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Structures with complex geometries, material properties, and boundary conditions, exhibit spatially local, temporally transient, dynamic behaviors. High spatial and temporal resolution vibration measurements and modeling are thus required for high-fidelity characterization, analysis, and prediction of the structure’s dynamic phenomena. For example, high spatial resolution mode shapes are needed for accurate vibration-based damage localization. Also, higher order vibration modes typically contain local structural features that are essential for high-fidelity dynamic modeling of the structure. In addition, while it is possible to build a highly-refined mathematical model (e.g., a finite element model) of the structure, it needs to be experimentally validated and updated with high-resolution vibration measurements. However, it is a significant challenge to obtain high-resolution vibration measurements using traditional techniques. For example, accelerometers and strain-gauge sensors provide low spatial resolution measurements. Laser vibrometers provide high-resolution measurements, but are expensive and make sequential measurements that are time-consuming. On the other hand, digital video cameras are relatively low-cost, agile, and provide high spatial resolution, simultaneous, measurements. Combined with vision based algorithms (e.g., image correlation, optical flow), digital video camera based measurements have been successfully used for vibration measurements and subsequent modal analysis, based on techniques such as the digital image correlation (DIC) and the point-tracking. However, they typically require speckle pattern or high-contrast markers to be placed on the surface of structures, which poses challenges when the measurement area is large or inaccessible.
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