. CrossRef Kepaptsoglou, Konstantinos, Matthew G. Karlaftis, and Dimitrios Tsamboulas. 2010. The Gravity Model Specification for Modeling International Trade Flows and Free Trade Agreement Effects: A 10-Year Review of Empirical Studies. The Open Economics Journal 3: 1–13. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Kohl, Tristan. 2014. Do We Really Know that Trade Agreements Increase Trade? Review of World Economics 150: 443–469. CrossRef Kohl, Tristan. 2014. Do We Really Know that Trade Agreements Increase Trade? Review of World Economics 150: 443–469. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Legge, Stefan. 2018. Economic Analysis of the Sino-Swiss FTA, Mimeo. Legge, Stefan. 2018. Economic Analysis of the Sino-Swiss FTA, Mimeo.
Zurück zum Zitat Liu, Hai Yue, Ying Kai Tang, Xiao Lan Chen, and Joanna Poznanska. 2017. The Determinants of Chinese Outward FDI in Countries Along “One Belt One Road”. Emerging Markets Finance and Trade 53 (6): 1374–1387. CrossRef Liu, Hai Yue, Ying Kai Tang, Xiao Lan Chen, and Joanna Poznanska. 2017. The Determinants of Chinese Outward FDI in Countries Along “One Belt One Road”. Emerging Markets Finance and Trade 53 (6): 1374–1387. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Lu, Yue, Yunlong Lu, and Ka Zeng. 2018. China’s Outward Foreign Direct and the Margin of Trade: Empirical Evidence from ‘One Belt, One Road’ Countries. China: An International Journal, May 2018 (forthcoming). Lu, Yue, Yunlong Lu, and Ka Zeng. 2018. China’s Outward Foreign Direct and the Margin of Trade: Empirical Evidence from ‘One Belt, One Road’ Countries. China: An International Journal, May 2018 (forthcoming).
Zurück zum Zitat Parliamentary Report. 2016. Evaluation zu den Auswirkungen von Freihandelsabkommen. Bericht der Parlamentarischen Verwaltungskontrolle zuhanden der Geschäftsprüfungskommission des Nationalrates vom 26, October 2016. Bern: National Council. Parliamentary Report. 2016. Evaluation zu den Auswirkungen von Freihandelsabkommen. Bericht der Parlamentarischen Verwaltungskontrolle zuhanden der Geschäftsprüfungskommission des Nationalrates vom 26, October 2016. Bern: National Council.
Zurück zum Zitat Santos Silva, J.M.C., and Silvana Tenreyro. 2006. The Log of Gravity. Review of Economics and Statistics 88 (4): 641–658. CrossRef Santos Silva, J.M.C., and Silvana Tenreyro. 2006. The Log of Gravity. Review of Economics and Statistics 88 (4): 641–658. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat SECO. 2016. Wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der Freihandelsabkommen für die Schweiz: Fokus auf Partner ausserhalb der EU. 731.5/2007/00390\COO.2101.104.4.1795300. Bern: Swiss Ministry of Economics (SECO). SECO. 2016. Wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der Freihandelsabkommen für die Schweiz: Fokus auf Partner ausserhalb der EU. 731.5/2007/00390\COO.2101.104.4.1795300. Bern: Swiss Ministry of Economics (SECO).
Zurück zum Zitat Tinbergen, Jan. 1962. Shaping the World Economy: Suggestions for an International Economic Policy. New York: Twentieth Century Fund. Tinbergen, Jan. 1962. Shaping the World Economy: Suggestions for an International Economic Policy. New York: Twentieth Century Fund.
Zurück zum Zitat Zeng, Ka. 2016. China’s Free Trade Agreement Diplomacy. The Chinese Journal of International Politics 9 (3): 277–305. CrossRef Zeng, Ka. 2016. China’s Free Trade Agreement Diplomacy. The Chinese Journal of International Politics 9 (3): 277–305. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Ziltener, Patrick. 2014. Einschätzung des Potenzials des Freihandelsabkommens mit der Volksrepublik China für Schweizer Exporte: Landwirtschafts- und Industriegüter. In Study for Switzerland Global Enterprises. Zürich: SGE. Ziltener, Patrick. 2014. Einschätzung des Potenzials des Freihandelsabkommens mit der Volksrepublik China für Schweizer Exporte: Landwirtschafts- und Industriegüter. In Study for Switzerland Global Enterprises. Zürich: SGE.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 2016. The Free Trade and Economic Partnership Agreement (FTEPA) Switzerland—Japan. An Evaluation of Its Utilization by Swiss and Japanese Companies, 2009–2014. In Report on Behalf of Switzerland Global Enterprise. Zurich: SGE. ———. 2016. The Free Trade and Economic Partnership Agreement (FTEPA) Switzerland—Japan. An Evaluation of Its Utilization by Swiss and Japanese Companies, 2009–2014. In Report on Behalf of Switzerland Global Enterprise. Zurich: SGE.
Zurück zum Zitat ———. 2017. Why Ex Post Evaluation of FTAs Is Important (and How To Do It). Presentation at UIBE Beijing on May 12, 2017 at the SSCC First Stepping Stone China Symposium on Globalization. ———. 2017. Why Ex Post Evaluation of FTAs Is Important (and How To Do It). Presentation at UIBE Beijing on May 12, 2017 at the SSCC First Stepping Stone China Symposium on Globalization.
Metadaten
Titel
Free Trade Agreements as BRI’s Stepping-Stone to Multilateralism: Is the Sino–Swiss FTA the Gold Standard?
verfasst von
Tomas Casas i Klett
Omar Ramon Serrano Oswald
Copyright-Jahr
2018
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75435-2_5

Premium Partner